Savoy cabbage: growing seedlings, planting and care in the open field, photo
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Savoy cabbage - a vegetable crop, one of the subspecies of garden cabbage. It belongs to the sabuada cultivar group. Savoy cabbage is native to North Africa and the western Mediterranean. The culture received its name in honor of the Italian county of Savoy, in which it has been cultivated for a long time. In our country, savoy cabbage did not become widespread due to the erroneous assumption that it is capricious, but in Europe, Central and East Asia, this subspecies is widely cultivated.
Planting and caring for savoy cabbage
- Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings - in early or mid-March, planting seedlings in the ground - in late April or early May.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: sandy loam, loamy and light loamy, with a pH of 6.5-7.0.
- Watering: the first time - in a day or two with a consumption of 8 l of water for each m², after rooting of seedlings - once a week with a consumption of up to 13 l of water per m².
- Top dressing: a week after planting the seedlings - with a mullein solution (1:10) or a liquid mineral complex: for 10 liters of water - 15 g of urea, 40 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium sulfate. During the formation of heads of cabbage - a solution of a mineral complex with a double dose of potassium and phosphorus fertilizers.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: It is affected by cruciferous and black flea beetles, nutcrackers, scoops, sprout flies, bedbugs, hidden proboscis, bear, whiteworm, moth, cabbage fly and slugs.
- Diseases: black leg, black ring spot, tracheomycosis, phomosis (or dry rot), vascular bacteriosis, downy mildew, keela, leucorrhoea, alternaria and mosaic.
Read more about growing Savoy cabbage below.
Savoy cabbage - description
What is savoy cabbage? How to distinguish savoy cabbage from other varieties of garden cabbage? Like white cabbage, it forms large heads of cabbage, but not as large and looser, and the corrugated dark green leaves of savoy cabbage are much thinner. That, in fact, is all that externally differs from Savoy cabbage from white cabbage. Savoy cabbage is hardy. Its immediate relatives are turnip, rutabaga, radish, radish and mustard, as well as all other types of cabbage.
We will tell you how and when to sow Savoy cabbage for seedlings, how Savoy cabbage grows in the open field, what varieties of Savoy cabbage exist, what are the benefits of Savoy cabbage and what contraindications it has.
Growing savoy cabbage from seeds
When to sow savoy cabbage for seedlings
If you want Savoy cabbage in early July, buy early varieties and sow them in early or mid-March. Late varieties are sown for seedlings in mid-April.
Before sowing, the seeds must be processed: place them in water at a temperature of 50 ºC for a quarter of an hour, then immerse them in ice water for a minute, then put them in a solution of trace elements for 12 hours, rinse with clean water, keep them in the refrigerator for a day, remove and dry so that the seeds do not stick to your hands.
Growing Savoy cabbage seedlings
Seeds of savoy cabbage are sown in a soil mixture spilled with a strong solution of potassium permanganate, consisting in equal parts of turf, sand and peat. In a wet substrate, shallow grooves are made with an interval of 3 cm from one another, seeds are sown in them in 1 cm increments, carefully planted to a depth of 1 cm, cover the crops with glass and keep them at a temperature of 18 ºC, spraying the substrate with water as needed. The sprouts may appear in as little as five days or in a week. As soon as shoots appear, remove the cover and transfer crops to a bright place where the temperature is not higher than 8 ºC.
Savoy cabbage pick
In the phase of development of cotyledon leaves or the first true leaf, the seedlings dive into individual pots. Before picking, the seedlings are well watered to facilitate the extraction of seedlings from the soil, and during transplantation, their roots are shortened by a third of the length.
The transplanted plants are watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Savoy cabbage seedlings need to be protected from direct sunlight for a few days after picking. For the first three days, the temperature of the seedlings should be 17-18 ºC, and when the seedlings take root, it is lowered to 13-14 ºC during the day and 10-12 ºC at night. As the soil dries up, it is moistened with water at room temperature, and when the first pair of true leaves develops, the seedlings are fertilized with a solution of a teaspoon of complex fertilizer and a tablet containing microelements in 2 liters of water.
Planting Savoy cabbage outdoors
When to plant savoy cabbage
Planting Savoy cabbage in open ground is done when the seedlings already have 2-3 pairs of true leaves. Two weeks before planting, foliar feeding of seedlings is carried out by spraying them with a solution of a tablespoon of urea and the same amount of potassium sulfate in 10 liters of water, after which the seedlings begin to be hardened, daily taking the seedlings to a balcony or terrace for a while, where the air temperature is not lower than 5 ºC, and gradually increasing the duration of stay in temperature conditions close to the garden.
But keep in mind that the seedlings are afraid of drafts. When the seedlings can spend the whole day in the fresh air, you can start transplanting them to the garden bed.
Soil for Savoy cabbage
How does Savoy cabbage grow? What conditions does she need for normal growth and development? Savoy cabbage beds are best placed on the southern or southeastern slopes, as they require warmth and bright light. The Savoy cabbage site needs to be changed annually. Sandy, clayey and acidic soils are not suitable for the culture - the optimum soil acidity is pH 6.5-7.0. Savoy cabbage grows well on light loamy, loamy and sandy loam soils.
The best predecessors for Savoy cabbage are onions, beets, tomatoes, beans, potatoes, cucumbers and perennial herbs, while the worst are all varieties of cabbage, radishes, radishes, turnips, rutabagas and watercress. After crucifers, Savoy cabbage can only be planted after 4-5 years.
How to plant savoy cabbage
How to plant Savoy cabbage outdoors? Planting is preceded by the obligatory preparation of the site since the fall. The soil on the bed is deeply dug, they wait for the weeds to sprout, remove them, after which they carry out uniform liming and dig up the area again. In the spring, 3-4 kg of rotted manure or compost, 30-40 g of complex mineral fertilizer or 100-200 g of wood ash are applied for each m², and the soil is again dug to a depth of 20 cm.
How to plant savoy cabbage? Water the seedlings liberally 2 hours before planting to make them easier to remove from the pots. When planting, the seedlings are buried in cotyledonous leaves. The distance between early-maturing seedlings in a row should be from 35 to 40 cm with a row spacing of 40-45 cm, mid-season varieties are planted according to the 50x50 scheme, and late varieties - according to the 60x60 cm scheme. After planting, water the cabbage. The first time, while the seedlings are accepted, shade them from sunlight. If there is a threat of night frost, cover the Savoy cabbage with foil until the danger is over.
How to grow savoy cabbage
Savoy cabbage care
Growing Savoy cabbage follows the same rules as growing any other variety of garden cabbage. Savoy cabbage in the open field needs watering, loosening, hilling and weeding, as well as feeding and protection from diseases and pests. Immediately after planting the seedlings on the bed, the first loosening of the soil is carried out to a depth of 5-7 cm with the simultaneous removal of weeds. The next loosening is carried out already to a depth of 12-15 cm, dry and light soils are loosened not so deeply, and on more wet and heavy soils, deep loosening is carried out. Try to loosen the soil in the area every week.
3-4 weeks after planting, all varieties of Savoy cabbage are spudded, and late-ripening varieties are spilled twice per season - the second time before the foliage closes.
Watering savoy cabbage
Savoy cabbage growing and caring is impossible without a planned irrigation regime. The first time after planting, the seedlings are watered every other day or two, consuming 8 liters of water per m², then the number of irrigations is reduced to once a week, but the water consumption increases to 13 liters per m² of plot. The greatest need for early varieties in moisture is felt in May, in late varieties it is stronger from mid-July to mid-August.
The weather can amend the irrigation schedule: if the summer is with frequent precipitation, you will have to water the Savoy cabbage less often, but in dry weather you need to carefully monitor the condition of its leaves in order to save the plant from thirst in time.
Feeding Savoy cabbage
As soon as the seedlings, after planting in the ground, adapt and grow, feed it with a mullein solution at the rate of 1 part of fertilizer per 10 parts of water or a complex of mineral fertilizers - 15 g of urea, 15 g of potassium fertilizer and 40 g of superphosphate dissolved in 10 liters of water. When the heads of cabbage begin to curl at the Savoy cabbage, it is again fed with mineral fertilizers, increasing the norm of superphosphate and potassium sulfate by one and a half times.
Savoy cabbage processing
As a preventive treatment against pests, in particular from a cruciferous flea, dusting of plants in the garden with wood ash is carried out, spending a glass of the product per 1 m². Prevention against fungal diseases is the treatment of the substrate in which the seedlings grow with a strong solution of potassium permanganate.
Savoy cabbage pests and diseases
Savoy cabbage diseases
Diseases in savoy cabbage and other cruciferous species are common. Most often, the culture has problems due to black leg, black ring spot, tracheomycosis, phomosis (or dry rot), vascular bacteriosis, downy mildew, keela, leucorrhoea, alternaria and mosaic.
Alternaria - a fungal disease, manifested on the leaves of cabbage with small brown necrotic spots.
Belle affects not only cabbage, but also horseradish, radish and other plants, which after a disease with linen look as if they had been poured with white oil paint. The development of the disease leads to browning and drying of the affected tissues.
Keela manifests itself as fusiform and spherical growths on the roots of cabbage, eventually becoming brown and decaying. Affected specimens lag behind in development and wither.
Downy mildew looks like yellowish spots on cabbage leaves, while a whitish bloom forms on the underside. On the lower leaves, the spots have a reddish-yellow tint.
The mosaic is manifested by the following symptoms: a pattern appears on young leaves that pulls them together so that the veins bend, from which the leaves are deformed. Then a dark green border appears on the leaves, and the tissue between the veins becomes covered with light necrotic spots.
Vascular bacteriosis first, it disfigures the edges of the leaves of Savoy cabbage: they acquire yellowness, become parchment to the touch, their veins turn black. Young plants die, more mature ones develop unevenly.
Fomoz affects the cotyledon leaves of seedlings, their roots and stems - pale spots with black dots appear on them. On the leaves and stumps of mature cabbage, brownish spots with a dark border appear, the lower leaves turn blue or turn purple. Plants stop developing, their tissues are destroyed, dry rot forms on them.
Tracheomycosis or fusarium wilting, colors cabbage leaves in a yellow-green hue, they become lethargic, develop unevenly, deform and fall off.
Black ring spot manifests itself in numerous stripes and spots on the cabbage leaves between the veins. Over time, light green spots appear, turning into necrotic rings of black-brown color, as if pressed into the leaf tissue.
Blackleg - cabbage disease at the seedling stage. From it, the tissue of the root collar softens and blackens, the stem becomes thinner and lays down.
Control measures. To avoid the defeat of the Savoy cabbage with diseases, it is imperative to process the seed material, observe agricultural practices, fight weeds, remove plant residues after harvesting, dig deeply into the area and change the location of the Savoy cabbage in the garden every year.
If, despite your efforts, the disease nevertheless penetrated the site, keep in mind that mosaic and black spot are incurable, like any viral diseases, so immediately remove the diseased specimens from the garden and burn, and the soil in which they grew, spill with a strong solution of potassium permanganate. As for fungal diseases, cabbage is treated with fungicides against them - Fundazol, Fitosporin, Bordeaux mixture, copper sulfate, colloidal sulfur and other drugs of a similar effect.
Savoy cabbage pests
Just like diseases, pests in savoy cabbage and other cruciferous crops are the same. Among them, most often you have to deal with cruciferous and black fleas, clickers, scoops, sprout flies, bedbugs, secretive proboscis, bear, whitewash, moth, cabbage fly and slugs.
Cruciferous flea - the most annoying pest of cabbage plants. She scrapes small pits in cabbage leaves, the remnants of tissue in which dry out and fall out, forming holes. At an early stage in cabbage development, you can prevent cruciferous flea beetles by covering the bed with a non-woven fabric. As protection against pests, dusting of cabbage and the soil around it with a mixture of wood ash and tobacco dust in a ratio of 2: 1 is used, and so that the powder is not blown away by the wind, spray the cabbage with water before processing.
Dislikes celery flea, which can be planted between rows of savoy cabbage. But if the invasion looks total and it is necessary to take urgent and radical measures, treat the cabbage beds with Aktellik in accordance with the instructions. This fungicide also works well against black and wavy flea beetles.
Spring cabbage fly lays eggs in the soil near the stems, and the larvae that emerge from them a week later devour the roots of the plant and make moves in the stems. To combat the fly, use the processing of cabbage beds with Ambush, Rovikurt or Corsair.
Scoops and whites dangerous for their caterpillars, damaging cabbage leaves to varying degrees. As a preventive measure, it is advisable to plant the cabbage before the butterflies start to fly out. In the fight against caterpillars of scoops and whites, the preparations Ambush, Belofos, Anometrin, Rovikurt, Cyanox, Gomelin, Bitoxibacillin and the like are used.
Bed bugs (rapeseed and cabbage), hibernating under fallen leaves, in the spring they lay eggs on the ground parts of plants. In specimens damaged by bugs, the leaves turn yellow, and necrotic spots appear on them over time. Effective in the fight against bedbugs, treatment with Actellik solution.
Aphid - a small sucking insect that feeds on the cellular sap of cabbage leaves, covering them with a waxy coating. The leaves become discolored and curled, some of them take on a pinkish tint. In one season, cabbage aphid gives up to 16 generations. She is a carrier of incurable viral diseases.
You can plant dill, celery or carrots between the rows of savoy cabbage, which will attract hoverflies and ladybirds to the site - the worst enemies of aphids. The aphid population is reduced by regular watering and weeding. If necessary, treat the area with Savoy cabbage with Ambush, Rovikurt, Biotlin, Antitlin or Corsair.
Cabbage root lurker dangerous in that there are no effective chemical remedies against it. Its larvae feed on the stem tissue, gradually moving to the root and forming swellings on it - galls. The methods of dealing with this type of secretive proboscis are only agrotechnical: observe the crop rotation, regularly weed the beds with cabbage, remove all plant residues from the site after harvesting, when planting seedlings in the ground, carefully inspect the roots of the seedlings, rejecting those on which there are growths.
Wireworm - the larva of the dark nutcracker, a common pest of crops such as strawberries, lettuce, cucumbers, tomatoes, potatoes and all types of cabbage. Female clickers lay up to 200 eggs, from which the larvae develop, at first translucent, but eventually turning into long, thin, smooth and tough caterpillars of a yellow-brown color. Wireworms develop from 3 to 5 years, all this time feeding on underground parts of plants. It is best to deal with wireworms using traps: in early May, make small holes in the garden, put pieces of carrots, beets or potatoes in them and throw dirt in them, marking the place with a peg. After 4-5 days, dig a hole and destroy the larvae that have accumulated there for lunch.
Medvedka - a large pest up to 5 cm long, damaging plant roots and distinguished by its omnivorous nature. She lays eggs at a depth of 10-15 cm, and the larvae that appear after three weeks feed on the roots and stems of Savoy cabbage. Medvedok, like wireworms, is most conveniently collected at the beginning of winter in trap pits 50 cm deep with fresh horse manure. After 3-4 weeks, when insects climb into pits for wintering, dig out traps and destroy pests, and you can fertilize a vegetable garden with manure. Of the chemical preparations, Medvetox, Medvegon and Thunder are the most effective in the fight against the bear.
Slugs, in addition to cabbage, they damage crops such as parsley, eggplant, pumpkin, zucchini and rutabagas. Several generations of gastropods develop in one season. To protect the area from the appearance of slugs, sprinkle lime, powdered superphosphate, ash or needles over it. But if slugs have already appeared, place traps in the form of cans of beer and small pieces of slate or boards around the site, and harvest in the evening: slugs will hide under boards and slates to wait out the heat of the day, and some will want to drink beer on a hot day.
As a prophylaxis against all pests, it is very important to observe crop rotation and agricultural techniques, plant cabbage seedlings in open ground as early as possible, regularly fight weeds, remove and burn all plant residues in the fall, and then carry out a deep digging of the site. If you follow all these simple rules, you can reliably protect your garden and vegetable garden from pests.
Savoy cabbage harvesting and storage
Selective harvesting of early Savoy cabbage varieties begins in July, and late varieties in October. Early varieties of cabbage are eaten fresh - they are used for salads, stuffed cabbage is made from it, cabbage is cooked, but it is not suitable for storage. Mid-season and late varieties can be stored for a long time. Cabbage rolls are also made from them, vegetable soups are cooked, even fried and stewed. If you are going to store Savoy cabbage, heed our advice.
Take your time to harvest late varieties of cabbage intended for storage - it can be harvested in late autumn. The main thing is to have time to do this before the temperature in the garden drops to -7 ºC. For storage, heads of cabbage weighing at least 500 g are harvested with two or three hard covering leaves that protect the cabbage from dirt and damage. Do not water the cabbage before harvesting. Harvesting should take place in dry weather, the optimum temperature for harvesting Savoy cabbage is -1 to +1 ºC.
Cut Savoy cabbage is sprinkled with crushed chalk and laid out for 2-3 days on lattice shelves or boxes in a dry room, after having shortened the stump to 3 cm.Savoy cabbage can be stored for no more than six months, but if conditions are optimal, and the heads are large (more than 6 kg ), longer storage is possible.
Cabbage is laid out with the cut upwards in wooden boxes so that the heads do not touch each other, and placed in a garage, cellar or shed, where the air humidity level is maintained at 90-95%, and the temperature is from 0 to 3 ºC. First, make sure that the storage is free of fungi, mold and rodents.
You can store the heads of cabbage suspended from the ceiling, each packed in a separate net. And you can lay out a pyramid from the heads of cabbage: the largest heads of cabbage are placed in the base with stumps up, after which they are covered with sand, and on top of the sand smaller heads of cabbage are laid with slices down, which are also covered with sand. The next layer is laid with slices up, and so on.
Or you can wrap each head of cabbage with thick paper and put them in the cellar on the shelves.
Types and varieties of savoy cabbage
Savoy cabbage varieties for open ground are conventionally divided according to the ripening period. Early varieties include those that ripen in 105-120 days, mid-ripening varieties need 120 to 135 days to reach maturity, and late-ripening ones - 140 or more days.
Early savoy cabbage
Early Savoy cabbage is represented by the following varieties:
- Vienna early - one of the best varieties of savoy cabbage with corrugated leaves. The cabbage heads of this variety are round, dark green, with a mild bloom, medium density, weighing up to 1 kg. The taste is excellent;
- Gold early Is another excellent, high-yielding variety with crack-resistant dark green heads up to 800 g with highly blistered leaves. Heads ripen in 95-110 days;
- Compars - a very early hybrid of Savoy cabbage, resistant to pests and cracking and ripening in just 80 days, with medium-density light lettuce heads;
- Jubilee 2170 - early ripening variety, prone to cracking, reaching ripeness in 85-110 days. Heads of cabbage of this variety are of medium density, weighing up to 800 g, with bubbly, slightly corrugated leaves of light green color with a gray tint;
- Petrovna - medium density, dark green on the outside and light yellow on the inside, heads of this variety, reaching no more than one kilogram in weight, ripen in 100-110 days.
Medium Savoy cabbage
The best varieties of medium-ripening savoy cabbage are:
- Twirling 1340 - medium-sized cabbage with flat or flat-round low heads of medium size, weighing up to 2.5 kg and medium to good density. The leaves are finely corrugated, strongly bubbly, covered with a waxy coating. Unfortunately, this tasty Savoy cabbage does not store well;
- Chrome - a foreign variety with round, dense heads of cabbage weighing up to 2 kg and a small stump. Leaves are green, wavy;
- Sphere - a variety resistant to cracking with dark green heads of medium density, weighing up to 2.5 kg. Reviews of this variety of Savoy cabbage leave no doubt about its excellent taste;
- Melissa Is one of the earliest savoy cabbage hybrids, resistant to cracking and fusarium, with a growing season of up to 80 days. Heads of cabbage of this variety weigh 3-4 kg, their leaves are dull, dark green with a waxy bloom, strongly bubbly.
Late savoy cabbage
Of the late-ripening varieties of Savoy cabbage, the most popular are:
- Stilone - a frost-resistant variety that can withstand temperatures of -6 ºC without loss of quality. Heads weight about 2.5 kg;
- Ovass - a hybrid with large bubbly leaves with a slight waxy bloom. The heads are dense, weighing up to 2.5 kg;
- Nadia - a variety resistant to cracking and fusarium, ripening in 140 days or more. The heads are not very dense, round, large, weighing 3 kg. Leaves are tender, soft, strongly bubbly;
- Uralochka - this frost-resistant variety has round heads, weighing up to 2.5 kg, medium density, leaves without veins, light green;
- Lacemaker - a variety with excellent taste with round heads of reddish color, weighing two kilograms. Leaves are thin, bubbly.
In addition to those listed, such varieties of Savoy cabbage as Pirozhkovskaya, Marner Frükopf, Fitis, Langendaker Gelbgruner, Dutch Winter Leith Bolhead, Alaska, Tasmania, Ormskirk, Best of All, Tavoy, Juliuster, and others, are successfully grown in culture.
Savoy cabbage properties - harm and benefit
Benefits of Savoy Cabbage
Savoy cabbage contains a large amount of vitamin C, A (beta-carotene), PP (or vitamin B3, or niacin, or nicotinic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin E (tocopherol).
Contains Savoy cabbage salts of phosphorus, potassium and calcium, sodium and magnesium, zinc, copper, selenium, sugar, protein, fiber, phytoncides, amino acids and mustard oils. Part of savoy cabbage is glutathione, which is a powerful antioxidant, ascorbigen, which prevents the development of cancer, and mannitol alcohol, which replaces sugar for diabetics.
Due to the salts of iron, magnesium and potassium contained in savoy cabbage, it helps to improve the composition of the blood, dispersing it through the vessels and delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues. Eating fresh savoy cabbage lowers blood sugar, strengthens vision, prevents the formation of malignant tumors, increases appetite, and stimulates digestion. Savoy cabbage is especially useful in spring, when natural vitamins are deficient.
Because the fiber in savoy cabbage is much more tender than that of cabbage, it is often included in the diets shown for children and the elderly. And the mannitol contained in it makes this type of cabbage indispensable for diabetics. In addition, Savoy cabbage has a diuretic, antioxidant, bactericidal effect.
We offer you recipes for two savoy cabbage dishes so that you can truly appreciate its taste:
- soup: chop and scald with boiling water about 160 g of savoy cabbage, boil it under a lid in 150 g of broth, add 20 g of butter, cool slightly, beat with a blender, then add another 100 g of broth and put on fire. As soon as the soup boils, pour 150 milk into it and serve with croutons;
- Garlic stew: Cut the savoy cabbage into 4 pieces and chop. Heat 2 tablespoons of olive oil in a heavy-bottomed saucepan, add 2 cloves of garlic, peeled and crushed, and fry in oil for 30 seconds, then add cabbage to the pan and simmer for 5 minutes, stirring occasionally. Remove the pan from the stove, place the stewed cabbage on a platter and sprinkle with chopped parsley.
Savoy cabbage - contraindications
Savoy cabbage is a very healthy product, but in exceptional cases we can talk about the harm of savoy cabbage. People who have recently undergone surgery on the chest or abdominal cavity, it is better to refrain from eating savoy cabbage. It is not recommended for use in diseases of the thyroid gland, pancreatitis, gastritis, enterocolitis, stomach and duodenal ulcers, especially during an exacerbation.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Cabbage family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
Sections: Cruciferous (Cabbage, Cabbage) Garden plants C Plants Collard greens
Chemical composition and useful properties
Savoy cabbage differs from white cabbage in a lower content of fiber and mustard oils, which allows it to be used in the diet of children and the elderly. The biochemical composition is represented by vitamins A, C, PP, group B, β-carotene, as well as minerals - potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, selenium. In culture, there is more protein and fat, the calorie content per 100 g of the product is about 28 kcal.
The benefits and harms to the body are due to the biochemical composition.
The vegetable is undesirable for the nutrition of people after operations on the abdominal, chest cavity, with diseases of the stomach, duodenum, pancreas. You can not eat with an imbalance of the thyroid gland. These are the only negative properties and contraindications to the use of savoy cabbage.
The beneficial effect on the human body is that:
- Potassium is beneficial for cardiovascular disorders.
- During heat treatment, ascorbigen is formed, which contains ascorbic acid, inhibits the growth of cancerous neoplasms.
- Polyphenols act as strong antioxidants, protect against atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, neurological and oncological diseases.
- Cabbage increases appetite, normalizes the digestive tract.
- Vitamin C activates the body's defenses.
- Vitamin K acts on the hematopoietic system, strengthens teeth and bones.
- Savoy cabbage is recommended for hypertension, diabetes, prostatitis, liver problems.
- Due to the absence of hard fibers, it is included in therapeutic diets.
How to choose cabbage seedlings
Growing cabbage seedlings at home requires a special approach. High temperature and low air humidity in the room are detrimental to young seedlings, and not everyone can provide optimal conditions. In this case, gardeners have to buy planting material.
How to choose cabbage seedlings based on their appearance
You can choose the right cabbage seedlings for planting by evaluating their appearance:
- the light green color of the seedlings indicates its low quality (the root system is often poorly developed, the seedlings do not take root well). Healthy cabbage seedlings have a slight purple tint on the stem and leaves
- on the seedlings there should be no signs of disease and pests (spots, wilting, yellowness)
- a short stem of seedlings indicates an early variety of cabbage, a long one - about a late one. So you can check if the seller is cheating.
- round leaves will later form spherical or flattened heads of cabbage, and elongated ones - elongated, oval or pointed.
Late varieties of cabbage can be grown in a seedless way. For this, the seeds are sown in holes at the end of April and covered with foil or glass until shoots appear.
Savoy cabbage: growing and care
Many summer residents grow Savoy cabbage from seeds, and also use the seedling method. The technology of growing Savoy cabbage seedlings is almost no different from the technology of growing other species.
The first thing to do is to prepare the soil in the fall. To do this, it is necessary to clearly determine the place on the garden plot, which is most suitable for growing a vegetable. The place should be well lit. The best precursors for savoy cabbage are crops such as cucumbers, potatoes, tomatoes, onions, beets, and beans.
When the territory in the garden is determined, it should be dug up to a depth of 20 cm. (Shovel bayonet). Then organic fertilizers are applied. Summer residents consider a solution of urea or humus to be the best. It should be entered in the calculation of 8-10 liters. by 1 m 2. The amount of organic matter is calculated in a 1: 2 ratio.
In the spring, it is recommended to loosen the soil by using the harrowing method. This measure will also saturate the soil with oxygen.
The pick is carried out 14 days after planting the seed.Sprouts are planted in open ground when the first four or five healthy leaves have appeared. The seedlings are fully ready for planting in about 40 days.
Savoy cabbage varieties are transplanted on a cloudless sunny day. The peculiarity of Savoy cabbage is that it ripens more early than white cabbage, so the harvest can be obtained earlier.
Loosening, moistening and hilling are important elements of modern technology for growing savoy cabbage. The denser the soil, the deeper the loosening is carried out, but no more than 5 cm. 21 days after loosening, it is necessary to carry out a hilling. At the same time, it is necessary to apply mineral complex fertilizers (for 10 liters of water, add 40 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium fertilizers and the same amount of urea).
The next feeding is carried out during the formation of the head of cabbage. The dosage is increased by about one and a half times.
Watering adult plants is carried out once a week in the evening. Particularly demanding early varieties for moisture saturation.
After the harvest is harvested, it must be stored at a temperature of 1-3 degrees below zero. The best storage method is to arrange them in boxes so that the heads are not squeezed or crushed.
Thus, the article provides a description of the most common and popular varieties of ornamental vegetables, as well as a detailed description of how to grow this unique culture on your site or in an apartment. After reviewing the information, the matter remains small, purchase the seeds of the variety you like and start sowing them. Soon, cabbage will delight and surprise with its beauty, make the garden, vegetable garden, flower bed interesting and unique. Until the onset of severe winter frosts, a colored vegetable will remind you of a warm, sunny summer.
Outdoor broccoli care
Taking care of broccoli in your garden is much easier than taking care of your seedlings in an apartment. After all, the main danger for seedlings is high temperatures: from them the plants immediately begin to stretch out and grow weak. In the garden, there is no problem with this, if you exclude the extreme summer. It is in connection with this factor that good yields of broccoli are not obtained in the southern regions of our country.
Watering is easy if those one and a half to two months when broccoli lives in the beds turned out to be rainy. In dry weather, this cabbage has to be watered often, if possible, then every other day. In the middle lane, there are rarely such seasons when daily watering would be required. To keep moisture better, the beds must be covered with peat, hay, humus with a continuous carpet. A layer of mulch of a few centimeters will also save you from weeds, at least annual, not very powerful. If mulch is not used, after each watering, you have to loosen the beds until the cabbage leaves close. Any water can be used for irrigation, but it is better, of course, settled and not too icy.
Top dressing broccoli outdoors
2 weeks after planting seedlings in the ground or 2-3 weeks after the emergence of seedlings from sowing broccoli seeds, it is advisable to feed. Of course, the easiest way to do this is with mineral fertilizers, which are now apparently on sale. I bought a bag, read the instructions, poured a spoon or two into the watering can, spread it with water and water it! But many gardeners understand that we have already ate any poison with products from the store, and therefore they are trying to protect themselves at least here. Whether it is right or not, everyone must decide: fertilizers used in the recommended doses are, of course, practically harmless to humans, but the use of natural organic matter is still safer. Therefore, if there is dung or mullein, it will be a little more difficult, but calmer.
If a handful of cow dung in a bucket of water does not spoil the plants, then you must be very careful with chicken, and even more so pigeon droppings. It is a very highly concentrated nitrogen fertilizer that, if used improperly, instantly burns green plants. A handful of droppings should be infused in water for 2-3 days, and then the resulting infusion should be diluted 10 times again. Such a diluted solution (and for a mullein - the original, a handful per bucket) is enough for about 8-10 plants. After a few minutes, they should be watered with clean water. After another 12-14 days, feeding should be repeated. With such feeding, the heads will grow much larger.
The contents of a bucket with organic food for humans looks unappetizing, and cabbage will respond with a good increase in yield
Many varieties of broccoli, after cutting off the main head, give an additional crop - either instead of it, or (more often) on the side stems. In order for these small heads to grow larger, it is necessary, after cutting off the main head, to feed the broccoli with a solution containing phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (20-30 g per bucket of water).
Pest control of broccoli outdoors
Broccoli has few diseases, and the worst is the black leg. When infected, the stem of the plant becomes thinner, rots, breaks easily and is pulled out of the ground. But the most dangerous period is being in the nesting boxes. In the garden, this infection attacks much less often: with excess moisture, strong temperature fluctuations and too frequent planting. If this happens, the cabbage should be watered with a 0.05% solution of potassium permanganate or the plantings should be sprayed with a 0.1% solution of Rizoplan. After that, you need to add calcined sand to the roots. Not all plants will survive blackleg infestation, but survivors should be re-treated after 10-15 days.
Rizoplan is an easy-to-use drug that also helps with black leg, but not all plants are cured
But any cabbage, and broccoli in particular, has much more pests. These are cabbage fly, cabbage aphid, cabbage and turnip whites, cruciferous flea beetles, etc. If they have already settled on cabbage, it’s bad, and you should not bring it up to that. Fortunately, using preventive spraying with folk drugs is not a problem.
To scare off most insects, completely universal garden infusions are suitable: tops of tomatoes, potatoes, red pepper. Often used are infusions of tobacco or wood ash with the addition of laundry soap.
Spraying should be carried out in calm cloudy weather. The first time it is worth doing this soon after the seedlings take root well or the seedlings will give several healthy leaves. You can repeat the preventive treatment every 10-15 days, and especially after heavy rains, which wash away all efforts.
In the event of an attack by caterpillars, microbiological preparations Lepidocide or Bitoxibacillin can be used, strictly according to the instructions. It is not worth using chemical means of control on cabbage: after all, it will be necessary to harvest the crop very soon, and it is not known whether the pesticide will have time to decompose.
Video: caring for broccoli cabbage in the garden
Growing broccoli in the open field is not difficult and is used much more often than greenhouse. All stages of planting and care are well known to any gardener: sowing seeds or planting seedlings, watering, feeding, loosening, weed and pest control. And, of course, one must not forget to harvest the harvest.