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The practice of growing white cabbage

The practice of growing white cabbage


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Read the previous part. ← Varieties and hybrids of white cabbage

A few practical tips for white cabbage farming techniques

Theoretically, white cabbage can be planted directly into the ground as seeds. But almost everyone grows it through seedlings.

To obtain early cabbage, seeds are usually sown in the third decade of March. But you must evaluate your capabilities with providing this culture with its seedling requirements. We are usually in no hurry to plant early cabbage seedlings. All the same, businessmen will bring early cabbage from Turkey, it is much more profitable than fighting our unpredictable climate.

In addition, those gardeners who do not like "Turkish" varieties in the bazaar can sow in their garden without any problems Chinese cabbage Russian variety Vesnyanka. It will be ready 20 days after germination, is not afraid of keel, frost, and early sowing is not affected by midges. I'm not even saying that it makes a great salad, excellent cabbage soup, and you can ferment it.


We begin to grow all cabbage for seedlings in April - numbers 1-10, if there is global warming, it is possible earlier, make an allowance for the various tips of the lunar, martian and other calendars. Seriously though, the timing looks like this. When sowing seeds to a depth of 1 cm, seedlings appear on the 3-4th day at a temperature of 18-20C. 7-10 days after germination, the first true leaf appears.

The question always arises: dive seedlings or do without picking. The root system of cabbage develops quickly, already with the formation of the first true leaf there are roots of the second order. Therefore, the older the seedlings, the more roots are cut off during the pick. The regenerative capacity of the roots of cabbage at a young age is high. In dived seedlings, the roots are more compact, in seedlings without diving, they are located deeper and are more damaged during harvesting.

Conclusion: it is better to dive at the beginning of the formation of the first leaf. We grow Dutch hybrids without picking, usually they already give a well-developed root system. Domestic seeds require some preparation. They should be sized to be at least 1.3 mm. Treat in "Maxim" or potassium permanganate solution, warm in water for 15-20 minutes. at a temperature of 500C, then cool in water at room temperature, dry. This is especially necessary for those varieties that are unstable to fusarium, one of the pathogens "black legs".

The compositions of mixtures for growing seedlings should be non-acidic, loose. Dung humus, composts and other organic carriers of natural fertility create a high salinity, which inhibits seed germination and inhibits the growth of seedlings, increases the risk of introducing pathogens of fungal and bacterial diseases into the nursery. In the early stages of development, plants are especially susceptible to infection and, if pathogens are present in the soil, they can die both at the stage of seed germination and after germination, so it is better not to risk it. This applies not only to cabbage seeds.

Today you can buy the most common (where more peat) "Garden soil" (2 hours) and mix it with sand (1 hour) without clay, adding 1/4 cup of dolomite flour and a teaspoon of full complex mineral fertilizers... Remember that seedlings die not from lack of nutrition, but from their excess. If the temperature in the nursery is 140C during the day and 80C at night, with good illumination, then there will be no problems.

Seedlings ready for planting have 5-7 leaves (it takes 6-8 days for one leaf to develop). It is necessary to feed the seedlings, if necessary, with a 0.2% solution of complete mineral fertilizers. You can combine top dressing with watering. In the case of stretching the hypocotal knee, make powders. Usually, plastic bags serve as containers for growing seedlings, which we fill with a mixture and drop in a greenhouse bed.

If you have grown seedlings, then after hardening they can be planted in the garden. There are issues of soil preparation, fertilizers and other inconveniences. Many people complain that cabbage is sick with keel on the site. But not everyone knows that if the soil pH is above 7.1, then the cabbage keel does not develop. Note that we are talking about mineral soils, not peatlands. The soil for plants is their habitat. Soil fertility is an integral concept.

One of the characteristics of this environment is acidity, it is caused by the presence of hydrogen and aluminum ions in the soil. There are the following types of acidity: actual (or active) and potential (latent). The latter is subdivided into exchange and hydrolytic. The actual acidity is determined by the concentration in the aqueous extract of hydrogen ions formed as a result of the dissociation of weak mineral and organic acids, as well as their hydrolytically acidic salts. It is measured in pH.

The gardener does not always have a desire to understand in depth the intricacies of soil science, to study granulometric composition of soil vegetable garden, determine the content of humus, types of acidity, mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium. Usually, such a study ends with the purchase of several tons of dubious organic matter at a "fair price". You can understand our summer resident. The weather we have now and that in the circus works, and we do not live in the black earth zone, but we have to do something.

In order to preserve and increase soil fertility, restore its structural state, improve physical properties, there is only one recipe - introduce crop rotations with mandatory use green manure... The soil is enriched with humus due to the plowed overground part and dead root systems of green manure plants. Peas are used in their capacity, lupine, beans, beans, which provide the soil not only with organic matter, but also with biological nitrogen.

To only maintain the fertility of the soil, it is necessary to make good manure in doses from 100 to 400 kg per hundred square meters at least once every two years. Now, even in rural areas, good manure cannot be found, and even more so on the Karelian Isthmus. I advise you to switch to siderates. We have been preparing a bed for cabbage in the fall, after release from ground cucumbers... Three days before sowing lupine (we sow it thickened) after cucumbers, add dolomite flour 2 kg per 10 m2 during digging. After a month and a half, when the lupine greens cover the garden with a green carpet, we dig it up, adding 20-30 g of urea and 60 g of superphosphate per 1 m2.

When organic matter decays, carbon dioxide... Together with water, it forms carbonic acid, which dissolves calcium and magnesium compounds, they are gradually washed out of the upper soil layer into deeper layers, and the soil becomes acidic. That is why, when introducing organic matter, including green manure, dolomite flour is needed. Some mineral fertilizers can also acidify the soil. Increasing soil fertility is a long-term process, there are no miracles and miracle fertilizers, even at a "fair" price.

In the spring, we fill the bed with mineral fertilizers - N70P90K105, (the norms are given in grams of active ingredient per 10 m2). Before planting a seedling plant, we make a hole for it 30x30x30 cm, pour half a bucket of water into it, first add a teaspoon of ammophoska and a glass of ash to the hole. We make a chatterbox in the hole from the removed soil and fertilizers. We place a plastic bag with seedlings in it, after making several cuts in the film. On top we mulch with dry earth and peat. While the plant takes root, it usually has enough moisture.

We begin feeding during the period of formation of rosette leaves. For the subcortex, we use potassium nitrate (30 g per bucket, one liter per plant, sometimes more). For varieties of different early maturity, soil types, the feeding rates and their amount may differ. It is better to place plants in this way: early - 40 cm, mid-ripening - 50 cm, late-ripening - 60 cm, the distance between rows for all 65 cm.You will say - this is all about white cabbage, but they say that cauliflower grows well together with beans cabbage, but that's a completely different story.

Vladimir Stepanov,
Doctor of Biological Sciences,
head of the farm "Elita"


Early ripe white cabbage

The best time for sowing early ripe cabbage is early March. When 4-5 leaves appear, young seedlings are transplanted into the ground under the open sky. If you plant seeds directly into the ground, then the best time for this is from the last days of April to mid-May. Such varieties mature within 55-100 days. This period may vary, depending on the type of cabbage itself. There are vegetable crops that ripen in two months.

Its yield is small, on average 150-500 centners / ha. Sometimes it reaches 700 c / ha, but not more. Selective harvesting of already ripe cabbage occurs in the middle of summer. Early varieties have medium-sized rosettes with 10-15 leaves, loose forks. But their advantage is rapid growth. Early cabbages can crack and bloom.

Early maturing varieties are not used for long storage and fermentation.

June

The most popular early ripening variety. The head of this species is denser than that of other early cultures. June cabbage grows well even in a tight environment, but it requires a lot of light. Any darkening leads to growth arrest.

It is a cold-resistant variety that can withstand light frosts down to -5 ° C, which makes it possible to plant cabbage in early spring. However, it does not tolerate excess moisture.

Another advantage is that it is grown throughout Russia. Medium resistant to such pests as cabbage fly, cruciferous flea. This vegetable crop, like all early ones, is used only fresh or in hot dishes in the summer. It is not suitable for storage at all.

Kazachok

This variety is an early ripening hybrid, for which it is appreciated by gardeners and summer residents. Compared to June, his forks are twice as dense. The Cossack is grown by seedling or by sowing seeds directly into the soil. It is preferable to plant in not too hot sunny areas, avoiding a lack of moisture and cold northerly winds.

Landings can infect insects. The Cossack is susceptible to diseases such as keela, bacteriosis, powdery mildew - they can destroy the entire crop in just a few days. A layer of mulch when planting young shoots is a good prevention. To combat powdery mildew, a solution of potassium permanganate will be an excellent measure.

The variety is resistant to low temperatures below zero. The disadvantages include poor resistance to head cracking. Cabbage leaves are very tender, so they are more suitable for fresh cooking.

Farmers are aware that vegetable heads can burst as they form. The reason is an excess of moisture. Reducing watering 2-3 weeks before harvest can prevent this unpleasant moment.


The best cabbage varieties for Siberia

At the moment, in the world selection, there are a huge variety of varieties and varieties of cabbage, but in Siberia, the proven varieties Nadezhda and Blizzard have shown themselves well for many years. It is these crops that give good yields, their heads do not crack and reach a mass of up to 8-10 kilograms.

The best early ripe cabbage varieties for Siberia:

  • Hope,
  • Polar K-206,
  • Winter storm,
  • Zarya F1,
  • Dumas F1.

They perfectly withstand the harsh conditions of the local climate and produce high yields. In terms of parameters, the fruits are the same, medium in size. Up to 5-7 heads can be assembled from one square meter.

Among the mid-season, the best varieties of white cabbage for Siberia:

  • Present,
  • Siberian,
  • Glory-1305,
  • Belarus,
  • Anniversary F1.

They are most often grown in garden beds of summer cottages.

Late cabbage is grown less frequently in this region. The purpose of planting it is planning for longer fresh storage. Among the popular varieties, one can especially highlight:

  • Winter Gribovskaya,
  • Amager,
  • Dobrovodskaya,
  • Amtrak F1.


The practice of growing white cabbage - garden and vegetable garden


Cabbage for many years now, but what about years, from the past centuries it has withstood the competition and in many respects takes the first place. Cabbage on our table both on weekdays and on holidays. And there is one more important purpose for cabbage. Even the ancient Roman commander and writer Mark Cato said: - "If before that you had some kind of illness inside, cabbage will cure everything, drive the pain out of your head and eyes and heal you." In terms of consumption, cabbage ranks second after potatoes.

A head of cabbage is a storehouse of vitamins and other substances vital for humans. There is a complete set of them, and there is as much vitamin C as in such delicious overseas fruits as oranges and lemons. Eat two hundred grams of raw cabbage and you will get a full daily intake of vitamin C. Cabbage preserves the vitamin set in a processed form. Regularly consuming it fresh, stewed, fermented, canned, a person constantly improves his body. Since ancient times, our people have used cabbage in the treatment of stomach, liver and other diseases. The most common and, according to knowledgeable people, the most valuable is White cabbage ... Its agricultural technology is not easy. You need to know a lot and work hard to get a good harvest.

White cabbage - a cold-resistant plant, its seeds germinate at a temperature of +5 .. + 6 ° С. In seedlings, it tolerates frosts up to -7 * C. It is subdivided into early ripening (ripening in 90 - 120 days after transplanting), mid-ripening (120-150 days) and late ripening. Of the early ripening varieties, Number One, Gribovskaya 147, Skorospelka 3, Hybrid early 18. Mid-ripening: Slava 1305, Loshitskaya 96 Mid-late-ripening - Belorusskaya 85 fermentation. Many people prefer Slava, the weight of the head of this variety reaches 5 - 6 kilograms, the leaves are white and juicy. Fermented Glory stands until the new harvest. Those who love fresh cabbage give the palm to the Podarok and Amager varieties, as their heads of cabbage remain absolutely fresh for a long time.

Cabbage, if only where it does not grow. She needs fertile soil. Feels good on low-lying chernozem, floodplain lands. Consumes a lot of nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium. To tie a head of cabbage, you need a lot of nitrogen. But even a sufficient rate of one nitrogen does not make all the weather. With the growth of the head of cabbage, the need for phosphorus and potassium increases. Calcium also helps kale gain weight. In addition, it regulates the acidity of the soil, the optimal level of which for cabbage is in the range of 5.0-5.5.

Good precursors for cabbage are potatoes, tomatoes, peas, other legumes, cucumbers, beets, clover and perennial herbs. It is not recommended to grow it after swede, radish, radish, turnip.

The soil under cabbage cooked in the fall. Plant residues of the previous crop (but not perennial grasses) are removed, organic fertilizers are applied (5 - 7 kg per 1 sq. M). The plot is dug to the full depth of the arable layer. In the spring, mineral fertilizers are applied: 30-40 g of ammonium nitrate, 40-50 g of simple superphosphate, 30-40 g of potassium chloride per 1 sq. m. Calcium (the best option is ash) is introduced depending on the level of soil acidity. At a neutral level, liming gives negative results.

Seedling cabbage grown in nutrient cubes or small containers with a peat mixture. Transplanting into the ground should be very careful so that the root system is not damaged.Make sure that the planted plants have 5 to 6 true leaves.

Seedlings should be planted in holes of such a size that they can easily contain nutrient cubes, and with "free" growing of seedlings, so that the roots of the plants do not bend. After planting, the seedlings are watered without compacting the soil. Then, when the water is absorbed, mulch. Mulching or shallow loosening is carried out after each watering. You need to plant cabbage seedlings in cloudy weather or in the evening. The grown seedlings must be sprinkled (sprinkle the stem with soil to the lower leaves). In the future, hilling is carried out another 2 - 3 times.

Have cabbage there are many pests: white butterfly, whose caterpillars eat leaves, cabbage moth, cabbage scoop, cabbage aphid, cabbage flies, rape sawfly, cruciferous fleas.

IN cauliflower there are more vitamins and other nutrients than white cabbage. It is better absorbed by the human body. Ripens in 60-80 days after planting seedlings in the ground. It tolerates frosts down to -2 .. -3 ° C in spring and up to -3. -4 ° С in autumn. Agricultural technology is the same as that of white cabbage. Seedlings are planted at the age of 3-4 leaves.

Cauliflower it is recommended to plant at different times, the first - April 20 - 25, the next - in the interval of 15 days, until the middle or even until the end of July. For such planting dates, cauliflower will be on your menu from mid-June to November.

Red cabbage differs from the white one both in color (the leaves are not bluish-purple) and in the whisker. In the special literature, there is even a statement that red cabbage is intended for salads and is not suitable for arches. We tried to cook lazy cabbage and from this cabbage - the taste is excellent. It is another matter that red cabbage is poorly distributed in our country. Although the agricultural technology of its cultivation is the same as that of white cabbage and color.


Planting cabbage seedlings

Before transplanting, the seedlings are sorted, rejecting sick and weak specimens. When planting, plants are buried to the first true leaves, carefully pressing the soil around them. It is best to plant in cloudy weather or in the evening, this will help the plants take root easier and faster. For the same purpose, the seedlings are shaded from the sun for the first week and sprayed from a watering can once a day.

The technology of growing white cabbage implies different terms for planting seedlings of various varieties. So, it is recommended to transfer the early one into open ground from April 30 to May 10 with an interval between plants of about 25 cm, and between sowing - 45 cm. Mid-ripening in mid-May with a distance of 50x50, and late from May 30 to June 5-10 with even greater gaps between plants (60x60 cm).


Watch the video: Cabbage seed production and other cultivation practices


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