We make our own underfloor heating in the bath
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The main purpose of the bath is to provide conditions for comfortable washing. And what kind of washing indoors if your feet are cold? Therefore, special attention should be paid to the floor in the sauna space. Warm floor in a bath is one of the components of health and lack of discomfort. Much depends on the materials with which they want to insulate the structure, and the methods.
Bathrooms for underfloor heating
Historically, it so happened that the floor in the bath was not the main object of insulation. The builders of the baths paid more attention to the insulation of the walls and ceiling in order to make the room as warm as possible.
In the bath floor, on the contrary, they left cracks for water to drain off. Of course, this option did not add heat. This way of water drainage and floor insulation are two incompatible things. Constant moisture will lead to the fact that the floor will rot, damp, and pathogenic bacteria will accumulate in it.
The gaps between the wooden planks were left specifically for water drainage.
A warm bath floor is a prerequisite for comfortable washing and relaxation in buildings in central Russia and its northern regions.
Floor insulation will help:
- in keeping the general warmth in the room;
- in reducing the time and amount of fuel for heating the bath;
- in the elimination of sharp temperature changes in different parts of the bath (at the top - too hot, at the bottom - cold).
Underfloor heating is needed primarily where there is no heat input. This applies to the dressing room. The room where they relax after the steam room, drink herbal tea and communicate with guests should not be a source of colds and inflammatory diseases.
The steam room also needs floor insulation. This is necessary so that the temperature in the steam room is the same, and the heat is evenly distributed in the space. Temperature drops are unfavorable for humans. Instead of the benefits of taking a healing steam, you can get a cold if you stand from a hot shelf on a cool, with large cracks floor.
Ways to insulate the floor in the bath
Thermal insulation of the floor in the bath is done if the floor is laid correctly. The ten-degree slope will help in getting rid of dirty water, it will flow freely through the gutter or hole into the water collector, and then into the sewer drain. The insulation should not "float" in the water, it directly depends on the correct installation of the floor.
When carrying out work on thermal insulation of the floor, the type of material and the construction of the floor itself must be taken into account.
A floor with a concrete screed is most often insulated with expanded clay and foam. A floor made of wood by itself retains heat better and all materials, except mineral and glass wool, are suitable for additional insulation.
In a bath, built with piles, foam plastic (d = 15 cm) or mineral wool (up to 25 cm) is used to increase the thermal characteristics of the floor. the insulation material is placed between the supporting structural elements.
When choosing a material, you should consider the following points:
- Floor covering type (wood, concrete, on screw piles).
- Part of the bath in which insulation is carried out (washing, steam room, dressing room).
- Safety conditions (taking into account the environmental friendliness of the material, its flammability).
- The specific gravity of the insulation (do not overload the foundation).
The main characteristic that should be taken into account when choosing a material for insulating a bath floor is hydrophobicity. The thermal insulation material must have a minimum moisture absorption rate, otherwise it will be very difficult to obtain the required result.
Table: advantages of insulation materials
|Material||What gender is suitable for||Benefits|
|Polystyrene||Wooden, concrete||Inexpensive, easily cut to the required size using any sharp knife, minimum waste.|
|Styrofoam||Any||Does not absorb moisture, retains heat well. Long-lasting, safe for human health, does not burden the structure due to its low weight.|
|Mineral and glass wool||Concrete||Non-flammable, maintains the desired temperature well, easy to install.|
|Expanded clay||Concrete||Environmental friendliness, high heat and noise insulation, low weight, low price.|
|Perlite||Any||Waterproof, non-flammable, lightweight|
|Ecowool||Wood||Safety for human health. Spraying from a large pipe allows you to install this insulation with already laid floors, in hard-to-reach places.|
Types of materials in the photo
Each of the materials has its own drawbacks.
The negative aspects of foam insulation include the fact that a perfectly even coating is required for its application. For a floor with a cement screed, this fact does not matter, but the wood flooring will have to be leveled.
Glass and mineral wool are suitable for warming the floor in the dressing room and the washing compartment, but it is not recommended to use this material in the steam room because of the high temperatures. This type of material can release formaldehyde when heated strongly.
A significant disadvantage of using expanded clay is its high moisture absorption coefficient, therefore, for its use, it is necessary to think over additional protective equipment that will close the expanded clay layer from moisture.
The disadvantage of perlite is its light weight, it literally "evaporates" at the slightest breath of wind. You need to work with this material in a tightly closed room, excluding drafts.
Ecowool should not be used in a washing and steam room, since this material is unstable to moisture and can deform, but it can be used for a dressing room.
In order to calculate the amount of material, you need to know the surface area of the floor and the thickness of the insulation.
Internet sources suggest doing this online. There are a lot of calculators for calculation, for example - http://beregi-teplo.ru/calc/teploizolyatsiya-fundamenta.html.
This is a convenient resource for determining the amount of insulation on the floor, taking into account the most modern material. You can select a material and fill in the required data. The result will appear in a matter of seconds.
In mathematical calculations, one has to reckon with the thermal insulation properties of materials. For example, the thickness of expanded clay and foam for insulating floors in a bath will be different.
Consider the determination of the amount of ecowool for the floor of the dressing room of a small room with an area of 4 sq. M.
Calculations are made according to the formula:
(Area of the dressing room (m2) x thickness (m) x density (kgm3) of the material): weight of the package (kg)
For the floor of the dressing room, ecowool with a thickness of 20 cm and a density of 35 kg cubic meters is quite suitable.
So, we consider:
4 x 0.2x 35: 15 = 1.86
This means that to insulate a dressing room with an area of 4 m², you will need to purchase 2 packs of ecowool.
For the production of work on floor insulation in the bath, the following tools should be prepared:
- tape measure or ruler;
- stationery knife / hacksaw;
- marker or pencil;
- drill / perforator;
- dowels with caps.
How to insulate the floor: step by step instructions
Depending on the type of floor covering in the bath, you will have to act differently.
Insulation of concrete
To insulate the concrete floor in the bath, you should proceed step by step:
- The concrete coating is freed from debris, dust and treated with a special waterproofing compound. It is imperative to wait until the floor is completely dry.
Waterproofing is an obligatory stage in the insulation of a concrete floor
- Then the waterproofing material is laid over the entire surface of the floor, with an approach to the walls. Polyethylene in one or more layers is suitable as such a material. The joints are fixed with tape.
Polyethylene can be stacked in one or more layers
- Now the heat insulator is placed - polystyrene / polystyrene. The number of rows of heat-insulating material depends on the thickness of the plates. Polyfoam can be from 5 to 50 mm thick. If the laying is done in several rows, then it is imperative to make an offset of the seams in order to exclude the flow of cold air into the room.
The foam is cut to size and placed on top of the waterproofing
- The gaps between the plates of the material are eliminated using foam or scraps of heat insulators.
Polyurethane foam is an available material for carrying out such work
All these manipulations are done in front of the sand-cement screed.
Working with wood
Carrying out work on the insulation of the wooden floor in the bath:
- Laying waterproofing on a pre-leveled sub-floor. A film that "breathes" is very good in this capacity. It is best to apply the layers with an overlap of at least 10 cm, and also slightly cover the walls with the film (up to 20 cm). All connections are held together with a stapler or tape.
It is advisable to bring all communications before the start of floor insulation.
- Installation of the second layer of cranial plates.
- Laying the selected thermal insulation material. Foam plates are cut to the required size, expanded clay / perlite is crumbled over the waterproofing barrier.
Styrofoam can be easily cut into slabs of the desired size
- Placement on top of the insulation is a duplicate of the waterproofing.
Waterproofing will help to avoid wetting of the insulation and extend its service life
- Filling all cracks and gaps with polyurethane foam.
For good insulation, polyurethane foam is ideal
- Continuation of work on the installation of fine wooden floor boards.
Do-it-yourself thermal insulation of the wooden floor of a bath on screw piles: instructions
Before the direct insulation of the floor in the bathhouse on screw piles, a complete overlap of the space between the base of the bathhouse and the ground should be made. Most often in our time, siding is used, which is able to cope with the task of protecting the subfloor from blowing out the wind. It is also advisable to complete all the necessary work on carrying out communications (for example, installing a drain pipe) before the stage of floor insulation.
After insulating the floor, it is difficult to deal with communications, so it is better to do this in advance
All work on the insulation of a wooden floor in a bathhouse on screw piles is practically the same as in the case of a lagged wooden floor.
Step 1. Strengthening the soil. The soil base of the bath must be tamped. Then pour a twenty-centimeter layer of sand and gravel mixture, spill with water and tamp again.
Strong soil - a guarantee of the reliability of the bath
Step2. Backfill of expanded clay. It is advisable to bring a layer of this insulation to the lag, more precisely, to their lower edge.
To insulate the floors in the bath, you can pour more than one layer of expanded clay
Step3. Adding a cement mixture to expanded clay. Liquid cement mortar is poured onto 100–150 mm of expanded clay, thereby holding the granules together and improving the thermal insulation capabilities of the floor.
Liquid cement mixture holds expanded clay granules together
Useful tips during work
Every master working with wood, concrete or other materials has his own little tricks that must be taken into account by novice builders.
When working with granular thermal insulation materials (perlite, expanded clay, expanded polystyrene), be sure to use beacons to level the insulation layer. This is necessary so that the floor eventually turns out to be even with the necessary slope for water drainage.
The ideal thickness of polystyrene for warming a bath is 15–20 cm; sheets of smaller thickness are best placed in several layers, changing the joints in each row.
Penoplex is a new generation insulation, two centimeters of which can replace 10 cm of foam.
Some craftsmen use various materials at hand to insulate the floor in the bath. Their use should be as thoughtful and balanced as possible.
Video: floor insulation in the bath
How to make a heated floor in a bath on your own - you can see about this in the video.
Underfloor heating in the bath is a guarantee of health and comfort during bath procedures. It is not difficult to insulate the floor in the bath, the main thing is to decide on the material for insulation, calculate the quantity and perform the installation work. It is much more pleasant and useful to be in a bath with a warm floor.
Do-it-yourself sauna in the basement of a house: a sauna in the basement of a private house, a project in the basement of a cottage, how to build, how to make a device, photos and videos
The understanding of how much a bath is necessary in living conditions in a private house comes to the owners a few years after setting up a home. Most often, in the near future, a place was planned for the bathhouse in the backyard, but in practice there is no place in the yard for arranging a steam room, everything is occupied by a garage, a greenhouse and utility rooms. There remains a scheme for building a bath in the basement, especially since with a competent approach, this is not the worst option for a steam room.
Do-it-yourself log bath
The best bath is the one that, as mentioned above, is made of logs. There is always a pleasant sauna smell of wood in it, and after you take a steam bath, you feel peace and you can even say happiness. The walls of log baths perfectly keep heat, and at the same time they breathe, that is, steam and air pass well through them, creating the very famous microclimate of the Russian steam room.
This process will be even better if the bath is not tiled outside, but only to carry out insulation work, apply means to protect the tree from pests and precipitation and polish if necessary. Outside, of course, the walls will look a little unprepossessing, but the microclimate already mentioned above, and the usefulness of such a bath for your health will be maximum - after all, a tree with such a construction will retain almost all of its environmental characteristics.
The best wood for the construction of a chopped bath has always been larch (the farther north is the place of harvesting, the better), spruce and pine. For a steam room, linden is ideal, or even better aspen.
Logs of 210-250 millimeters are best suited for installation and construction of a log house for a bath.
They must be pre-treated with a plane and, if possible, sanded cleanly for decorative purposes). Such external processing is quite enough to serve as long as possible under the influence of a sufficiently aggressive environment (water and steam are still not the tree's greatest friends) - after all, in this case, the strongest and hardest external wood remains unaffected by mechanical stress. But the logs will look as natural as possible - and this is now in vogue. There are now a great many admirers of country style in the design of the site.
The construction of a chopped wooden bath is very similar to the construction of an ordinary wooden house, therefore, in the process of installing a log house, you must already decide on its location and dimensions. It is very important to carefully consider the choice of the main building material - logs. Logs for a bath should be chosen sufficiently dry (well-seasoned), straight, capable of connecting as tightly as possible when installing a log house.
The very technology of assembling a chopped bath with your own hands is very, very simple: a log house is assembled from the crowns, after which they are insulated with jute, tow, moss or any other material (it is better to choose natural materials, of course). Then, as mentioned above, produce the final caulking. The last step in the construction of a bath is to apply a protective impregnation for wood on its walls - in several layers. For each type of wood, one or another impregnation is better suited - therefore, we cannot give any special recommendations here - but I can say that in the team we most often use the Finnish impregnation for wood "Pinotex Base".If the customer requires processing with a fire retardant (more and more recently), then we use Neomid impregnation - a very good impregnation. You can also pick up complex wood protection products - we cannot say how effective they are - so far we have only met them in stores but have not used them in practice.
Tip: Be sure to process logs that have already been cleaned and sanded and in which grooves have already been made and holes prepared.
The foundation for a chopped bath - which is better?
It is best for a chopped log bath, as we have already, and we mentioned the strip foundation - lay it at the depth of freezing of the earth. Columnar will cost a lower price and will be able to withstand a bathhouse, but it will have to be done at a greater depth, which is not always feasible. Make the pillars of the columnar foundation with dimensions of half a meter by half a meter. They can be made of bricks and poured out of concrete - which ones are better and cheaper for you personally and choose - the price of brick and concrete differs in different regions. Personally, I prefer to tinker with the brick, but feel what is called every square centimeter with my own hands, to be sure that the bath will not "run" on the foundation and will not squint in a year ...
The logs are most often connected during the installation of a frame with the so-called residue (in "oblo" or in a "bowl"), but sometimes the frame is placed without residue in the so-called "paw". High-quality and careful processing is a guarantee of a tight fit of the logs to each other, and in the future, the heat-saving qualities of a log house for a bath - a bath in which the wind is walking, no one needs.
It is easier for a novice master to make a blockhouse with his own hands "in a break" or in a "bowl" (Figure 2 in the photo), for such a connection, not very high-quality logs with different diameters are suitable. When assembling a log house "in a paw"
For the construction and assembly of a bath "in the paw" (Figure 1 in the photo), logs are needed almost perfect. In order to select a paw on a log, its ends are cut with an ax into two edges and after that the necessary contours are outlined, and then processed with a saw and an ax.
If you caulk the joints of the logs well, then they will no longer need any additional thermal insulation. Moss (red) is best suited as a mezhventsovy sealant for such baths - it does not rot, has good hygroscopic characteristics, they say, it even has bactericidal properties. If there is no moss, you can take tow - of course, it is inferior to moss, but it can be safely called a heater gave bath number 2.
Baths made of rounded logs are very beautiful. The diameter and quality of such logs are the same, so it is a pleasure to assemble log cabins from them, and you will not have to spend on additional finishing - they look so beautiful. Due to the fact that all the logs are prepared on a machine fitted for the assembly, the quality of joints and seams during assembly is much better than if you build a bath room from ordinary, prepared and processed logs with your own hands. The crowns also come out smooth and beautiful for the same reason. For a novice master who plans to build a bath himself, this is the best option with his own hands.
Don't know where to start renovating a balcony? No problem!
This section of the site is entirely devoted to aspects related to the repair of a balcony with your own hands. Here you will find photos, recommendations of professionals, advice on choosing a material (for example, a tree that is so popular for decoration can differ in both species and texture), as well as the recommended sequence of repair steps.
The main thing is not to be afraid, because most of the finishing work can be carried out by a person without specialized education, it is enough to have detailed instructions at hand and clearly know what you want to see at the exit.
Since repairing a balcony with your own hands is a laborious process and requires a balanced approach and detailed planning, on our website you will find:
detailed step-by-step instructions for each step
professional advice and ideas
interesting balcony designs
With the right preparation, you can create your dream balcony yourself, just like in the photo. You will not need to spend money on workers, you will save your nerves, because you will not need to try to explain what exactly and how you want to do, you will not need to adjust to the presence of strangers in your house. You can do without all these inconveniences, because you can also make a designer repair of a balcony in an apartment! Break the whole process into stages, doing such work as: insulation, glazing in your free and convenient time for you on your own. Our balcony renovation photos will help you make your dreams come true!
Types of mineral wool
The term "mineral wool" includes a group of materials based on mineral components: glass wool, slag, stone or basalt wool.
This material is rarely used. The advantage of glass wool is the ability to maintain its properties at temperatures from -60 ° C to + 450 ° C.
But this material has significant drawbacks: glass wool is fragile, so you need to work with it carefully, using special goggles and a respirator. Another disadvantage is that small glass particles can get onto the skin through clothing and cause severe itching.
For its production, blast-furnace slag is used, it is melted at a high temperature and thin threads are drawn.
The main advantage of this material is its low cost. But slag wool also has disadvantages: insufficient level of thermal conductivity, hygroscopicity, short service life (about 15 years) and installation complexity.
Because of these shortcomings, slag wool is rarely used to insulate the attic.
Various rocks are used for its manufacture, most often basalt.
Wall insulation with basalt wool is the most popular and optimal option. Stone wool has good thermal conductivity, a high level of noise insulation, the ability to withstand temperatures from -180 ° C to + 700 ° C, and a long service life. Unlike other types, basalt wool does not absorb moisture and is easy to install.
Basalt wool has found wide application in the construction of baths, since it does not contain harmful impurities and has high strength. Unlike other types of mineral wool, basalt is produced exclusively from rocks, without impurities and binders, since the strength of the fiber is high enough and does not need binders.
Features of arrangement of vapor barrier and waterproofing layers
The presence of a vapor barrier is not a whim, but a real necessity. Especially when it comes to premises such as a bathhouse, where hot air is an integral part of using the premises as intended. Rising in the form of steam, moisture can have a destructive effect on the insulation and contribute to the appearance of mold and mildew on the wooden elements of the bath frame.
Scheme of warming and insulation of the roof of the bath
In order to avoid problems that can arise from the accumulation of moisture on the ceiling and walls, special films and coating materials are used, for example, anti-condensation membranes. When choosing a suitable material, it is advisable to purchase one that has a foil layer.
Helpful advice! In the process of installing a vapor barrier film, it is very important to pay attention to its integrity. It is necessary to prevent the appearance of gaps, as this will greatly affect the technical characteristics of the coating.
To ensure waterproofing, special films are used, which can be purchased at hardware stores. Sometimes the most ordinary polyethylene of sufficient density or cheap roofing felt is used.
To protect the bath frame from moisture, it is recommended to use a waterproofing membrane that can be mounted in contact with the insulation without losing its properties
Screed floor with expanded clay: useful tips
Experts and seasoned craftsmen recommend using a number of tricks:
- before proceeding with the screed, it is advisable to take care of waterproofing. This layer will not be superfluous, but after pouring the floor, it will no longer be possible to complete it. For waterproofing, you can use liquid mastic, dense polyethylene or waterproofing
- an ordinary metal profile or thin slats are used as beacons
- the finished screed, made with a wet method, must be allowed time to dry. You can use the premises after a month
- so that cracks do not form during pouring, it is advisable to constantly wet the surface with water
- the appearance of cracks is prevented by a special plasticizer. It is recommended to add it to the finishing solution.
- when buying gypsum fiber board, it is better to take sheets that have a water-repellent treatment
- the price of expanded clay does not necessarily indicate quality. It is worth trusting the products of well-known manufacturers
Scheme of combined floor insulation using expanded clay
- granules of very large sizes are subject to more rapid destruction and threaten rapid deformation of the base
- for fixing GVL-plates it is better to take self-tapping screws with "recessed" caps.
Subject to all the rules and technologies, it is quite possible to make a floor screed with expanded clay with your own hands. Video materials, of which there are many on the Internet, will help facilitate the process. As a result, you can forget about repairing the floors of the house for a long time, while ensuring maximum heat and sound insulation. In addition, you can easily eliminate all unevenness in the floor with expanded clay. The photos clearly demonstrate both the installation process and the positive result obtained.