Groups and varieties of irises

Groups and varieties of irises

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Features and preferences of groups of irises

Iris Wabah

Among all the variety of perennial flower crops, irises rightfully occupy one of the leading places. There are 300 types of irises in the world. Plants of this family can be found all over the world. From early spring to mid-autumn, this unusual flower delights the eye.

In the world, it is probably difficult to find a country in which there would be no legends and traditions associated with this flower. Iris translated from ancient Greek means "rainbow". In ancient Egypt, iris was cultivated as early as the 15th century BC. e., there he was considered a symbol of eloquence.

It is from Egypt that this flower comes to Spain, France, England and Russia. In Russia, he was given the affectionate name of the kasatik. The traditional symbol of the boys' holiday celebrated annually in Japan (May 5) is the image of the iris, because in the Japanese language the name of this flower and the concept of "warrior spirit" are denoted by the same hieroglyphs. The Italian city of Florence got its name in honor of the irises that grow in abundance in its surroundings, which is reflected in the coat of arms of this city.

The color of iris flowers is like a multi-colored rainbow: white and azure, yellow and purple, pale pink and purple-cherry. The leaves of irises are like a sword: pointed at the top, flat at the base; retaining their green color until late autumn. The ability of irises to persist for a long time in a bouquet, gradually opening bud by bud, allows them to be attributed to the most valuable plants.

In nature, you can find dwarf species, no more than 5 cm in height, blooming in early spring at the same time as primroses, and truly summer giants, up to one and a half meters high. One of the most unpretentious species - marsh iris - can be found in summer along the banks of ponds, channels and ditches. Not only flowers, but also roots, possessing an unusual aroma, have found use in the perfumery industry for the manufacture of perfumes, and in the food industry - for the fragrance of liqueurs, wines and confectionery. In some countries mats, ropes and brushes are made from iris leaves.

Garden irises, according to a simplified classification proposed by the famous breeder G.I. Rodionenko, are divided into ten groups. Among amateur flower growers, four groups of irises can most often be found in their personal plots: bearded, Siberian, spuria and Japanese.

Bearded irises - the most extensive group in terms of the number of varieties, in the creation of which leafless Iris and German Iris participated. Now we will give a brief description of each species.

Iris Calient

German Iris (Iris germanica)

Rhizomes are 2-3 cm thick. Leaves are basal, broadly obvious, glaucous, 35–40 cm long, 2.5–3 cm wide. Peduncle with two branches branching off at an acute angle, on the tops of which two flowers develop. The flowers are large, 5-7 cm in diameter, bluish-purple, with a yellowish-blue "beard" with a strong aroma. It blooms in late spring - early summer. The cultural appearance has been known since the middle of the 16th century.


Aphrodisiac - flowers are light apricot, with a pearl spot in the center, with a slight aroma, 90 cm high.
Polished manners - flowers are dark purple, closer to the center, the color is lighter, with a light sweet aroma, 90 cm high.
Mariposa skies - pale blue flowers with deep blue veins on the lower blue petals, slightly corrugated, with a sweet aroma, 75–85 cm high, re-blooming.
Aggressively Forward - vibrant flowers with ruffled golden standards and pastel yellow fouls with purple specks and borders. With a musky scent, 90 cm high.
Role Model - reddish-brick color with corrugated edges, 90 cm high.
Well endowed - golden yellow flowers with white spots on the fouls, 95 cm high, re-blooming.
Mother earth - flowers with creamy standards and lavender fouls, lighter at the beard, 90 cm high, re-blooming.

Iris hybrid or garden (Iris hibrida)

By height, this group of irises is divided into undersized (25-37 cm), medium-sized (37–70 cm) and tall (more than 70 cm). The leaves of irises are xiphoid or lily, erect. Flowers are solitary or in inflorescences, often resembling orchid flowers. Some varieties have a pleasant smell. The rhizome is almost terrestrial.

Leafless Iris (Iris aphylla)

The plant is up to 50 cm high. The leaves are xiphoid, up to 45 cm long, die off by winter, in spring they appear after the peduncles, on which there are 3-5 bright purple flowers, sometimes blooms again in summer.

Dwarf iris

The plant is up to 15 cm high. The leaves are narrow-linear, up to 10 cm long, the peduncle size is 3-5 cm, with one yellow or blue-violet flower, without aroma.

Siberian irises combine varieties and hybrids of Siberian Iris, Oriental Iris and Bristle Iris. They are distinguished by high winter hardiness, therefore, they do not require winter shelter. They are unpretentious in cultivation: they can grow in damp, but not swampy, places, are not affected by bacteriosis, rarely get sick with rust. Unlike bearded irises, the rhizomes of Siberian irises must be planted to a depth of 5–10 cm.

Siberian Iris (Iris sibirica)

Siberian iris

The rhizome is thin, highly branching, forms dense tussocks, covered with brown fibers. The roots go deep into the soil. Leaves are linear, long-pointed, 50–80 cm long, 0.6–0.8 cm wide. Peduncle 60–100 cm high, hollow, two-, three-flowered. The flowers are light or dark purple, sometimes white with a slight aroma. It usually blooms in late spring - early summer. In nature, it can be found in Western and Central Siberia, in the European part of Russia it grows from the taiga to the steppe zone.

Iris bristle (Iris setosa)

Rhizomes of short branches tightly pressed against each other, entangled with brown fibers. Leaves are xiphoid, 40-50 cm long, 2-2.5 cm wide. Peduncle 50-80 cm high, dense inside, branched, bearing 2-3 flowers on each branch. The flowers are reddish purple. The outer perianth lobes are large, 3-4 cm in diameter, the inner ones are underdeveloped, bristly. It blooms in late summer - early autumn. The homeland of this species is Eastern Siberia, Primorye, the Kuril Islands, Northeast China, Japan and Alaska.

Iris blood red or oriental (Iris orientalis)

The plant is up to 1 m high, the leaves are linear, up to 75 cm long, forming a small compact bush. The flowers are violet-blue, less often white, in the amount of 4-5 pieces per peduncle.

Iris Espada

Iris calamus or yellow (marsh iris) (Iris pseudacorus)

Rhizome is creeping, slightly branched. Basal leaves are green, broadly linear, up to 120 cm long. Peduncle 70–90 cm high, rarely 120 cm, leafy, dense, slightly flattened, with 3–4 lateral branches bearing two or three flowers. The flowers are large, golden yellow. Blooms in the first half of summer. Places of natural growth - from the forest zone of Europe to the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, southern Siberia, Asia Minor, North Africa. This is the only species that can be planted near water bodies, rivers, ponds. Soils for planting them should be sandy-clayey, moist. Planting depth - up to 30 cm, while they can withstand prolonged spring flooding.

Iris spuria

The name of this group can be translated as "false iris" or "doubtful iris". In nature, wild irises grow on saline clay soils, which are usually flooded with melt or rainwater in spring, and in summer, during a drought, turn into a clay monolith. This feature allows them to grow in the most difficult conditions, on problem soils. The spuria iris flower is closest in shape to the type of reticulated iris, but in contrast to it, several flowers on tall stems are usually formed on the peduncle, giving powerful thickets. This group includes species such as Salt-loving Iris and Iris musulmanica.

Salt-loving Iris (Iris halophila)

The range of this species is the steppes of Mongolia and Western Siberia, Ukraine, Moldova and Romania. The color of the flowers of this species is all shades of yellow: from light cream to sulfur-yellow. Flowering time is the second and third decade of June. Plant height 0.5–0.8 m.

Muslim Iris (Iris musulmanica)

In this group, the most widespread are late-flowering varieties obtained by hybridization: Farolito and Golden Lady.

Farolito - flowers with an intense purple top, the outer tepals are decorated with a delicate pattern of purple veins on a white background, with a contrasting bright yellow stroke in the middle.

Golden lady - flowers are bright yellow. As the flower unfolds, the color becomes more intense.

Representatives of the same group are also varieties Lankaran, Phrygia and Butterfly.

Japanese irises combine Kempfer's iris varieties into their group.

Iris Kempfer (Iris kaempferi). Perennial with annual flowering and perennial shortened vegetative shoots, forming a rhizome.

Rhizome with short branches, forming a dense turf, in brown fibers. The roots are fibrous. The leaves are narrowly obvious, 50–70 cm long, 1–1.8 cm wide, pale green, reddish-purple at the base by the end of the growing season, with a pronounced midrib. Peduncle 70–80 cm high, rarely 120 cm. Flowers are large, dark purple-violet, without aroma. Blooms in the first half of summer.

It occurs naturally in the Primorsky Territory, on the Kuril Islands, in China and Japan. The disadvantage of this species is its weak winter hardiness. The plant requires winter shelter with spruce branches. Modern varieties are divided into four groups according to the size of the flower: small, medium, large and very large. By the shape of the flower, simple, double, double are distinguished. In stem height they are very short, short, medium and high. By flowering time - very early, early, medium-flowering, late and very late.

In the last decade, the Russian market has become widespread group of bulbous irises (Iris Hollandica), which is most often used for curbs, on alpine slides and as a forcing crop. This group includes the species Iris reticulata, on the basis of which the largest number of modern varieties have been created.

Iris net (Iris reticulate). Bulbous perennial. The bulb is elongated-ovate or elongated-spherical, 1.5 cm in diameter. The outer scales are dry, reticulate. The leaves are only basal (there are 2-4 of them), in section they are tetrahedral, narrow, at the bottom with a membranous sheath, like peduncles, lengthening by the time the seeds ripen. Peduncles are short, up to 7 cm high. Flowers are solitary, 5–6 cm in diameter, regular, six-membered, bright or pale red or purple, less often white.

Homeland - the south and east of Transcaucasia, northwest of Iran and northeast of Turkey. In Russia, this iris has been introduced into cultivation since 1865 by the Petersburg Botanical Garden. The appearance of these irises, some of the most attractive, is a graceful flower that hovers like a tropical butterfly above the ground. The two main disadvantages of this species are as follows: the plant does not tolerate waterlogging, and it also has a relatively weak winter hardiness.

The best soils for cultivation are light loams with low groundwater levels. To increase winter hardiness, plants are covered with spruce branches for the winter. The advantage is early spring flowering, which coincides with the flowering of most bulbous crops such as muscari, hyacinths, tulips and early onions. Here are the most famous and beautiful varieties of net iris:

Iris rosario - plant 45-50 cm high, pink flowers with a subtle purple tinge.

Iris Dynamic Duo - a plant with a height of 50–55 cm, is a mixture of three varieties Tall Dutch, Sky Wings, Discovery.

Mystic beauty - a plant with a height of 50–55 cm, a flower with dark blue standards, violet-blue fouls with a yellow center.

Bronze Beauty - a plant with a height of 50–55 cm, the color of the coloring is "toffee" (reddish-yellow).

Silver Beauty - a plant with a height of 50–55 cm, a flower with silvery-blue standards, creamy white fouls with a lemon-yellow center.

Oriental beauty - a plant with a height of 50–55 cm, a flower with lavender standards and golden yellow fouls.

Bearded irises

Bearded iris

The most common group is the bearded irises. For the cultivation of this culture, a sunny area with permeable soil (sandy loam, light loam) is chosen.

If the garden has heavy clay soils, then sand is added along with humus (up to 4 kg per m2) during planting. Plants are usually transplanted in spring or in the second half of summer (until mid-September), when the plants have faded. The optimum soil temperature for planting is from 10 to 20 degrees Celsius.

Read the next part. Features of growing irises in personal plots →

Elena Kuzmenko,
master gardener of the Peterhof State Museum-Reserve,
Palace of Peter I in Strelna
Photo by Andrey Terentyev

From personal experience

Honestly, I was lucky. My garden is located almost in the Ryazan region, so ours, of course, is warmer than in the north of the Moscow region or near St. Petersburg. Japanese irises are planted in the sun along the banks of a natural pond, where the earth is always saturated with moisture. During the spring flood, some of the plants even get into the flood zone, but, fortunately, this has not yet had any negative consequences.

Irises are planted in the sun along the banks of a natural pond. Variety 'Pin Stripe'

The soil on the site was initially acidic, and I only needed to adjust its composition in accordance with the needs of the plants. When planting, I definitely added rotted compost to each hole. My hana-shobu are part of the compositions, so I don't build dry shelters. In the fall, after trimming the leaves, I simply cover them with spruce branches to trap the snow. For six years I have not lost a single iris in winter.

Japanese irises as part of the composition

I feed it with "Kemira", at least twice a season I water it with a solution of "Humat 7+" containing trace elements, and in the summer I always mulch with cut grass. And the results please me.

Japanese iris 'Light at Dawn' is the first to bloom

My collection is still small, but it is growing every year. Some varieties bring pleasant surprises, while others are perplexing. For example, Light at dawn in some foreign sources it is characterized as very late, but in my garden it invariably blooms first.

Japanese iris 'Fortune' surprises with the size of flowers

Flower size Fortune should not, according to the data, exceed 14 cm, and my copy boasts 16 centimeters.

The graceful iris 'Darling' bloomed in the year of planting

An elegant and delicate variety Darling , belonging to the Aise type, bloomed immediately in the year of planting, grows well, and increases the number of peduncles with each season. And here is his brother Royal banner , whose flowers delight in rich purple color, gives out a single flower arrow from year to year.

Japanese irises 'Pin Stripe' (left) and 'Velvety Queen' (right)

Pin stripe consistently pleases with abundant flowering, and Sylvia's Masquerade on the contrary, he has never given a chance to admire the flowers.

Of course, my little experience does not allow me to draw serious and deep conclusions, but it still shows that khana shobu is far from the most complex and capricious culture in our gardens.

Japanese iris 'Kogesho'

Do you know that in some countries, surprisingly enough, khana shoba is called "Russian iris"? In my opinion, this is symbolic. An ancient oriental treatise says: "A journey of a thousand li begins with one step." Do not be afraid of small difficulties! Then at the end of June, when the nights are fleeting and full of magic, and the days seem endless, Japanese irises will also bloom in your garden.

How to grow irises

Before starting a story about the technology of growing irises, let's get acquainted with the most beautiful, in my opinion, varieties of these wonderful flowers:

Winners Sackle - the flowers of this variety are one-color, dark purple. There is a white speck under the blue beard. It blooms every year and is very abundant.

New Snow - flowers are large, fragrant, pure white with a yellow beard. This variety is late flowering.

Irish Dream - flowers are one-color, light yellow-lemon, beard is bright yellow. The color is very joyful and gentle at the same time.

May Hall - flowers are large, have a pleasant aroma, they are also monochromatic, only their color is pale pink, the height of the peduncles is average.

Merion Made - the variety has very large flowers that look great both in the garden and in a bouquet, light blue with a yellow beard and a faint purple tint.

Bearded irises are very fond of light, therefore, falling into a shaded place, they stop blooming. Based on this, the place for planting irises should be sunny.

Irises are dry-loving and winter-hardy. For them, there is nothing worse than waterlogging of the soil. Large-flowered and tall irises often have to be tied up, as the wind can easily break them.

Soils for iris should be light, not oversaturated with organic fertilizers, neutral. It is unacceptable that the soil contains fresh manure.

It is necessary to dig the soil to the depth of the shovel bayonet, then, per square meter, you need to add 8-10 kilograms of humus, as well as mineral fertilizers: 2 glasses of wood ash and 3 glasses of simple superphosphate. If the soil is acidic, add 1 cup of dolomite flour. All these fertilizers must be embedded in the soil to a depth of 10 - 12 centimeters and spilled with water. You can start planting no earlier than a week later.

Planting time is the second half of July, after the end of flowering.

It is best to divide the irises every three years. The division can be done in early spring. You need to take a sharp knife and divide a well-developed bush into several parts. Each part should have a well-developed rosette of leaves. If irises grow without replanting for 5-6 years, then they stop blooming, because the soil is compacted and depleted. At the same time, the overgrown roots intertwine, begin to press each other and prevent neighboring plants from growing normally.

The iris cut is called a "spatula". Before planting, they need to be disinfected in a solution of "Homa" (copper oxychloride) - 80 grams of the drug per 10 liters of water, for 30 minutes, which destroys all pathogens. After this treatment, the cut must be dried in the sun for 2 - 3 days. The sections should be sprinkled with crushed coal.

"Spatulas" of irises are planted superficially, shallowly, slightly obliquely, so that the bud is at the level of the soil surface. In this case, the upper part of the rhizome does not need to be sprinkled with earth.

When the planting is done, you need to water the plants. Watering is desirable during flowering. This must be done carefully so that water does not get on the flowers in the evening. It is also necessary to regularly loosen the soil and remove sleepy plants.

The most abundant and lush flowering of irises is observed in the 3rd year.

For the best growth, development and flowering of irises, they need to be fed 2-3 times with mineral fertilizers per season.

The first feeding should be carried out at the beginning of plant growth: 1 tablespoon of urea and 1 tablespoon of potassium sulfate should be diluted in 10 liters of water. 5 liters of this solution are consumed per 1 square meter.

The second feeding should be done at the very beginning of bud formation. For this top dressing, dilute 1 tablespoon of potassium sulfate and 1 tablespoon of Agricola for flowering plants in 10 liters of water. Before carrying out this top dressing, it is a good idea to add wood ash under the irises (1 glass per 1 square meter).

The third top dressing is usually carried out 10-15 days after flowering: Here we need to dilute 1 tablespoon of Agricola-7, nitrophoska and Effekton-DC organic fertilizer in 10 liters of water. This solution is consumed at the rate of 5 liters per square meter.

These dressings are carried out only in the first half of summer, on wet soil with loosening.

In the fall, with the onset of the first frost, the foliage of irises should be cut in half, as when planting. When yellow leaves appear, they need to be cut off. After the irises have faded, you need to break off the peduncles at the base. At the onset of the first frost, before winter, the planting of irises should be covered with a 10-centimeter layer of peat, which must be cleaned off.

To grow irises beautiful and healthy, you need to be able to protect them from diseases and pests.

One of the most dangerous diseases for irises is rhizome rot, which subsequently passes to the base of the leaves. In order to prevent complete damage to the plant, you need to dig it up, remove (cut out) all the diseased rhizomes, and place the cleaned healthy rhizomes for 30-40 minutes in a solution of the Hom preparation (80 grams per 10 liters of water), then hold the treated rhizomes in the sun for 10 - 12 hours, regularly turning, then plant again, in another prepared place.

The second disease, no less dangerous for irises, is heterosporosis. It manifests itself in the form of small brown spots appearing on the extreme leaves of plants in the second half of summer. If no action is taken, the leaves will turn completely brown and the plant will die. To prevent this, when the first signs of the disease appear, you need to cut off all affected leaves and be sure to burn them. To prevent this disease, it is necessary to spray irises with copper sulfate in July or early August (for 10 liters of water, 100 grams of the drug).

These plants are more resistant to pests than to diseases. For irises, the most dangerous gladiolus thrips. The harmful effect of thrips is manifested in the disappearance of the wax coating on the leaves, the plant looks depressed. The most effective way to control thrips on irises is to treat plants with the Komandor preparation (1 milliliter per 10 liters of water). The solution is consumed at the rate of 1 liter per 10 square meters.

For today this is all that I wanted to tell you about growing irises in the garden. See you, dear friends!

Types of irises (video)

Garden flowers are very attractive, the petals of which are painted in various shades of blue: from deep dark to azure. German iris has many such varieties.

The most popular of these is Baltic Sea: it has solid blue petals with a light groove. The "visiting card" of this variety is the strong corrugation of the petals along the edges. This is a large plant, the height of which reaches almost 1 m. Up to 9 buds are formed on one peduncle. Due to the high density of the Baltic Sea petals, its flowers can easily withstand bad weather: strong winds and rain.

Other varieties:

  1. Cosmic Dance - deep blue petals with purple undertones. The plant reaches a height of about 90 cm. Like the Baltic Sea, its petals are strongly corrugated.
  2. Abiqua falls it is distinguished by a solid blue color with a sapphire tint. Height - about 1 m. The variety is considered one of the best among the "heavenly" irises. In addition, it has other advantages: enviable disease resistance and rapid growth.
  3. Absolute Treasure - another "heavenly" view. But he, unlike Abiqua Falls, has an uneven color: a light spot flaunts on the lower petal with a gradient transition to blue. Golden grooves on flowers are pronounced. Absolute Treasure can be called a giant: its branching peduncles rise above the ground to a height of 107 cm.

Classification of beardless irises: groups and varieties

Now it is not a problem to buy beardless irises of different groups. And if you choose the right varieties, you can stretch the flowering from May to August.

Water-loving irises

This very promising group includes varieties and hybrids. marsh iris (Iris pseudacorus), iris bristly(Iris setosa), iris multicolored(Iris versicolor), iris smooth(Iris laevigata).

They have a relatively simple flower and not such a rich color range, but they are resistant, bloom early and bloom for a long time (some varieties are more than a month). These irises are valuable as coastal plants.

Iris marsh and iris smooth grow well when planted in a shallow part of the reservoir. The only difficulty is some varieties of marsh iris, for example, Roy davidson, were obtained with the participation of species of southern origin and require shelter for the winter.

Siberian irises

In contrast to the species iris Siberian varietals require a sunny location, and many American varieties also require a warmer, sheltered location. They are quite unpretentious, not susceptible to disease, varied in color and flower shape. By choosing iris varieties, you can achieve very long flowering - from late May to late July. Group of Sino-Siberian irises less stable in central Russia.

Louisiana irises

Most of the species in this group grow along the banks of the Mississippi, Louisiana. The selection is mainly carried out in the USA and Australia. As beautiful as they are unstable. They need a warm, sunniest place and shelter for the winter.

In our gardens, only a few forms of Louisiana irises with bright blue and pink colors grow, most of the other varieties lack warmth. Louisiana irises bloom in July.

Japanese irises

The group of Japanese irises comes from iris xiphoid (Iris ensata) growing in Japan and Primorye. Japanese breeders have developed a huge number of very beautiful varieties of Japanese irises in blue, pink and white. Unfortunately, many of them in our latitudes lack warmth, so they need to be planted in sunny areas and in no case in water.

Japanese irises hibernate well, but due to lack of heat they may not bloom and become weaker over the years. There are domestic varieties of Japanese irises that feel great in our conditions, but do not have a wide variety of colors.

The earliest Japanese irises bloom here in the first half of July.

Spuria irises

The group is named for the most common type - iris false (Iris spuria). This group includes a rather unpretentious, blooming at the end of May iris cereal (Iris graminea), in which flowers peep out of thin foliage. Most of the species of this group are of southern origin, and selection also takes place in areas with a warmer climate than ours.

These irises are drought-resistant, like alkaline soils, and require a warm, well-lit place. Very varied in color. Varietal plants bloom in July. There are few varieties that grow well and bloom in our conditions.

Irises: types, varieties, planting, care

Botanical genus Iris one of the largest in terms of the number of species represented - only in Russia there are about 60 of them. Irises grow in swamps, on the banks of water bodies, as well as in the steppes and deserts.

Different natural conditions provided the decorative variety of irises and the requirements for their cultivation.
All irises are perennials with fleshy rhizomes and xiphoid leaves. The flower consists of six leaves (lobes) of the perianth arranged in two tiers, sometimes their number may be greater. The outer perianth lobes are called the lower ones (falls, F - fall), the internal ones - the upper ones (standards, S - standart).
For non-professionals, a simplified classification applies:
Bearded - the group has a complex internal structure. On the outer lobes of flowers from the class of bearded irises, there is a special formation - a beard, which is a strip of brightly colored hairs. These irises are the most popular in the culture.
"Unbearded" - the group includes Siberian (SIB - Siberian), chrysographs (CHR - Chrysographes), Japanese (JA - Japanese), spuria (SPU - Spuria), Louisiana (LA - Louisiana), California (CA - Californian) and others (OT - Others) irises.
In the color of irises, you can find the entire rainbow palette, there are two- and three-color varieties. Many species have fragrant flowers: experts distinguish floral, fruity and even chocolate notes in them.

Iris xiphoid (or I. Kempfer) able to grow in any conditions, but on the banks it forms dense clumps and exists without digging for many decades. A popular plant for aquatic container culture.
Siberian iris due to the abundant flowering and decorative appearance of the bushes, it is actively used to create landscape gardens.
Dwarf iris up to 10 cm high - the ancestor of low-growing varieties of bearded irises.
A separate group is allocated irises-hygrophytes - species that grow in shallow water. The most popular are marsh iris, bristly iris, smooth iris, multicolored iris.
Iris marsh, or calamus grows up to 120 cm, blooms with bright yellow flowers, there is a variegated form and varieties with cream, pale yellow and white color.
Iris smooth, or in Japanese "kakitsubata", is even more water-loving than marsh iris. It is planted in a reservoir to a depth of 20-30 cm. Blue tones prevail in the color of the flowers.

Bulbous irises

At one time, significantly more plants were included in the iris genus, but over time, botanists brought them into separate genera.
However, both in our and in foreign literature, some are still presented as irises - iridodictiums, xyphia and juno... Unlike rhizome irises, these plants have bulbs.

Family: Iris

Brief information about the garden plant

  • Siberian iris
  • Iris yellow


Iris in Greek means "rainbow", this name is given for the unusual varied color of flowers.

Types and varieties of iris

The genus includes 250 plant species distributed in the temperate zone (steppes, meadows, semi-deserts, rocks). Numerous species and garden forms and varieties obtained by crossing have been introduced into the culture.

Natural species grown in the garden can be roughly divided into two groups: high (70-100 cm) and low (15-20) irises. More often, representatives of the first group are grown in the garden, these are:

Iris yellow, or iris calamus, or pseudoaron iris (Iris pseudacorus)

Forms loose, rapidly spreading bushes. Leaves are light green, broadly linear, above the peduncle. Flowering stems up to 16O cm tall, branched in the upper part. Flowers are yellow, with short inner perianth lobes, collected in bunches of 3-8. Blooms in June-July. Grows well in humid places and in shallow waters.

Popular varieties of iris airovidny:

'Umkirch'- flowers are pale, yellow-pink

'Sun cascade'- yellow flowers, double

'Roy davidson'- flowers are yellow, with a brownish pattern, shiny beautiful foliage.

Iris Kempfer, or xiphoid iris (Iris kaempferi, Iris ensata)

A perennial plant with a short rhizome forming a dense turf. Leaves are xiphoid, up to 50-90 cm long. Peduncle 70-80 cm tall, with 2-3 flowers. The flowers are large (up to 15–20 cm in diameter), without aroma, dark purple-violet, bloom in June – July. It is the ancestor of an extensive group of hybrid "Japanese irises", distinguished by the larger sizes of plants and flowers, as well as their varied colors.

In dry weather, xiphoid iris requires regular watering. Prefers slightly acidic soils, does not tolerate lime. In the conditions of Central Russia, it needs shelter for the winter.

The most resistant to low temperatures varieties of xiphoid iris:

Domestic: 'Altai', 'Dersu Uzala', 'Vasily Alferov', 'Six-eye' (originator G. Rodionenko) 'Polenitsa', 'Dobrynya', 'The Phantom of Happiness', 'Vivat Rodionenko', 'Bow to Eremenko', 'In Memory of the Archer' (Z. Dolganova).

Foreign: 'Nawzi-kaa', 'Ouodo', 'Doppeldeker'.

Siberian Iris (Iris sibirica)

A plant with a thin branched rhizome, forms dense tussocks. Leaves are linear, narrow, up to 80 cm high, peduncle up to 100 cm high, flowers are violet-blue, light purple, less often white, arranged in 2-5. Blooms in June. Prefers rich, well-hydrated, slightly acidic soils. Quite often, Siberian irises mean not only Siberian irises, but also other species common in nature in the Far East and Siberia, in Northern China and Mongolia, as well as varieties and garden forms obtained from them, of which there are more than 500.

Popular varieties of Siberian iris:

'Harpswell snow', 'Gold frosty morning'- white flowers

'Lady lilac'- lavender pink

'Butter And Cream', 'Hello yellow'- creamy yellow

'Jiggles', 'Sea of ​​dreams'- blue

'Strawberry Faif ' - raspberry

'Magnum bordeaux', 'Spindazzle', Three hand star'- dark blue and purple.

From the second group of irises are grown: leafless iris (Iris aphylla) with large bright purple flowers dwarf iris (Iris pumila) with yellow or purple flowers, iris smooth (Iris laevigata) and iris multi-colored (Iris versicolor).

But most often in gardens you can find:

Iris hybrid, or bearded iris (Iris hybrid, Iris barabata)

The genus unites more than 30,000 varieties obtained as a result of complex crossing of German iris with other species of the genus. A common feature of all representatives of the species is the presence of scattered or collected in a longitudinal strip (beard) of hairs on the outer lobes of the perianth. Plants are distinguished by an exceptional variety of flower colors, varying in height from 30 to 100 cm and more.They need fairly fertile, light or medium-textured neutral soils. On soils rich in organic matter, plants develop a powerful vegetative mass to the detriment of flowering.

International classification of bearded iris varieties:

Today, the classification of iris varieties developed by American Iris Society, which is generally accepted. The classification is based on the height of the peduncle, the size and number of flowers, the flowering period of the variety are taken into account. According to this classification, 6 garden groups or classes of garden bearded irises are distinguished:

Groups of low-growing varieties of irises:

Miniature dwarf irises (Miniature dwarf beardedMDB) - the height of the peduncle is less than 25 cm, on the peduncle 1 - 2 flowers, the earliest flowering

Standard dwarf irises (Standard dwarf beardedSDB) - the height of the peduncle is 25 - 37 cm, on the peduncle there are 2 - 3 flowers

Iris cultivar Certainly, SDB class. The flower is bright purple with a light lilac border and a cherry-black spot under a dark lavender beard. Corrugated petals.

Groups of medium-sized varieties of irises:

Interlude (Intermediate BeardedIB) - peduncle height 37 - 70 cm, flower diameter 7.5 - 12.5 cm, the earliest among medium-sized

Miniature medium-sized, or "Canteens" irises - (Miniature tall bearded - MTB) - peduncle height 37 - 70 cm, flower diameter 5 - 7.5 cm

Border, or Curb irises — (Border BeardedBB) - peduncle height 37 - 70 cm, flower diameter 7.5 - 12.5 cm, the latest among medium-sized

Group of tall varieties of irises:

High, or Standard tall irises (Standard tall bearded - TB, or STB) - the height of the peduncle is more than 70 cm, the size of the flower and the flowering period are not limited.

According to the peculiarities of the color of the flower, among the varieties of bearded irises are distinguished:

Monochromatic (Selfs) - all perianth lobes are colored the same, without borders and spots

Two-tone (Bitones) - upper and lower lobes of different tones of the same color

Bicolor (Bicolors) - upper and lower lobes of different colors

Bordered, or Plikaty (Plicatas) - on the lower or all perianth lobes, a clear border of a contrasting color

Iridescent (Blands) - there are several colors and shades in the coloring, smoothly passing one into another).

In recent years, a group of iris varieties with "Motley" or "splattered" color (Splash) in which, against the background of the main color of the perianth lobes, there are numerous spots and smears of irregular shape.

The edges of the perianth lobes can be smooth, wavy, corrugated to one degree or another, and laced - covered with a mass of small blistery swellings that create the effect of lace.

In the description of the variety after its name, as a rule, additional registration information (author, country of breeding, year of registration) and flowering period are also indicated (RR - very early, R - early, S - medium, P - late, OP - very late). The division of varieties by flowering time is carried out within the garden groups.

Popular varieties of bearded iris:

Miniature dwarf bearded irises (MDB): 'Alpine lake'(flowers are white with blue), ‘Robin's Egg ' (blue flowers), 'Snowy river’(Blue flowers)

Standard dwarf bearded irises (SDB):

'Bright Button'(two-tone, bordered, pink-purple flowers),'Black Cherry Delight ' (flowers are white, outside - white with a large fuchsia-purple spot), 'Eye Shadow' (flowers are light purple-red), 'Eyebright ' (flowers are bright yellow with brown veins), 'Gemstar'(flowers are deep purple-blue with white specks), 'Hazel's Pink' (pink flowers), 'Hottentot'(dark blue-violet flowers), 'Michael Paul' (deep purple flowers), 'Minidragon'(flowers are purple-black),'Wink ' (white flowers with blue spots)

Interlude (IB): 'Blue Eyed Blond ' (flowers are bright yellow), 'Butterpat'(flowers are white-yellow),'Pixie Skiers' (blue flowers), 'Solo ' (flowers are light yellow), 'Voila ' (purple flowers)

Miniature medium-sized ("table") bearded irises (MTB): 'Payoff ' (the flowers are white, the outer ones are purple)

Border (border) bearded irises (BB): 'Batic'(blue flowers with numerous white)

Tall varieties of irises: 'Aphrodisiac' (apricot-pink flowers), 'Avalon sunset'(orange flowers),'Before the storm'(flowers are purple-black),'Black tie affair'(flowers are purple-black),'Chalk talk'(flowers are white with a blue tint),'Elegant Impressions' (flowers are light creamy yellow), 'Heavenly Rapture'(flowers are white, corrugated, beard is orange-red),'Lecoq'(lilac-blue flowers) 'New Snow' (flowers are white, slightly corrugated, beard white-yellow), 'Stepping out'(white flowers with a purple border),'Unforgettable Fire'(flowers are brown-red),'War Sails' (flowers are brown-red), 'Zany ' (white flowers with a blue-violet border).

Iris care

All irises need a sunny location, but when choosing a planting site, their different attitude to water should be taken into account: yellow iris, Kempfer's iris are planted on constantly moist soils Siberian iris grows well with normal moisture, other species and varieties of bearded iris prefer well-drained soils.

Reproduction of iris

It reproduces well by dividing rhizomes (end of July – August). For vegetative propagation of irises take 3-5-year-old bushes.

Bearded irises are best divided in the first 3-4 weeks after flowering. Pieces of rhizomes with 2-3 growth buds are planted to a depth of 3-5 cm, so that part of the rhizome rises above the soil surface. Species irises are divided and transplanted in early spring.

Use in garden design

The variety of species and varieties of bearded iris used in culture makes this crop one of the most popular. Moisture-loving species such as iris yellow are indispensable for decorating the coastline of a large reservoir. Dry-loving and undersized varieties of bearded iris can be grown in rockeries. But most often, medium-sized and low-growing species and varieties of irises are used in mixborders, in a mixed planting, large plants in a solitary planting. Partner plants are selected depending on the ecological requirements of the species and its height. For example, bearded iris can be combined with peonies, heuchera, goldenrod and even lavender.

Watch the video: Classify Iris Species Using Python u0026 Logistic Regression