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Autumn has come, and it's time to plant the bulbs of the popular spring flowers - tulips. Depending on weather and natural conditions, they are planted from late September to mid-October (in the Southern region). But the preparation of the bulbs and soil for planting these beautiful flowers should be done early.
Before planting, the bulbs are treated against pests and diseases (20 minutes), in a solution (benlate, TMTD, captan), following the recommendations of the attached instructions. You can use manganese, karbofos.
Preparing the soil for planting tulips
Any soil is suitable for growing tulips, but for the flowers to be bright, large, it is good if the selected area is not acidified, with soil rich in nutrients. Wet areas are pre-poured, raised. The soil can be fertilized with both mineral and organic substances. Humus is applied at the end of summer, manure - a year before planting.
Before planting, the site is enriched with mineral fertilizers:
- superphosphate - from 70 to 100 g per square meter
- potassium salt - from 40 to 70 g
- magnesium sulfate - 10 g per square meter
- wood ash - if the soil is wet, you can add 300-400 g, with normal - 200 g
After fertilizing, the bed is dug deeply and loosened.
Planting bulbs in the ground
Tulips are planted when the temperature reaches 10 degrees. Planting depth depends on soil structure and bulb size. The largest ones are planted to a depth of 11-15 cm (on heavy soils - 11 cm, and on light soils - 15 cm), at a distance of up to eight centimeters. For smaller bulbs, the planting depth is 5-10 cm, respectively, and the distance is up to 6 cm.
The row spacing is 20-30 cm. In the grooves, under the tulips, it is advisable to add white river sand (2 cm). After disembarkation, the land is watered. The abundance of watering depends on the humidity of the site. Watering should be done so that the ground is well wet and the lower layers of the soil are saturated and the bulbs are well rooted.
Before the start of frost, the bed is covered with straw, dry grass. In early March, the coating is removed and a small amount of ammonium nitrate is added. Experienced flower growers recommend fertilizing with nitrogenous fertilizers before flowering.
To make tulips bloom for a long time, decorate the yard - varieties with different flowering periods are planted (early, middle, late). For later flowering, they can be planted in the spring.
Planting tulips in the Urals: terms and features. When and how to plant tulips in the Urals?
Tulips can be planted both in spring and autumn. The latter method is preferable in the sense that the next season the plants bloom faster, and the buds grow larger. Of course, the timing of the autumn planting largely depends on the specific region in which the summer cottage is located. In this article, we will talk about the features of such a procedure as growing and planting tulips in the Urals.
Storage of planting material
There are exceptions to any rule. Especially if you are interested in whether it is possible to plant tulips in spring, what effect these terms will have on the flowering of a tulip.
Many years of experience of amateur flower growers can tell you how to properly preserve the planting material until the time when the temperature conditions will allow to plant tulips in spring. The treatment of tulip bulbs before planting in spring also plays an important role.
Dig up tulips after the leaves wither. Onions with well-formed scales are selected and left to dry in a cool place. After a month, the planting material is cleaned again, divided by varieties and sizes, treated with pesticides and placed in boxes. The containers are placed in a cool, well ventilated area. The temperature in the storage is maintained at 20 degrees for the first month, then it is reduced to 15 degrees. Until spring planting, the storage temperature of tulip bulbs is maintained at the recommended level without significant fluctuations.
Planting and caring for tulips is carried out in well-lit places, as they like good light, so planting tulips in sunny places, protected from cold winds, will have a beneficial effect on the growth and development of the plant. Plants develop well in partial shade. In shaded areas, the plants stretch out, lose their decorative effect, and the bulbs quickly become smaller. Planting tulips is best done in sandy loam or loamy, breathable, fairly moist soils. Very heavy, watertight and very light sandy soils should be avoided when planting them. Where water stagnates, the bulbs get wet, easily get sick and can freeze out.
Before planting tulips, 10 kg of humus and 4-5 kg of superphosphate and potassium salt per 1 m2 are applied to the site. Fertilizers are embedded in the soil to a depth of 20-25 cm. During the growing season, plants are fed 3 times with complex mineral fertilizers at the rate of 50-60 g per 1 m2. However, it must be borne in mind that as a result of abundant application of nitrogen fertilizers, plants weaken: they bloom less and are at risk of many diseases.
Caring for tulips during growth and especially during the cutting period is especially important, you must carefully monitor the moisture content of the soil. In no case should it dry out. If the soil is dry during the tulip planting period, watering is also necessary.
During the growing season, weeding, loosening and watering the plantings are carried out. For annual good flowering, it is necessary every time, as soon as the tulips bloom and their leaves turn yellow, dig up the bulbs, clean them of the remnants of last year's scales, dry them for 25-30 days in a room on the window and plant them again in their old place. Drying ensures the setting and formation of a flower bud inside the bulb.
To obtain bulbs that can bloom next year, at least two leaves must be left on the plant when cutting flowers. If the flowers are not cut, the ovaries must be removed, as the formation of seeds will severely deplete the plant.
With good tulip care and nutrition, the bulbs can be left in one place for 2-3 years, but then they should be dug out, since the annually formed bulbs become too crowded and there is not enough nutrition. The bulbs are planted in their original place no earlier than after 4 years.
Dates of planting tulips in the Urals
A bed or flower bed for tulips needs to be prepared a couple of months before planting. For the Urals, this is approximately the end of June or the beginning of August. Before the onset of cold weather, the bulbs should have a sufficiently developed root system. If you plant them too late, this will not happen. Tulips will sprout next year, but not as strong as expected. It will also be impossible to get very beautiful flowers. If the planting is done too early, the tulips will sprout and freeze with the onset of cold weather. Therefore, you need to be extremely careful with the timing. A fairly simple way to determine the timeliness of planting can be to measure the temperature of the soil at a depth of 20-30 cm. They start work as soon as it drops to 10 degrees.
Thus, the timing of planting tulips in the Urals is approximately the second decade of September for the Middle, and the first decade of October for the South.
Variety of species and varieties
Listing only the names of varieties of Dutch tulips will take more than one page - in the international register their number reaches 2500. The main parameters of tulip varieties are flowering time, flower shape and peduncle height. By the timing of flowering, they can be divided into:
- early flowering
- medium flowering
- late flowering.
According to the height of the peduncle, they are divided into three groups:
- up to 80 cm - tall
- up to 50 cm - medium height
- from 8 cm - dwarf.
Possible mistakes when storing and planting tulips
In order to get healthy and high-quality planting material by autumn, tulip bulbs must be dug up correctly and on time, as well as organize optimal storage conditions for them. What mistakes do gardeners make when storing tulip bulbs?
At the time of digging, the bulbs need to be handled carefully. Inaccurate extraction of their soil, in which the upper protective layer of the bulb is damaged, subsequently causes damage to the material by fungus or bacteria.
It is improper to store dug out bulbs in a cardboard box - the walls of the box often become damp and prevent air from circulating inside it. The bulbs should be placed in 2-3 layers in small plastic boxes with a mesh bottom. For several days, the boxes must be dried under a canopy, occasionally turning them over. If the bulbs were selected from dry soil, then 5-6 days are enough for such drying. And if the ground was wet, then drying will take 10-14 days.
Then the dried bulbs are cleaned of the remaining soil, scales that themselves fall off, as well as old roots. Now, until autumn, all planting material can be stored in the house (in a dark, dry and cool place), in the attic or in a barn. Some gardeners store the planting material in the refrigerator on the bottom shelf along with fruits and vegetables. If the humidity in the room is too high, the bulbs often rot or become moldy. Too dry air dries them out. A hot room will cause untimely germination of bulbs, and a low temperature inhibits the setting of a flower bud. In this case, gardeners often see only tulip foliage next year.
Prepared bulbs should be planted in the fall. Planting times depend on the weather and the standard climate in the region. The most common mistakes when planting tulips in autumn:
- Planting too early can trigger the growth of flower leaves this season, so November frosts and snow will hit a living growing flower. In such cases, the bulbs die or will hurt for several more subsequent seasons.
- the bulb should be dry, heavy and strong to the touch
- inexperienced gardeners do not sort out the bulbs before planting, and they plant large adult bulbs next to the children on the same garden bed. Since it is necessary to dig up adult planting material annually, and children - in a year, such a planting will cause problems
- many growers do not process their planting material before planting. It is necessary to soak the tulip bulbs for 20-30 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Also, special solutions such as "Maxim Dachnik" are useful for processing. The procedure will protect them from fungal infections and destroy pathogenic bacteria.
- A common mistake some flower lovers make is to plant bulbs in the lowlands. Spring stagnant water and frost will ruin them
- when planting, fresh manure should not be used. Such fertilization will destroy the root system of tulips, and also attract various pests to the bulbs that like to eat sweet tulips.
- when planting, the bulbs must not be pressed into the ground. The indentation often damages them. It is better to make ordinary grooves and carefully lay out the bulbs in them every 10-14 cm, depending on their size
- Another common planting mistake is planting bulbs too deep or too shallow, which is harmful for future tulips. Medium depth - 3 bulb heights.