Grapes Purple early: how to grow, taking into account varietal characteristics
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Violet early grapes have been famous since Soviet times. It is from it that the very popular Muscat steppe rose wine is made to this day. The berries have an original aroma, reminiscent of the smell of roses. In the regions of industrial viticulture, the variety has no equal in terms of winter hardiness. In large areas, it is grown as a non-covering. There are other advantages to Violet Early, but there are also disadvantages to consider when growing.
The history of the purple early grape
The homeland of this European-Amur hybrid is the city of Novocherkassk, Rostov region. Obtained as a result of cross-pollination of varieties: Severny and Muscat Hamburg. Breeding work was carried out by specialists from the All-Russian Research Institute, named after the Soviet agrobiologist Ya. I. Potapenko. The seedling is highlighted among others in 1947. The application for registration of Violet Early in the State Register of Plants was filed in 1957. The grapes entered the state variety testing and 8 years later, in 1965, was entered in the register of breeding achievements. Regions of admission - Lower Volga and North Caucasian. It is also grown in other territories, but in other climatic conditions the hybrid does not show its early maturity and productivity.
Grape berries Purple early medium-sized, but very tasty, juicy and aromatic
Early purple fell in love with many winegrowers for its unpretentiousness, frost resistance, compactness and excellent taste of berries with a nutmeg aroma. When pressed, the proportion of juice is 84% of the mass of the fruit! Grapes are good both as table grapes, for fresh consumption, and as raw materials for winemaking.
The variety is so popular that legends are made about its origin and there are disputes on the forums. You can find references to Violet early Voronezh. The authorship is attributed to M. Abuzov, the creator of books, atlases and manuals dedicated to viticulture. There is also a third Violet early, popularly called the Levokuma. Perhaps the reason is in the shape of the leaves of this grape variety. It is very diverse, and winegrowers, finding differences on this basis, try to prove that they have a real institute Violet Early.
Video: overview of early purple grapes (July, Voronezh)
Description of the variety
The first thing that any gardener pays attention to when choosing seedlings is the quality and quantity of fruits that he will receive. The berries of the Violet early grape ripen usually 134 days after bud break. If the spring was early, the summer is hot, then the first berries can be tasted even after 120 days. Conversely, in the middle lane and other regions with short and cool summers, these grapes may not ripen at all. The berries ripen in early September, and for wine they often hang on the vines for another 2-3 weeks. In the zones of risky farming during this period there are already frosts.
Fruits are small - 2-3 g, in irrigated areas - up to 5-6 g. Another great advantage of the variety is that it remains productive even without irrigation, but the bushes then develop poorly. Normalization of bunches is required. The skin on the berries is dark purple, almost black, covered with a gray waxy coating.
Inside the almost black berries of Violet Early there is a transparent pulp, the juice is squeezed out of it colorless
Despite such an intense color on the outside, the flesh is transparent inside, the juice is colorless. The taste is pleasant, sweet, with a delicate aroma of roses. Each berry has 2-3 seeds. The clusters grow on average up to 17 cm in length, weighing up to 200 g. The shape is in the form of a cylinder, tapering towards the top, sometimes with a wing (lateral branch). The brush is loose, so it is convenient to pick or cut the berries one at a time and feast on directly from the bush.
The cluster in Violet early is cylindro-conical, sometimes with a wing.
Leaves, according to the descriptions of growers, are split or slightly cut, perfectly round, whole, pimpled or smooth, three or five-lobed. All this diversity can be manifested even on one bush. Although, according to information from the State Register, the leaf should be deeply dissected with very weak pubescence on the lower surface.
Violet early actively sets the harvest on the stepchildren. However, the bunches are 2-3 times smaller than on the main fruiting shoots. As part of the normalization of the harvest, it is recommended to remove them, otherwise the ripening period will stretch, the main bunches will grow and ripen more slowly.
Video: Purple early ripens, clusters on stepsons
Advantages and disadvantages of Violet early compared to other varieties (table)
Features of growing grapes Purple early
The features of care mainly depend on the characteristics of the variety: positive ones make it easier, negative ones add work. For example, undemanding soil structure makes planting easier. There is no need to dig large holes and fill them with loose soil. Conversely, an instability to powdery mildew (powdery mildew) will require you to spend more time in the vineyard to make preventive sprays. But knowing the weaknesses, it is easy to get around them and not lose in productivity.
Vines of Violet early are thin and creeping, but a rich harvest is laid on them, therefore, trellises need to be installed strong
Planting Violet early
Although the variety is unpretentious, it grows well on clay soil, nevertheless, it is worth paying due attention to planting. After all, a competent choice of place and a properly prepared landing pit are already half the success. In the southern regions, for an early hybrid, it is not necessary to choose the sunniest place. In a large vineyard, where several varieties grow, the best plots are given to late and large-fruited species.
If you bought a seedling in a container or a glass, then you can plant it from May to October, and with an open root system - in spring or autumn. Prepare the seat in 2-3 weeks:
- Dig a hole 50-60 cm deep and in diameter.
- Lay drainage on the bottom with a layer of 10 cm: broken brick, expanded clay or small pieces of thick branches.
- Mix the soil taken from the upper 30 cm or turf with peat, humus, sand in equal proportions.
- Add 0.5 L of ash and 40-50 g of superphosphate to one planting hole.
- Mix everything well and fill the pit with this mixture.
Standard planting pit for grapes: two shovel bayonets deep, drainage is laid on the bottom
If you make a hole the day before, 1-2 days before planting, then water it so that the earth subsides and add more soil mixtures. The day before planting, the seedlings in containers are also well watered, and with an open root system, place the roots in a solution of Zircon (40 drops per 1 liter of water). On the day of planting, according to the 1x1.5 m scheme, dig holes corresponding to the size of the roots of the seedlings, plant, water and mulch. If you plan to grow it as a covering form, without a stem, then the seedling needs to be deepened to the first branch on the trunk. Only flexible vines will remain on the surface, which can be bent and laid on the ground for the winter.
Video: the main mistakes of novice winegrowers
Formation of bushes
In the first year after planting, the growing shoots can be tied to high stakes, but by the next season you will need reliable and permanent trellises, for example, from metal pipes. Pruning is recommended in the spring, before bud break. Many growers have observed that uncircumcised vines winter better.
The usual pattern for Violet Early is 4 sleeves
There are two ways to form Violet Early:
- Non-standard in 4 sleeves with a shelter for the winter.
- Standard in two shoulders for non-covered cultivation. The height of the trunk is 1.2 m.
Stamp formation of grapes: in two sleeves (top picture), in 4 sleeves (bottom picture); fruiting shoots hang down, and not tied up, as in the case of a standard-free form
The bushes of Violet are of early medium vigor, but the yield on them grows large, therefore, no more than 5–7 eyes are left on each sleeve, and on each shoot - 1–2 bunches.
Watering and fertilizing early purple
Water the bushes in the year of planting once every 2-3 weeks, but abundantly (2-3 buckets per plant) and only in the absence of rain. It is not necessary to fill the holes with seedlings, the water will displace the air from the soil, the roots will rot. A fruiting vineyard needs irrigation:
- in spring, at the beginning of the growing season, but only if frosts are not expected in the coming days;
- before flowering;
- during the period when the berries grow to the size of peas.
Irrigation rate - 50–70 liters per bush. When the berries have reached their size, watering is stopped a week before the start of their staining. But these are general rules, in practice you need to focus on the condition of your plants, the weather, and even take into account the structure of the soil.
Video: two ways of watering grapes (homemade drip irrigation and trench)
If the bushes stopped growing ahead of time, or there is a drought, then additional watering is necessary. Clay soils do not allow water to pass through well, and in sandy soils, on the contrary, moisture does not linger, you need to water the grapes on them 1.5 times more often. However, frequent watering leads to leaching of nutrients, signs of chlorosis may appear on the vines - yellowing of the leaves. This problem is easily solved by applying fertilizers.
Chlorosis is caused by a lack of nutrients; the disease often develops on sandy soils that easily pass water and liquid feed through itself
In the first three years after planting, there is no need to fertilize the grapes. It is believed that he has enough food introduced into the planting pit. But if there are signs of growth retardation, for example, some seedling grows more slowly than others, then it can be fed by analogy with an adult bush.
The main part of fertilizers is applied in autumn at the rate: 10-16 kg of humus or compost and 200-300 g of wood ash per plant. Step back 50 cm from the base of the bush and make an annular groove 25 cm deep. Spread humus evenly, dust with ash, water and level the groove.
Immediately after bud break, 2 weeks before flowering and in summer, when the berries grow the size of peas, give liquid mullein supplements:
- Dilute the slurry with water 1: 3.
- Place in a warm place to allow the solution to ferment.
- After a week of fermentation, it can be used as a top dressing, diluted with water 1: 5.
Pour 2 buckets of infusion under one bush. Apply only on wet ground, that is, combine top dressing with watering. After 3-4 days, dust the ground under the bushes with ash (200-300 g under the bush) and loosen it up.
Ash cannot be applied simultaneously with nitrogen fertilizers. Alkali reacts with nitrogen to form volatile ammonia. Most of the food will evaporate.
Video: foliar feeding of grapes with microelements
Protection against diseases and pests
Do not wait for signs of disease and pest damage to grapes, carry out preventive spraying. So, for powdery mildew and other fungal diseases, it is enough to make two treatments (in spring and autumn) with copper-containing preparations, for example, HOM (40 g per 10 l) or 1% Bordeaux liquid. Moisten all shoots and leaves well, as well as the ground under the bushes. Tear off yellowed, dry leaves with spots and burn.
Video: scheme for the treatment of grapes from diseases and pests with modern drugs (Ukraine)
From pests to flowering on leaves and in autumn, after harvesting, you can use strong insecticides of a wide spectrum of action: Aktara, Karbofos, Aktelik, etc. Before bud break, treat with Nitrafen solution every 3-4 years. This drug fights both diseases and pests at the same time.
Why are frost-resistant grapes sheltered in the south
Although this hybrid can withstand severe frosts, and is grown in the south, growers advise, nevertheless, to cover it for the winter. At least remove the vines from the trellises, lay them down and cover them with loose earth. Uncovered grapes in winter can be damaged by freezing rains. Precipitation falls at subzero temperatures, the vines are covered with a thick layer of ice. They can break under its weight.
Consequences of freezing rain - shoots are completely covered with a thick layer of ice
Another danger: the ice melts, water penetrates under the kidney scales and freezes there again. Some of the kidneys are damaged. You cannot break the ice, this will cause much more harm. Therefore, it is better not to risk it, to grow grapes in a covering form and protect it from the winter weather.
Video: covering grapes with reed mats
Harvesting and processing
Violet early grapes are harvested, of course, in dry weather. Cut the brushes with scissors and place them in shallow boxes, the bottom of which is covered with paper. While picking, try not to touch the berries, so as not to damage the wax coating on their surface.
Cut the bunch with scissors, hold it not by the berries, but by the twig
Early purple is a universal grape, suitable for any kind of harvesting and fresh consumption. The berries are medium-sized, they can be dried, and frozen ones can be used instead of ice and as decoration: put in glasses to cool wine, cognac, champagne, cocktails. But the bulk of the harvest goes to making juices and wines. The berries of this grape are sweet and aromatic, but the juice lacks color and acidity. Therefore, winemakers are engaged in blending: to make one drink, they take 2-3 varieties of grapes. The extracts are not thrown away either; fragrant mash is prepared from them and distilled into grappa and brandy.
Red wine Muscat steppe rose has been produced since 1965, made from early violet grapes grown by VNIIViV them. Potapenko
Reviews of grapes Purple early
Violet early grapes show their productivity and early maturity only in the southern regions. Here it is successfully grown even on heavy soils and slopes of any orientation. The preferable stumpless covering form is to be able to lay the vines for the winter and protect the buds from icing. In addition, this hybrid needs preventive spraying against diseases and pests. All the work pays off with a harvest of delicious and aromatic berries, which are used to make the legendary Muscat wine.
I live in Siberia. I have my own house and my own plot) In the articles I share my experience, I learn something myself with you)
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The "Violet Early" variety belongs to table and wine varieties. It is appreciated by both beginners and experienced winemakers for its rich flavor range, as well as the characteristic shade of nutmeg, rose aroma and high levels of fructose. Most often, the fruits of this grape variety are used in the composition of the grape assortment for the preparation of dessert and table red wines. In addition, the rich taste palette of fruits allows you to make natural juices, tinctures, as well as a variety of desserts from them. The juice of the Violet Early grape variety was highly appreciated by tasters - 8.9 points out of 10, not only for aroma, but also for good taste. In addition, a balanced acidity and sugar content is noted, which allows the variety to be used for a wide variety of purposes.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety in comparison with similar
Despite the fact that the early Violet variety is no longer young, no one belittles its dignity. This is, for example:
- good taste of berries and products of their processing
- high, for early varieties, yield
- good cold resistance
- unpretentiousness to soil and climatic conditions
- resistance to most diseases
Among the disadvantages are the susceptibility to powdery mildew and phylloxera, the need to ration the yield and the lack of color in the juice.
It is difficult to compare Early Violet with modern varieties, especially for dining purposes. Rather, now we must say that among wine varieties, it is one of the best in terms of the possibility of using berries and fresh. Thus, the well-known and widely used varieties in winemaking with berries of the same shape, color and size (Isabella, Amursky and even Lydia) cannot compare with Violet Early in the taste of fresh berries: they are now practically not eaten by these varieties.
Dark grape varieties such as Saperavi severny and Harmony are also considered typical wine varieties. Almost the same characteristics are shown by Early Violet and the Golubok variety - grapes with berries of almost black color, and its juice is also colored. But, for example, conditionally wine grapes of the Dobrynya variety, also bred in Novocherkassk, can successfully compete with Violet Early and even surpass it in a number of indicators. Its bunches grow to a weight of 800 g, the berries are larger, juicy, and have a good taste. And even frost resistance is higher than that of Violet early.
Dove grapes, like some other varieties, are very similar in many characteristics to Early Purple