How to grow blackberries without thorns: description of varieties and subtleties of care
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Not every gardener will dare to work with prickly stems of blackberries. But thornless varieties that bestow dark, sour-sweet fruits do not cause inconvenience to a person. In addition, the varietal thornless blackberry has a number of advantages: the yield is greater, the berries are larger, the bushes tolerate drought and frost well.
Blackberry cultivation history
In the United States, the first blackberry varieties appeared in the 19th century. And it is there, and also in Mexico, that this berry crop is grown on an industrial scale. In our country, the cultivation of blackberries is considered not the easiest process. Only private and small farms are interested in the berry. Even in the southern regions of the country, there are still no industrial plantings of culture.
The blackberry belongs to the genus Rubus of the Rosaceae family. The culture has a close relationship with raspberries, which have long and firmly taken root in our areas. Outwardly, thornless blackberry looks like a picturesque shrub with pubescent leaves, divided into three lobes. White, whitish-pink, white-lilac flowers bloom in mid-June. In their place, greenish fruits are then tied. Ripe berries are usually black in color. Compared to raspberries, blackberries tolerate transportation better.
The roots of the culture can grow up to 1.5 m deep into the soil, where they are saturated with moisture without problems. The plant survives periods of severe drought without difficulty.
Blackberries do not ripen at the same time, so fruits of different colors can be seen on the bushes
Tireless blackberry varieties
Despite the low prevalence in our country, the interest of domestic fruit growers in the cultivation of blackberries (including thornless representatives) is noticeably increasing. Some varieties and their hybrids have long been tested for survival in our climate. They feel comfortable in harsh conditions with short summers and lingering cold weather. These include varieties bred by American or British scientists.
The variety was obtained in 1966 in the States. A strong dwarf shrub forms multiple semi-creeping shoots up to 4 m long. During the flowering phase, the bush enchants with the beauty of pinkish flowers. In August, violet-black oblong berries ripen with an average weight of 5 g with a sweet and sour aftertaste. It is not recommended to overexpose them on the branches, since overripe fruits lose their taste, elasticity and shape, and become unsuitable for transportation. Productivity - 20-25 kg per plant. Thornfree is able to withstand cold temperatures down to -20aboutFROM.
More information about the variety in our article - Blackberry Thornfree: description of the variety, reviews, planting and growing features.
The Thornfrey variety has a ripe berry mass of 5 g
A variety of Polish selection from among upright growing. Plants form white flowers, which are replaced by large rounded fruits with a slight acidity and a pronounced aroma. The fruits are hard, so the variety is suitable for mechanized harvesting, industrial cultivation. Fruits appear from mid-July, but they can be tasted not earlier than September. The variety has a good indicator of frost resistance - up to -25-300FROM.
Polar is the best winter-hardy variety with large fruits.
The variety was bred by Scottish scientists in 1988. It gained popularity due to its rather large berries with excellent transportability. The yield of one bush is 18-23 kg.
Loch Ness is appreciated for its large fruits.
An early variety of thornless blackberry, bred in England. The branches on a tall (3-4.5 m) plant are semi-erect. Loch Tei's dense berry is large (5–12 g) and sweet. The yield is high - 20-30 kg per bush. The variety does not differ in frost resistance, it is recommended to cover the shoots at the end of September.
Blackberry variety Loch Tei is not frost-resistant
The shoots of the plant are powerful, up to 5-7 m. The branches initially stretch upward (up to 1.5 m), and then take a horizontal position. You can try Black Satin berries in the second half of August. They are tasty, have tender flesh, which is why they do not tolerate transportation. It is possible to collect up to 20-25 kg of fruits from one plant. Shoots of Black Satin need to be covered for the winter.
The fruits of Black Satin ripen in the second half of August
Variety with upright stems, created by American botanists. The average weight of sweet, conical berries is 4–9 g. Fruits do not crumple during transportation. Winter hardiness - up to -200C, it is imperative to cover the stems before wintering.
Apache blackberries tolerate transportation well
It is one of the frost-resistant varieties, it can withstand cold up to -300FROM. Before wintering, the bushes do not shed their leaves. They have powerful stems that bend to the ground. The average yield of the variety is 10 kg per bush, the fruiting is intense. The berries are medium-sized (3 g), the bush is literally sprinkled with them. Glossy sweet-sour fruits ripen from the second half of August to the end of September. The berries have large seeds. In the climate of central Russia for the winter, it is recommended to cover plants by laying branches on the ground and covering them with a covering material.
Although Thornless Evergreen is frost-resistant, the shoots still need to be covered for the winter.
The shrubs of the variety are upright growing, reach a height of 2 m. In late August - early September, aromatic glossy berries ripen. Fruits with a mild taste, without the astringency characteristic of blackberries. They do not differ in record high sizes and weigh about 4–7 g. But on the other hand, they have a uniform shape and size, are well stored and transported. Navajo winter hardiness - up to -200C. In terms of cultivation, it is considered one of the unpretentious varieties.
Read more about the variety in our article: Growing Navajo Blackberries in a Garden Plot.
Navajo is one of the most unpretentious blackberry varieties
Chester Thornless is an American cultivar with semi-growing or semi-erect branches. In June, pinkish flowers flaunt on them, and in August in their place are dark berries with a cherry or plum flavor. The yield is 18-22 kg per bush. Frost resistance at Chester Thornless is commendable: the plants calmly survive frosts down to -30aboutC. But it is still necessary to insulate them for the winter. It is not recommended to plant plants in highly humid and shaded areas.
Read more about the variety in our article: Blackberry Chester is a frost-resistant, thornless variety.
Chester Thornless - American variety
Translated into Russian, the name of the variety sounds like the Triple Crown. The stems of Triple Crown are semi-creeping. One plant is capable of yielding up to 15 kg. Bushes are formed due to the rapid growth of powerful thornless stems, the length of which reaches 2 m or more. Black fruits are large - weigh up to 8 g, have a cherry aroma (some of them catch notes of plum or cherry in their taste). Berry picking takes place in August-September. Three undoubted advantages distinguish this variety of blackberries: intensive growth of shoots, distinctive taste of fruits, their juiciness and at the same time density (which has a beneficial effect on transportation). Triple Crown does not shine with special frost resistance - it is imperative to cover the shoots from frost before wintering.
Blackberry Triple Crown fruit - juicy and dense
Natchez was bred in the United States. It is characterized by large black berries of an elongated shape, weighing about 12-16 g. Large drupes resemble eggs. The berries are very sweet and have a moderately dense structure. Strong stems (up to 6 m long) grow vertically with a subsequent downward slope. Fruit formation lasts from July to mid-August. The yield per plant is 13-15 kg. The variety is ideal for amateur breeding.
Natchez has very large berries.
Each thornless blackberry variety has its own pros and cons. However, on such varieties as Thornfrey, Chester Thornless, Polar, Loch Ness, Natchez, the choice of advanced gardeners of central Russia stops more often.
Indispensable conditions for the growth of a culture are the nutrient content of the soil and the required amount of sunlight. Soils for planting are alkaline, it can be loam with a predominance of humus. They begin to prepare a place for a studless blackberry in the fall. To do this, they dig up the earth, remove the roots of weeds, enrich it with humus or compost, ash or dolomite flour. However, planting a seedling is always planned in the spring, when the plant can better take root and begin to grow.
Directly the landing procedure itself occurs according to the following scheme:
- Dig holes 0.5 m deep. They are made about 2 weeks before planting.
- The pits are filled with compost or humus, wood ash.
- A seedling is placed in the hole, the roots are sprinkled with earth.
- Water the ground around the plant, pouring at least half a bucket under one bush.
- The trunks are sprinkled with mulch, the branches are cut off by 4-5 cm.
- During planting, the gaps are observed between the seedlings, the size of which is determined by the varieties of blackberry bushes (1-2 m). There should be 2 m between the rows.
Video: planting a studless blackberry
Reproduction of thornless blackberries
There are several options for propagating blackberry bushes in your garden.
Digging in branches
At the beginning of August, the most healthy one-year-old shoots are selected, they are dropped in shallow (on the bayonet of a shovel), without separating them from the mother bush. In this case, the tip of the shoot is left free, it is cut off by 10-15 cm to exclude further regrowth. In the place of the digging, a metal pin is installed or pressed down with a heavy object. The ditch area is covered with mulch and regularly moistened. After 2 months, the shoots will take root. On the dug shoots in early October, dense white roots should already be observed. In the spring, the seedling is separated from the mother bush and planted in a permanent place.
Another option for digging is to root the top of the shoot at the garden blackberry, after cutting off its tip. The subsequent sequence of actions is similar to that described above.
One of the ways to propagate blackberries is thornless is by rooting the tops of the shoots.
This option is suitable if the mother plant is more than 3 years old. By this time, the bush had a developed root system, from which in some places young root shoots appear - the so-called offspring. Since they already have roots, they are simply dug up and planted in another place. The optimal time for the removal of offspring from the mother bush is spring, after the arrival of stable heat.
Each root offspring has roots and can become an independent bush.
Blackberries are thornless, like currants, they are easily propagated by the green parts of the plant, that is, by cuttings. This method is the most rational, since 1 seedling is formed from each bud. The harvesting of cuttings from annual shoots is planned for the fall.
The stalk is a twig no more than 15 cm long with 2-3 buds. Leaves are cut off from him.
- The stalk is tilted with the apical bud downwards and placed in a container with water so that only one bud is in the water. The container is placed on a windowsill and the water level is monitored. Pour in as it evaporates.
It is necessary to ensure that the lower kidney is always in the water
- After a while, a mini-plant with its own shoots and roots will form from the bud in the water.
A mini-bush will form on the lower bud of the cutting
- This seedling is cut and planted in an individual glass with a light nutritious substrate, slightly moistening the ground.
Bushes with a part of the cuttings are separated and transplanted into cups
- After that, the next kidney is lowered into a container with water, repeating the process again.
The fruits of thornless blackberries, like those of raspberries, are formed on the side branches of last year's shoots. During the season, the plant forms replacement shoots, which will bear fruit only next summer. Blackberry bushes need supports, which are pillars with a wire stretched between them.
The distance between adjacent pillars is 3 m. The wire is pulled in 4-5 rows, leaving 30 cm between them. The first row is raised 45 cm above the ground level.
Blackberry shoots are fixed between the rows of wire
When pruning blackberries, gardeners recommend adhering to the following rules:
- Sanitary pruning of shrubs is carried out in the spring. Even before the buds swell, dry branches that have poorly endured the winter are removed. The frozen tops of the shoots are cut to a living bud. Pruning for prophylaxis is carried out for all plants on the site - both for young animals and for adults.
- Pruning of bushes of the first year of life is carried out twice: in spring (in May) and in summer (in July). Spring pruning is carried out on new side shoots in order to stimulate their growth. The branches are shortened by 5-7 cm. Summer pruning is designed to shorten the shoots, the length of which has exceeded 0.5 m. The branches are pruned by 7-10 cm. The pinched tops allow the branches to develop in thickness, which favorably affects the number of flowers and the future harvest as a whole. On young bushes, all newly formed branches on the sides are eliminated in summer, leaving only 6–8 of the largest ones.
Blackberries are pruned twice per season: in the spring and in the middle of summer.
- In bushes that are more than 2 years old, all dead branches are removed in the spring, keeping strong in the amount of 4-10 pieces. The shoots are pruned from the sides by 20–40 cm, providing for the presence of 8 to 10 living buds on them. During the summer season, all newly emerging offspring are robbed from the roots. Save only spring ones, which will be fruitful next year. The branches of the current season are shortened to a length of 1.6–2 m. With a small number of branches of the current year, healthy shoots are left, shortening the lateral ones by 2 cm. Fruit-bearing bushes are cleaned of branches weakened and affected by pests and diseases. They are replaced with young shoots.
Video: how to properly prune a blackberry
Watering of blackberry bushes is carried out several times per season - after flowering and at the time of fruit growth. The final deep watering is carried out after picking the berries. At the same time, the soil between the rows and bushes is loosened 5–10 cm deep, after watering it is sprinkled with a layer of organic matter (4–5 cm). Blackberries have good disease and pest resistance. A significant part of them die during autumn tillage.
Growing blackberry besshipnaya in the suburbs
Among gardeners of the Moscow Region, such blackberry varieties without thorns as Thornfrey, Loch Ness, Thornless Evergreen are especially honored. Their degree of resistance to Russian winter is average and above average. In the Moscow region, during the winter period, rather low temperatures are noted (on average, up to -11aboutC, but almost every year there are frosts - up to -30aboutFROM). This negatively manifests itself in the state of plants with the arrival of spring and the next harvest. Despite the good indicators of winter hardiness, these varieties need shelter at the end of autumn.
Video: growing a thornless blackberry in the Moscow region
Cultivation of thornless blackberries in Siberia
The following varieties of thornless blackberries deserve special consideration for planting in Siberian regions:
- Thornless Evergreen,
- Chester Thornless,
- Chachanska Bestrana,
- Oregon Thornless.
Some hybrids of raspberries and blackberries - Tayberry, Loganberry, Boysenberry, do not tolerate Siberian frosts.
Cultivation of thornless blackberries has obvious advantages: high yields, no thorns, easy maintenance.If for Siberia it is still necessary to look for suitable crop varieties, then for central Russia their choice is wide.
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Blackberry Polar: variety description, photos, reviews, planting and care technology
- Breeding history
- Description of berry culture
- General understanding of the variety
- Main advantages
- Flowering period and ripening time
- Yield indicators, fruiting dates
- Scope of berries
- Disease and pest resistance
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Brief description (pros, cons)
- Benefits of the variety
- Disadvantages of the variety
- Follow-up care of the culture
- Growing principles
- Necessary activities
Scheme of writing a medical history
IV. History of present illness
Vi. Neurological status
VIII. Paraclinical studies
IX. Experimental psychological methods
X. Diagnosis and its rationale. Differential diagnostic procedure.
XII. Recommended treatment for the patient
XIII. Discharge recommendations
XIV. Forecast (for life, health, ability to work)
Surname, name, patronymic, date of birth, education, profession.
The patient's complaints are of great importance for assessing both the disease and the mental state. Often, patients do not express any complaints at all, and this may indicate a lack of consciousness of the disease or a reluctance to disclose their condition. At the same time, the number of complaints may be excessive (for example, with hypochondriacal syndrome).
Before taking a life history, it may be helpful to explain to the patient the importance of the history for assessing the premorbid state.
It is recommended to take anamnesis in chronological order, as reflected in the case history chart. There are 3 options for dating events to consider:
- 1. By calendar date (the patient was born in 1970).
- 2. Countdown from the date of birth of the patient (convulsive paroxysms occurred at the age of 30).
- 3. Countdown from the present time (10 years ago I first turned to a psychiatrist).
Sometimes, for the correct establishment of temporal relationships, it is necessary to use a double or triple chronology - in 1998 (at the age of 30, 10 years ago) convulsive paroxysms arose.
The curator should have a fairly clear idea of the patient's life, so it is necessary not only to listen, but also to intervene correctly, asking to clarify certain points. If the patient provides information that is clearly contradicting reality or raising doubts about its reliability, then this information is not given in the history of life, but when describing the mental status, since it reflects either personal characteristics (including personality pathology) or memory impairment (amnestic syndrome), perception (imperative hallucinations), thinking (delirium), etc.
If the patient expresses delusional ideas, there is no need to show bewilderment (this will break the contact) and even more so try to dissuade him (delirium cannot be corrected by definition).
When collecting anamnesis, serious attention should be paid to the burden of mental illness, the conditions for development and upbringing, and the peculiarities of personality formation. Such circumstances as an unfavorable course of pregnancy, a negative Rh factor, complications in childbirth are important. It is necessary to have information about early childhood, about when the patient began to walk, talk about past illnesses, injuries, about behavior in a group of peers, about academic performance and about all subsequent stages of life. Particular attention should be paid to the period of puberty, since at this time the first signs of mental disorders often appear. In the adult state, sexual and family life, somatic and infectious diseases, mental trauma, and intoxication with psychoactive substances are essential. For a holistic understanding of the patient's condition, it is necessary to know the peculiarities of work and everyday life throughout his life, to have an idea in what social environment he was formed as a person, and also to form a certain opinion about his characterological characteristics.
Were there among the relatives on the part of the father and mother, patients with nervous or mental disorders, persons with strange character, suffering from tuberculosis, syphilis, metabolic diseases and endocrine glands, addicted to psychoactive substances, suicides. The state of mental health of brothers, sisters, children of the patient.
Their age, occupation, character traits, health status, family relationships. The age and health of the parents at the time of conception, whether during this period they suffered from an increased tendency to use alcohol or other psychoactive substances. The patient's mother's health during pregnancy. What was the pregnancy and how it proceeded. Childbirth - normal or pathological (asphyxia, birth trauma, etc.)
3. Infant and preschool age
Food. Features and developmental delays (speech, walking). Fears, fears, seizures, stuttering, onychophagia, sleepwalking, sleep-speaking, enuresis. Adaptation and behavioral features in the children's team, children's fantasies, favorite games. Upbringing: harmonious, "family idol", "iron grip", lack of a common parenting line.
4. The period of study (school, college, technical school, institute, etc.)
Adaptation at school. Progress, duplication of classes, fatigue by the end of classes. Reasons for insufficient academic performance: poor memory, poor intelligence, domestic circumstances, lack of desire to learn. Ability, diligence, discipline. The nature of free time outside of school, interests, favorite games, entertainment, involvement in adolescent groups (including associal), deviant behavior. Education received.
5. Labor activity, profession
Compliance with the interests of the profession. Attitude to work. Qualification, efficiency, initiative, activity. Professional growth. Relationships at work. Significance in the production team, conflicts, penalties, incentives. How often and for what reasons changed jobs.
Subjective difficulties of adaptation. Discipline, relationships with colleagues, commanders and subordinates. Penalties, incentives. If not fully served, then for what reason.
7. Sexual development and sex life
The appearance of sexual desire. Pollution, menstruation - their onset, regularity, well-being during menstruation. Changes in character during puberty: isolation, irritability, change of interests. Reactions of emancipation, opposition, grouping. The beginning of sexual activity. Age (year) of marriage. Motivation to get married. Relationship to the spouse and relatives of the spouse. Sexual conflicts. Homosexual tendencies, masturbation and sexual perversion. Impotence, frigidity. Pregnancy, childbirth, abortion. Mental state during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. Divorces: reasons and their significance for the subject. Re-marriages, relationships with the former family.
8. Social and living conditions
Residence conditions at different periods of life. Well-being, material security. Family, home environment, official position.
Mental and physical performance, volitional qualities, the ability to overcome difficulties. Behavior during difficult situations, for example, acute conflicts, danger to life. The nature of the attitude towards life's difficulties: surrender to them, a feeling of self-doubt, or, conversely, the desire to actively overcome them, to be active. Characterological properties: decisiveness, perseverance, quickness and confidence in actions, no hesitation in choosing a solution. The presence in the past in difficult life situations of "breakdowns", low mood, suicidal thoughts. Activity in relationships with people (striving for contacts, the ability to make acquaintances with others, maintain an even relationship, independence and initiative). Self-control (restraint in the manifestation of feelings, the ability to control their behavior, in particular, the ability to long, patient wait). Stability in affection, sympathy, adherence to a certain type of mental or physical activity. Features of emotional experiences. Attitude towards music, poetry, painting. Manifestations of temperament (sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric, melancholic). Changes in character during puberty: isolation, irritability, change of interests. Reactions of emancipation, opposition, grouping. Changes in character in old age (anxiety, irritability, pedantry).
10. Previous diseases (in chronological order)
Infections: rheumatism, malaria, tuberculosis, syphilis, AIDS, brucellosis, diseases of the central nervous system of viral etiology, etc.
Intoxication: industrial hazards, poisoning with psychoactive substances. Accidental and deliberate poisoning.
Traumatic brain injury: concussions, concussions. Circumstances of receipt, year (age), duration of switching off consciousness, treatment measures, consequences for physical and mental health. Ability to withstand heat, cold, fluctuations in atmospheric pressure.
Insolation lesions: seizures, fainting, dizziness, nosebleeds.
Diseases of a somatic nature: hypertension, peptic ulcer, blood diseases, endocrine diseases, tumors, etc. Allergic history. Psychological reactions to somatic diseases. Mental trauma - acute and chronic. Smoking, drinking alcohol and other psychoactive substances.
III. ANAMNESIS OF THE PRESENT DISEASE
Often, the curator has difficulties in determining the time of the onset of the disease, especially in those cases when the patient does not have consciousness of the disease or he is dissimulating, i.e. hides the disease. Nevertheless, one must try to get information about the onset and course of the disease from the patient himself. In this case, all the symptoms described by the patient should be traced from the moment of onset to the moment of examination, paying attention to their dynamics, severity, duration, factors provoking their occurrence, and, conversely, contributing to their reduction. So, for example, success and failure in life may be directly dependent on the painful process. Based on the data obtained, the curator will be able to objectively evaluate some of the anamnesis data. So, life's successes and failures can be directly dependent on the painful process, in particular, mood swings, personal decompensations, and attitude ideas.
If a patient denies having any pathology and considers his stay in the clinic a mistake or a consequence of someone's hostile actions, he should not be dissuaded, and it is better to start collecting an anamnesis of the disease directly by clarifying the circumstances of hospitalization. If in this way it is not possible to obtain sufficient information, it is necessary to consistently, in accordance with the scheme of the medical history, identify the pathology of mental activity at the time of the examination and try to trace its dynamics in retrospect.
The conversation, if it continues long enough and the patient is tired, should be interrupted to rest. The facilitator uses this time to prepare to continue the conversation, thinking through questions that have yet to be clarified. It is necessary to determine what immediately preceded the mental illness. What were the first signs of the disorder. When and by whom they were noted, and what is the dynamics of the further development of the disease. Reasons and circumstances of hospitalization. In patients with repeated admissions, it is necessary to find out the follow-up: the dynamics of the mental state after the last discharge until the moment of the present examination. Clarify whether and what kind of supportive therapy was carried out, what gave the improvement. Side effects of drugs and complications. What were the efficiency and family and social relations.
Already in the process of collecting anamnesis, the curator receives most of the information necessary for judging mental status, since the features of attention, memory, thinking, emotional reactions and much more are manifested in the conversation. However, it should be remembered that often only targeted questioning allows to identify this or that pathology. The study of the mental status consists in careful observation and analysis of the functioning of various spheres of mental activity, manifested in the behavior, thinking, emotional states and reactions of the patient. To obtain a holistic impression of the patient's mental state, it is necessary to adhere to the scheme below.
All pathology is given only in a descriptive form, without its qualifications. You cannot, for example, write that the patient has auditory hallucinations. The presentation should be something like this: “the patient hears a male voice coming from above and giving orders. " etc. The patient's vocabulary is also used, enclosed in quotation marks. The same goes for the supervision diary.