Tason grape is a table early maturing and fruitful variety
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Grape lovers living in colder regions are looking for cold-hardy varieties that can also yield crops in short, cool summers. These conditions are fully met by the early ripening variety Tason, which is distinguished by abundant harvests and a very pleasant taste.
The history of Tason grape cultivation
Table grapes Tason obtained artificially on the basis of the varieties Italy and Zoreva by the breeder T. A. Sonina at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking named after V.I. Ya.I. Potapenko. This variety has not yet been included in the state register, nevertheless, many amateurs are actively growing it. It is most successfully cultivated in the conditions of the Rostov region, Crimea, Ukraine, but it can grow and bear fruit even in the Moscow and Leningrad regions and in the north of Belarus.
The popularity of Tason is largely due to its high yield.
Description and characteristics of the variety
Tason is distinguished by a very early ripening period (it takes 100–110 days to get the harvest from the moment the buds open). This variety multiplies easily - its cuttings root well and blend perfectly with the stock.
Bushes are large, intensively growing. Scourges ripen well (practically along the entire length) by autumn. Fruiting shoots are formed a little more than half.
The leaves have five lobes, are strongly dissected and have a dark green color. The flowers are bisexual, so this variety does not need pollinators.
Tason flowers are well pollinated by bees
After flowering, bunches form on the vines, which, when poured, acquire a cylindrical conical shape. Their density is average, and their size is rather large, their weight reaches 0.5-0.8 kg, up to a maximum of 1.2 kg.
When fully ripe, the oval berries are white-pink in color with a red tan on the lighted side. The grapes are 25 x 18 mm in size and weigh 6–7 g. The peel is of medium density and is not felt when eaten. The flesh is quite dense, crunchy. There are seeds in the berries, but they are small and therefore hardly felt.
The taste is very pleasant, the aroma is nutmeg. High sugar content (19-21 g per 100 cc3) is compensated by some amount of acid (5-6 g / dm3), which ensures the harmony of taste.
In good light, the berries acquire a beautiful reddish tan.
Tason won the love of winegrowers not only in the southern regions, but also in the middle zone due to its advantages:
- very early ripening (last decade of July);
- high yield (up to 40 bunches from 1 bush, that is, 20-30 kg);
- great taste (score 8.2 points) and attractive appearance;
- long-term storage of berries on the bush (about 2 months);
- resistance to wet weather (berries do not crack);
- resistance to transportation.
This variety is also not without its disadvantages:
- low resistance to fungal diseases (oidium, mildew, gray rot);
- relatively low frost resistance (up to –22 ° C).
Features of planting varieties Tason
Tason is suitable for growing in almost any climate. Even in short summer conditions, he manages to yield a harvest due to the short growing season.
In both warm and cold regions, it is advisable to plant Tason on the well-lit southern side of the site. With a lack of sunlight, the berries will not acquire the proper color and remain greenish-white. The soil on the site should be fertile and moisture-permeable, in no case swampy.
The grapes feel best under the protection of a fence or buildings that shelter the bushes from cold winds.
Both spring and autumn are suitable for planting grapes. Since Tason is often grown in cold regions, spring planting is more desirable for it (until mid-May). In this case, the seedlings will have time to develop well before the cold weather.
Tason is planted with own-rooted seedlings, and grafted onto an adult stock. Cuttings for any of these methods are harvested in the fall, cutting out the matured part of the vine with 4-5 eyes. For the winter, their cuts are waxed, and the cuttings themselves are removed to the cellar or refrigerator.
For the best moisture retention in the cuttings, the sections should be covered with paraffin during storage.
Vaccination is performed as follows:
- An adult rootstock bush is selected, which is cut off completely, leaving a small hemp.
- The stalk is cut with a wedge and inserted into a cleft made with a sharp hatchet in the center of the rootstock stump.
- The grafting site is tightly pulled together with a cloth and covered with clay.
Video: performing cleavage vaccination
If you need the cuttings to take root, then they act like this:
- In the first half of February, they are taken out of storage, the sections are refreshed.
- Place the bottom of the cuttings in a jar of water or a pot (or cut plastic bottle) with nutritious moist soil.
- In mid-April - early May, the seedlings are transferred to a permanent place.
Video: growing grape seedlings from chubuk
Planting grapes consists of sequential steps:
- A week before planting, a pit is prepared with a depth and diameter of 0.8 m.
- Half the depth, the pit is filled with a nutrient mixture (fertile soil, compost, potassium-phosphorus salts), covered with a thin layer of earth.
- The seedling is placed in the hole, trying not to break off the young white roots.
- Sprinkle with earth, compact and watered.
To ensure drainage, a layer of gravel or broken brick is poured into the planting pit, if necessary
Tason responds to good care, but there are no particular difficulties in growing this variety.
Trimming and shaping
Due to the strong growth, the grape bushes must be subjected to shaping. The easiest way is to use a fan. You can also form a bush in the form of a two-armed cordon or grow it on an arch. In warm regions, where grapes do not need to be covered for the winter, they can be cultivated in standard form, like a tree.
It will take 3-4 years to get a fan-shaped bush.
When pruning, you need to remember the basic rules:
- The optimal load for Tason is no more than 30–40 shoots per bush.
- Each vine should be pruned into 10-12 eyes.
High stem grapes can be grown in warm regions
In autumn, the grapes are pruned, removing unripe parts of the vine, excess branches and thickening shoots. If winter temperatures in the region drop below -22 ... -24 ° C, the vines should be laid on the ground and covered at the end of October. An agrotechnical cloth, a layer of earth, straw or oilcloth will do.
To protect the grapes from frost, it is necessary to tie the vines, lay them on the ground and cover them with straw
Watering grapes needs moderate - excess moisture will only hurt. Usually watered 3-4 times per season:
- After the end of flowering.
- During the ripening period of berries.
- After harvest.
- Before the onset of cold weather.
To better retain moisture in the soil under the bushes, it is recommended to mulch the trunk circle with natural materials:
- cut grass.
To get a bountiful harvest, you need to fertilize the vineyard regularly.
- The first root dressing is applied a few days after flowering.
- The plants are then fed at the beginning of the ripening of the berries - this helps to increase the average weight of the bunches.
- The last feeding is carried out in autumn with potassium salts, which increase the frost resistance of plants.
Sometimes it is recommended to carry out top dressing at the very beginning of the growing season, but this can lead to the growth of the green mass of the bush to the detriment of the harvest.
Organic matter is introduced in the form of slurry or infusion of chicken manure, you can also use rotted manure (used in the form of a layer of mulch 7-10 cm thick). Do not forget that microelements are very useful for grapes:
- boric acid;
- manganese sulfates;
- zinc sulfates.
Grapes respond well to foliar dressing. To do this, prepare aqueous solutions of fertilizers:
- nitrogen (ammonium nitrate 0.3%);
- phosphoric (superphosphate 5-7%);
- potash (potassium chloride 1.5%).
Top dressing can be combined with preventive spraying against fungal diseases.
Video: fertilizing and feeding grapes
Pest and disease control
Tason berries ripen during the height of summer and naturally attract birds and wasps. Vine bushes can be protected from birds with a net (preferably rigid and fine-mesh).
You can save yourself from wasps by setting insecticidal traps and destroying wasp nests. If you're comfortable with the extra work, it's best to wrap each brush in a gauze bag.
It should be remembered that beneficial insects can also get into insecticidal traps.
The mesh bag will successfully protect the grape harvest from wasps
More dangerous than wasps may be damage by phylloxera, a microscopic aphid that affects both the ground parts of the plant and the root system. Treatment with volatile carbon disulfide will help against it:
- In case of severe damage by phylloxera, a dosage of 300-400 cm3 is used.3/ m2... This will kill the pests, but the vineyard may die.
- To maintain plantings, use a dosage of 80 cm3/ m2.
The defeat of grapes by phylloxera is considered one of the most dangerous
The best method for preventing phylloxera is vaccination on phylloxera-resistant rootstocks.
Tason is not too resistant to powdery mildew, mildew and gray mold. Due to the early ripening of grapes, these diseases do not always catch up with the harvest. But it is necessary to carry out preventive treatments in any case. Copper preparations are suitable:
- bordeaux liquid,
Collection, storage and use of the crop
Tason begins to be harvested in the last decade of July. If the harvest is very plentiful, you can safely leave some of the brushes on the bush - they hang until mid-September without losing their taste.
The harvested grapes are stored in the refrigerator for about a month. Hanging in a cool dark room, grapes are stored for 2-3 months.
Tason is most often consumed fresh, but you can process it by making:
- the juice,
Beckmes, or grape honey, is not only tasty, but also a healthy delicacy
Winegrowers reviews about the variety
Tason grapes are suitable for winegrowers from almost any Russian region. Of course, getting a good harvest will require some labor and time, but they are fully paid off by the excellent qualities of the berries.
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