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Growing blueberries in the garden - 1

Growing blueberries in the garden - 1


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The "black berry" of your garden

This culture has only recently begun to gain prominence in our gardens. When I start telling colleagues about her, I almost always meet with a very skeptical attitude from the interlocutors. They say: why are blueberries in the garden? I went to the swamp - and scored as much as necessary. Well, if you don't feel like going into the forest, then you can collect and eat honeysuckle. When you show photographs of bushes one and a half meters or more and give them a taste of the berries, this is where undoubted interest appears, and questions arise: will this blueberry, having an American origin, grow in our St. Petersburg conditions? Where to get it and what grade is the best?

How tall garden blueberries were created

She traces her origin from North American blueberry species... In the flora of North America, there are 26 species in total. The cultivated high-growing blueberry was obtained as a result of crossing between two types of high-growing blueberries and one type of undersized. In the second half of the twentieth century, the hexaploid species of blueberry Ema was included in hybridization. Work on the cultivation of blueberries has been carried out since the beginning of the twentieth century by the American botanist F.V. Covillom by selecting the most valuable wild-growing forms. For 30 years he has received 15 varieties. After the death of Coville, this work was continued by J. M. Darrow. According to the developed program, seedlings were grown and evaluated in a wide variety of soil and climatic conditions. By the early 1980s, 45 varieties of tall blueberry, 11 varieties of Amy blueberry and 3 varieties of undersized blueberry were registered.

After the start of work with blueberries in the United States, interest arose in this culture in other countries. In 1926, a blueberry variety trial was started in Canada. In the 50s of the twentieth century, experimental cultivation of American blueberries began in a number of European countries. The experience of American researchers was studied, experimental stations were established, and selection work was carried out. The studies were carried out in Finland, Ireland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Italy. As a result of these works, the first European varieties were obtained.

In 1964, the study of American tall blueberries began in the former USSR. The first collection was founded in the Main Botanical Garden (Moscow) by I. A. Danilova, and since 1980 this blueberry has been studied in the Central Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus (Minsk). As a result of the research, the prospects of growing tall blueberries and its advantage over our local wild-growing species - marsh blueberries, were proved, both in terms of fruit size, yield, and taste and biomedical value.

Experimental gardeners also decided to keep up with scientific institutions, and some of them began to study tall blueberries in their garden plots. Since in those days there were no seedlings or cuttings of American blueberries, those who wanted to try to grow this culture, in all possible ways, got the seeds of cultivated varieties in scientific institutions.

Unfortunately, in most cases, seedlings obtained from seeds differed significantly from their parents in smaller fruits, but even such they were usually larger than wild blueberries, and tasted better than ordinary blueberries and in all cases were not inferior in taste to blueberries. Of course, the seed propagation method for American blueberries is very difficult, and it requires large land areas, a large number of seedlings and time to select the best specimens for fruiting. Currently, gardeners wishing to take up this crop will no longer need such titanic efforts, since varietal seedlings can be purchased.

Features of culture

Varietal tall blueberry - deciduous shrub with a height of 1.5-2.5 meters. The root system is represented by a network of fibrous roots with several orders of branching. A distinctive feature of the root system of blueberries, like other lingonberry crops, is the almost absence of the main root (there is only a small part of it, about 3 cm) and root hairs for the absorption and absorption of water and nutrients. Blueberry roots have mycorrhiza, i.e. fungi that are in symbiosis with the root and perform the functions of root hairs. The adventitious roots are formed in blueberries only in the area of ​​the short main root and, in extremely rare cases, are found on the renewal shoots. Even in shoots lying or bent to the ground, they do not appear (in the rarest cases in the 2-3rd year), therefore, tall blueberries practically do not reproduce by layering, and it is extremely difficult to propagate by cuttings.

Its shoots are slightly ribbed, their color varies from bright green to light brown. Depending on the location and nature of growth, shoots are divided into two types: formation shoots and branching shoots. Formation shoots develop from underground buds or buds located at the base of old stems. Usually these shoots are very powerful and can reach lengths of up to one and a half meters. The growth of shoots of formation begins in the second half of May and continues until the end of August - early September. Sometimes they do not have time to finish their growth before the onset of frost, and their tops freeze over, which, however, does not affect the normal development of the bush and fruiting. The next year, branching shoots develop on the shoots of formation, from axillary leaves, the length of which usually does not exceed 8-20 cm.

The growth of these shoots usually begins in late April - early May and continues until the end of June. In July, flower buds are laid on the tops and in the axils of the upper leaves, forming the next year's harvest. In the axils of the lower leaves, vegetative branching buds of the second order are laid, etc. The higher the branching order of these shoots, the shorter they are, for example, branching shoots of 4-5 orders of magnitude are only 3-5 cm long.

Vegetative and generative (flower) buds of tall blueberries differ in their placement on the shoots, as well as in shape and size. Spherical flower buds are located at the ends of the branching shoots of last year's growth. Vegetative (growth) buds are much smaller than generative ones and are located along the entire length of the shoots of branching and formation in the leaf axils.

The leaves of the varietal American blueberry are large, dark green, shiny, on short petioles, entire or toothed. The leaf shape is elliptical or oval. The length and width of the leaf can vary greatly depending on growing conditions and varietal characteristics. For example, the Rankokas variety has the shortest and narrowest leaf blade (6.5 x 2.8 cm), the Scammel variety is long (8.5 cm), and the Blurey variety has a very wide (4.2 cm) leaf blade. Flowers are large - corolla length up to 10-12 mm, white or pink color. Flowers are collected in racemose inflorescences of 6-10 pieces. The axis of the hand is straight, the length is from 8 to 25 mm. Brushes are loose, medium density and dense, which is determined by the length of the stalks and varietal specifics.

Blueberry fruit is a berry with numerous seeds. The size of the berries depends both on their location in the brush and on the grade. The first ripe berries are, as a rule, much larger than the rest, sometimes reaching a weight of 2.5-3.2 g. The last ripe berries are much less - 1.1-1.4 g. In some varieties, both the first and the last berries have almost the same size and weight. A number of varieties (Stanley, Erliblu, Blurey) are large-fruited, but the latter berries are much smaller than the berries of the first collection. Such varieties as Rankokas, Rübel, Tirblu and others have fruits of only medium and small sizes (1.2-1.6 g).

The color of berries in varietal blueberries is from light blue to dark blue with a bluish tinge. Their flesh is white, dense. The berries are round, flattened and even pentahedral in shape. Their skin is dense, and sometimes thin, easy to break. The taste of the berries is mainly sweet and sour, although there are also very sweet ones. The great taste is often complemented by a good blueberry to pineapple aroma, and some of the New Zealand-bred varieties even have a vanilla aroma. Some varieties have no aroma at all. For example, Weymouth and Rankocas varieties

Valuable properties of varietal blueberries

In general, American Highbush blueberries taste far better than our regular marsh blueberries, and are usually as good as and sometimes superior to blueberries. Its berries are good both fresh and chilled and frozen. It is good to use blueberries for making juices, and for various preservation (compotes, preserves, jams), and for filling in pies and cakes. The famous Polish scientist Dr. Kazimir Smolyazh jokes about the cultivation of this crop: "If you start growing blueberries, you will never die." His words are not far from the truth, because berries of tall blueberries have very high medico-biological qualities. The results of research on blueberries, obtained in 1998 at the Boston Medical Center (USA), surpassed all expectations. Now this berry is advertised as the elixir of youth. American researchers have shown that blueberries are capable of not only delaying the aging process, but also contributing to the rejuvenation of the body.

I. Barylnik, experienced gardener


Keywords

All about blueberries

Types and varieties of blueberries

The following types of blueberries are usually grown on personal plots:

COMMENTS

I have been growing blueberries for 4 years, it gives a good harvest. For cultivation, partial shade is necessary, although there are varieties that grow wonderfully and bear fruit in the sun, these are usually early varieties, a necessary condition for growing acidic soil and regular watering. They do this: in the garden, I dig a hole for planting (as if under a tree) and fill it with earth from a coniferous forest and a little old humus or earth from a compost heap. I plant a plant, and then once a month (spring and until August) I pour granulated fertilizers under the bush (for azaleas or rhododendrons or violets .. generally sour) and just water it with tap water.

Tatyana, "swamp" is not only a Baskerville dog and the danger of perishing in mud :) For blueberries, these are environmental conditions close to those of a marsh: planting in high moor sour peat (pH about 5) with the addition of coniferous sawdust, frequent watering - the roots should not dry out, she loves wet soil (not to be confused with life in eternal dampness!).

I read about the swamp and blueberries. Ofigela. That blueberries grow in the swamp. or something7 I just collected it in the forest.


Growing pumpkin outdoors

Hello dear friends!

The topic of today's article is Growing pumpkin outdoors and caring for this wonderful plant.

Before sowing, the area intended for the pumpkin must be well fertilized. At least 2 buckets of humus, half a bucket of sawdust, 1 liter jar of wood ash and 1 glass of nitrophoska should be added per square meter of the garden. It is important to dig a bed for a pumpkin very deeply (up to 50 centimeters). The bed is usually made 70 centimeters wide and watered with hot water at a temperature of 80 degrees.

Seed preparation for planting:

In order to speed up the germination of seeds and to get friendly strong shoots, I dip the seeds for 1 day in a solution of liquid fertilizer "potassium humate" or "sodium humate", then cover them with a damp cloth for 1 - 2 days, while the fabric is regularly moistened water. At the same time, I choose a place in a room with an air temperature of 22 - 23 degrees.

The mistake of many gardeners is that they sometimes sow old seeds and do not get seedlings at the same time. To avoid this, you need to check the seeds for germination a month before planting. To do this, you need to take several seeds of all available varieties, soak them and leave them in a damp cloth until germination.

Planting dates and sowing technology:

In the regions of the Middle Volga region and similar zones, seeds can be sown from May 10 to May 15, and always under a film. The film is removed from June 10 to 16.

Sowing holes should be made along the bed, 6 - 7 centimeters deep and 90 centimeters apart. Seeds are sown germinated in warm, moist soil. Sow 2 seeds in each hole. When the plants sprout, one of them is removed.

Plant care when growing pumpkin in the open field is primarily in the correct formation of the plant. The main stem is usually pinched when it reaches a length of 1.3 - 1.5 meters and 2 lateral shoots are left, 60 - 70 centimeters long. On each shoot, you need to form 1 fruit. Thus, on one plant we will have three fruits, one on the main stem and one on the side ones. Excess shoots must be removed. To speed up the filling of fruits, the left shoots can be pressed to the ground with a small spear made of wood or wire to the ground and sprinkled with a layer of soil 6 - 7 centimeters so that our lashes take root. Under each fruit, I put a piece of plywood or better a piece of glass.

Pumpkin loves feeding very much. They need to be done at intervals of 15 days. To do this, use the following solution: in 10 liters of water, you need to dilute 1 liter of mullein and 2 tablespoons of nitrophoska. Solution consumption - 3 buckets for 2 plants.

During the period of pumpkin growth, it must be watered abundantly, once a week, at the rate of 20 - 30 liters of water per plant.

Ripe pumpkin fruits must be cut off along with the stalk, 5 - 6 centimeters long. With this, correct cutting of the fruit, the pumpkin is well and for a long time stored. You can store pumpkin indoors until spring, but the optimal storage temperature is 5 - 8 degrees.

Besides the method growing pumpkin in the open field I also practiced growing this plant in a cucumber greenhouse and got a good harvest. I will write about this in the following articles.

I wish you health and a great harvest! See you!


A site about a garden, a summer residence and houseplants.

On your site I have been growing blueberries for 15 years and now in my collection there are almost 20 cuttings of blueberries of different varieties.

The land on my site is loamy.

And since the roots of blueberries penetrate the soil shallowly, before planting, under each bush, I introduced half a bag of coniferous litter and a handful of complex fertilizer, mixed well, transferred seedlings from pots, watered abundantly.

From above she mulched with the same coniferous litter. During the summer, I made sure that the soil did not dry out.

At first, I was not fond of any special dressing, only slightly acidified the soil with vinegar. The seedlings grew well.

In the fall, she covered the roots well with litter. But when I arrived in the spring, I was very upset: all the bushes were gnawed by hares at the same level - to the height of the snow cover.

Over the summer, the plantings recovered a bit. To keep them intact, I put on potato nets for the winter, having previously tied the bushes with a rope. In the lower part, spruce branches were laid. In the spring, I took off the nets as early as possible, so as not to sneak around the awakened kidneys.

Subsequently, caring for blueberries became easy: feeding, watering, shelter and a pleasant moment - harvesting.

I fed the bushes with special fertilizer for blueberries, conifers, hydrangeas. For watering, I laid a thick plastic hose along each row, drilled holes with a drill, and at the end clogged it with a wooden plug. I connected it to the water supply and from time to time I turn on the watering. For acidification, I sometimes use vinegar, pour apple squeezes under the bushes, and on occasion - a layer of sawdust. And for the winter - a bucket and more coniferous litter.

I planted the princess in the aisles. She grew well and yielded delicious berries. But a problem arose: it was so overgrown with an ineradicable dandelion that I did not have time to fight it. In the winter of 2011-12. The princess was almost all gone (and, as it turned out, not only for me).

Once from the forest I brought several blueberry bushes. They have taken root and there are even berries. She also planted lingonberries, it is very pleasant to feast on its berries in the fall.

Grandchildren are very fond of blueberries, and I use this love to my advantage. Do you want a good harvest next year?

Reference by topic: You can also read about the cultivation of blueberries here

Then for sacks, for a wheelbarrow - and into the forest to harvest forest floor. Enough for blueberries and my favorite magnolias and hydrangeas.

They don't have the patience to pick all the berries, so after they leave, I collect the rest and put them in the freezer.

Blueberries ripen at different times, so the pleasure stretches almost to the cold. I grow varieties of different ripening periods. Really like Bluecrop is mid-season, winter-hardy. Patriot - with large, slightly flattened berries. Toro, Northland, Rankokas, River, Darrow - each variety is interesting in its own way.

This year, a familiar farmer, who has a plot in the forest, complained that jays occupied his bushes and nothing scared them.

I also noticed their presence on my blueberries. To save the harvest, I decided to use a long and wide green mesh, which is hung at houses during repairs (during the ripening of strawberries, I sometimes stretch this over the plants).

She drove high pipes from two short sides, pulled a rope over them and threw a net over it.

She fixed one long side on the roof of the greenhouse, the other on the opposite side on a low fence. On the end sides, she freely lowered the edges of the net so that you could enter the "house".

This season, too, I prepared the bushes for winter in advance. The low ones were pulled together with ropes and, as in previous years, she put on nets.

And for the grown plants, the length of the nets was no longer enough. But I found a way out: I cut a thin fine-mesh plastic mesh into pieces about 1.20 m long and pulled the bushes with them. I wrapped columnar apple trees with the same nets.

Now they are all reliably protected from raids.


Planting blueberries

  1. Before planting, the roots of the seedlings should be placed in water for 10-20 minutes.
  2. The pit is filled with sour peat, foliage, crushed bark, sawdust; sulfur, citric, acetic or malic acid can be added to acidify.
  3. When planting a seedling, the roots are straightened.
  4. The root collar is buried 5 cm.
  5. When planting, no additional fertilizers are applied.
  6. After planting and watering, the holes around each bush are mulched (with a layer of 5-10 cm) with crushed pine bark, foliage, needles or sawdust.

You can choose blueberry seedlings of suitable varieties in our catalog, where products from various online stores of seeds and planting material are presented. Choose blueberry seedlings.


Blueberry in the garden - it's possible! Yes, blueberries are a demanding plant, but it is quite possible to grow them in your garden. And you will not need to wander through the forest, since it does not grow in every forest.

You can have some bushes right in front of the house. Although blueberries are better known to us as a wild plant, today they can be grown in the garden. However, you will have to work a little to create conditions for her that are as close as possible to natural conditions.

Under natural conditions, blueberries grow mainly in a pine humid forest, where acidic soil predominates. These are her basic requirements. The plant is not afraid of heat or frost.

Forest blueberries bloom in May and June. The flowers are pinkish, on warm days they are actively visited by bees and produce a lot of nectar, the collection of which lasts 10-15 days. Blueberries are a melliferous plant, during flowering they are visited by many bees. Sometimes night frosts cause the death of flowers, which reduces the yield. Early blueberry varieties yield in July, late ones in September-October.


Planting blueberries, planting dates

Blueberries in the garden begin to produce in the third year of planting. Other name: garden blueberry.

First of all, start preparing the site. Do this a month before planting the seedlings. Choose a place that is well lit, and light shading will do. The bushes on the shore of the reservoir feel good. The main requirement of blueberries is moderate soil and air moisture! Blueberries need acidic soil (pH 3.5 - 5.0). Scientists have noticed that at a pH of 5.5, the yield of blueberries decreases, and at a pH of 6.8, its growth stops completely. And if the pH is 3.2 or lower, then the plants begin to hurt. Ideal will be acidic soils with a humus content of at least 4% organic matter.

Autumn planting is carried out in late October - early November, spring - in April. For planting seedlings, prepare pits (make a month before planting) 100x100 in size and 60 cm deep.Pour peat crumbs and garden soil into the pits in a ratio of 2: 1. If the soil is heavy, add river sand. Pine needles have proven themselves quite well.

Plant the plants along with a lump of earth, having moistened it well beforehand. It is imperative to do this, otherwise rooting will not be successful. Loosen the root ball a little, and straighten the roots. Then cover with earth and tamp well. Water the plantings and mulch well with pine bark or coniferous needles.


Watch the video: Mixing up Acidic Soil to Plant Blueberries! . Garden Answer