How to build a staircase in a country house

How to build a staircase in a country house

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In a house or apartment, a staircase takes up a fairly large space, which is not so much in a small garden house, so the issue of rational use of space is especially relevant.

Building codes and regulations (SN and P 2-08.01-89) "Residential buildings" allow to arrange intra-apartment wooden staircases with a maximum slope of 1: 1.25 (h: a) with a classic ratio of step height 200 mm to its width (tread) 250 mm.

When it came time to build a permanent staircase to the attic in my summer cottage, it turned out that on the veranda, which measures 3.6x2.85 m, such a staircase does not fit. More precisely, it (the staircase) fits along the wall, but the exit from it in the attic will abut against the wall. It was then that the "correct leg" type of ladder, which I have known for a long time, came in handy, allowing it to double its slope to 1: 0.625.

You can understand what is special about the "right foot" ladder if you watch yourself as you go up it. You will make sure that you only become one leg for each step. For example, the left to the first step, and the right to the second, etc. Using this property of walking on stairs, I cut only odd steps 250 mm wide in 450 mm in height into the kosoura installed with a slope of 1: 0.625, and instead of even ones, I installed benches half the length of the odd step and 200 mm high for each odd one.

Now we have a staircase with steps 200 mm high, 250 mm wide, meeting the requirements of SN and P "Residential buildings" in these ratios, with a slope twice as high as SN and P. The structure of this ladder is clearly visible in the proposed figure. Such stairs fit well even on the veranda. The space under the stairs is not empty. If the reader wishes to make the same staircase, but the order of alternation of steps does not suit, it does not matter, the bench can be moved to the left, and the entrance to the staircase can also be turned around.

By the way, the first and second steps of this staircase are removable, and the space under them can be used for economic purposes, for example, equip a shoe cabinet there.

Such a staircase, built with our own hands, has regularly served our family in the country since 2003.

Ivan Pavlov, experienced builder, summer resident

A site about a garden, a summer residence and houseplants.

Such a basement or cellar device in the country can be useful to someone who, due to back pain or age, can no longer easily transfer crops and all kinds of harvests there to save, and just for those who value convenience and their time.

Many (if not most) country houses are equipped with an entrance to the basement or cellar through a hatch in one of the rooms, more often the room set aside for the country kitchen. Everyone can imagine how it looks, because such a descent into the cellar (reminiscent of the one in which the hero of the film "Shadows disappear at midnight" Ustin Morozov hid from the communists) is still in village houses or dachas built in Soviet times.

The fact that such a descent into the cellar is inconvenient, we remember every time during harvesting when, swearing, we lower the cans with rolling and blanks into the basement - the staircase is narrow, uncomfortable because of its steepness, the lid and the process of opening it also causes a lot of trouble , moreover, as a rule, it is not hermetically sealed, and, therefore, allows heat to pass through.

An alternative to such an entrance to the basement can be a solution in the form of an entrance to it from the street, that is, outside the house. Such an alternative is more convenient and among its advantages is also the fact that with such a device, heat loss in a country house is reduced, especially if it is heated in a "gentle mode" in winter.

You can quickly lay a separate garden path to the entrance to the cellar - it won't take much time - as a rule, our country houses are not that big.

The device of a doorway in the wall should be foreseen in advance during the construction of a new country house, but if you decide to remake the cellar (basement) and the entrance to it in an existing house, then, of course, it is better to contact an architect or engineer in advance and proceed from his recommendations, if you built a country house with your own hands, then there is probably no such need - who knows the work of your hands better than you yourself.

Even a relatively narrow outer staircase for descending into the basement will always be wider than the hatch hole and for the same pensioners, often with a sore back, it will make life much easier.

An entrance with a staircase is equipped with a closing lid, if no one constantly lives in the dacha, it must be made of metal, with strong locks and locks - unfortunately, dacha thieves breed much faster than our harvests.

In my country house, to complicate breaking the basement lid, I did this. I equipped the lid that closes the descent into the basement with two types of locks - external: a high-quality padlock, and internal: a lock, or rather a bolt made of a wide and thick strip of metal, which I bent in a vice with my own hands, since the store locks seemed flimsy to me.

I did not dismantle the hatch leading to the cellar, but I only use it so that for a period of long absence or departure from the dacha I go down into the cellar and close it from the inside, reinforcing all this with a padlock from the outside, which increases the overall anti-burglary resistance of the country house.

Basement stairs

The length of the staircase for the cellar will be determined by the position of the overlap separating the residential part of the country house from the basement, as well as the floor of your cellar.

Spans of stairs will take up less space and there will be fewer steps in them, the higher the 1st floor of the house is raised.

As a rule, the easiest and cheapest way to make the walls that will enclose the basement staircase, from banal cement-concrete blocks, can also be poured from concrete - both options are easy to do with your own hands in 5-7 days alone.

Between the ends of the walls of the stairs and the load-bearing, outer wall of the cellar, it is necessary to leave the so-called "deformation gap" (it is especially important if you are rebuilding and modernizing an existing country house). Subsequently, this gap will need to be filled with any elastic material.

On the surface of the walls of the basement staircase, it is necessary to apply any waterproofing, impregnation from the side of the ground. If the basement is warm, it will also have to be insulated - for these purposes, the popular today insulating material - expanded polystyrene - will do. For insulation, its thickness is only a few centimeters - the rest of the insulation will be taken over by the soil.

Make the upper bevel of the ends of the staircase walls with a slope from the house to avoid water inflow.

Make a small hole in one of the walls for natural ventilation of the passage, you can immediately equip it with a grate. Even if the basement-cellar is dry in the space of the passage to it, moisture can still accumulate, and, condensing on the ceiling, drain into the basement itself - it is better to avoid this in advance.

When arranging such a descent into the basement, I dismissed the options for stairs made of steel or wood in advance - concrete is the most reliable in this matter.

The upper steps of the ladder are both the threshold and the place on which the cover will rest. Therefore, do not spare them either reinforcement or cement or time - make them better so that they do not crumble later, because they, moreover, should also rise above the surface of the earth.

The upper ends of the walls, raised above the ground, can be trimmed with either siding or ebb tides, it is also possible with an eaves strip.

Also pay special attention to the lid - it is better to weld an all-metal one from metal more firmly, the stocks still cost money, and if you also store the tool in the basement, then it is generally a tidbit for thieves, and their intelligence is much better than that of us, ordinary summer residents, self-defense, anti-burglary measures (except for those that I have already mentioned) - I will not describe either - as a rule, each summer resident already has his own experience in this area.

The cover should fit snugly against the protruding parts of the walls of the staircase so that water cannot penetrate into the slope - you can resort to waterproofing materials, but it is easier to make it protrude beyond the perimeter of the walls.

If in your partnership thieves are especially wielding, then in principle, you can complicate their life if, in addition to the cover of the escapement, you can make it inside the door with a lock by doing, for example, installing them on a platform specially poured from concrete in the middle of the stairs (as shown in the drawing), then of course there will be more harder. I also advise you to descend into the basement (if the design and location of your summer cottage allows it) on the side that faces the street.

How to build a staircase with your own hands?

The construction of a staircase is a very crucial moment. After all, your safety and the safety of your household will depend on the quality of its performance as a whole. A ladder with your own hands is a complex process. Nails, a hammer and a nail puller alone are not enough. Perhaps the process itself is not difficult when you know the whole technology, but the maximum difficulty in the manufacture of stairs is that it is necessary to calculate all geometric indicators as accurately as possible, and already starting from them, take into account the dimensions of the entire structure.

Take your time with the actual construction. Think over all the details and dimensions. After all, the size of the march to the second and subsequent floors of the house will depend on whether you can lift furniture and belongings on it. Too narrow dimensions of the stairs are unlikely to allow this.

You only need to fasten the ladder with metal fasteners. In the event that the ladder does not adjoin the load-bearing wall, then it must be fixed both above and below. Another safety measure that will allow you to confidently and safely operate your ladder is to strengthen the crossbars on it in the railing, or, as they are also called, balusters. Such transverse barriers should not be less than 850 mm in height, and the distance between them should not be more than 150 mm.

The optimal step width is considered to be 250-300 mm. And in the event that the steps of the stairs will be finished with tiles or tiles, then slip protection should be provided. Usually it is a carpet, which is attached to the steps with the help of special holders.

Today, a huge variety of types of material for self-made stairs have appeared on the building materials market. But always, and now, of course, the classic materials for the construction of such a structure will be wood and concrete or stone structures.

Country staircase designs

The market for modern staircases is full of abundance and great opportunities for choice. Depending on your desire, you can purchase a staircase made of metal, wood, stone or glass. The main element of the ladder structure is the base, it receives the main load.

According to the design features, the stairs can be divided into:

  • Screw
  • Direct (marching)
  • Swivel
  • On kosoura
  • On the bolts
  • On bowstrings.

The stairs for the second floor are open and closed. Open staircases have no risers, they look airy, and lighting passes unhindered through the steps.

Safe and convenient operation is at the forefront of any type of ladder. If there is an elderly person or child in the house, the step size should not be very high.

In a closed staircase, there are risers, they are installed in the grooves, this allows the structure to be reliable and comfortable.

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Metal stoves for summer cottages

If you need to heat a small house, or you spend the night in the country only on weekends, pay attention to more compact options. Although they will not be able to maintain heat as long as brick ovens, they will not have to be warmed up for a long time in order to comfortably spend a winter weekend.

Potbelly stove

In popular memory, barrel-shaped metal furnaces are firmly associated with the difficult times of the first half of the twentieth century, when the simplicity of the device and the mobility of the structure were much more important than decorative qualities.

However, despite its pre-revolutionary origin, the potbelly stove continues to be popular today. Modern stoves already bear little resemblance to their predecessors. Firstly, completely different alloys are used for their manufacture, and secondly, the new models look much more presentable.

The advantages of a potbelly stove: compactness, quick warming up of the room, relatively low price, the ability to use for kindling not only firewood, but also chips, ease of installation, the ability to choose a model depending on taste preferences, ease of use.

Disadvantages of a potbelly stove: requires the constant presence of a person during the furnace, is not able to retain heat for a long time, high fire hazard.

Buleryan stove

Externally, the Buleryan furnace resembles an inverted barrel with pipes welded on the sides. Such an unusual design provides natural convection of air - it is drawn into the pipes from below, warms up, and then comes out. As a result, the heat in the room remains longer than when using conventional cast iron and metal stoves.

Stoves of this type were named after the company that received the patent for the production and distribution of these stoves in Western Europe. The original Buleryan stoves are very expensive, so in many countries of the world manufacturers have begun to produce their own counterparts. In the countries of Eastern Europe, similar stoves are produced under different trade marks, for example, Breneran and Buran.

Advantages of Buleryan furnaces: fast warming up of the room, low fuel consumption, long-term preservation of heat (compared to a stove).

Disadvantages of Buleryan stoves: high price, certain difficulties in operation at first (you need to adapt to "work" with Buleryan), controversial decorative qualities. It cools down faster than a brick oven.

Professor Butakov's stove

By design, these ovens are very similar to Buleryan. However, there are differences between them. Firstly, the pipes at Butakov's stove are located at a different angle, and secondly, they are hidden under the casing. In all other respects, the furnaces have more or less similar characteristics.

Advantages of Butakov ovens: lower fuel consumption, quick warming up of the room, the ability to fit into almost any interior.

Disadvantages of Butakov ovens: relatively high price, some difficulties in operation, which can occur in the first months of use.

Observe safety precautions!

Regardless of which stove design you choose, first of all you must be aware that any stove is a subject of increased fire hazard. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the installation of the structure. It is especially important to correctly calculate the distance from the stove to the walls, as well as to stationary furniture (wardrobe, bed, etc.). It should be at least 80-100 cm.

In order to reduce this distance, the walls, which are located near the stove, are insulated with heat-resistant material (asbestos sheets, superisol, etc.). This will reduce the distance to 20-30 cm. Do not forget about floor insulation.Usually, a concrete screed, metal sheet or ceramic tile is used for these purposes.

Before purchasing, check the regulations that govern the installation of ovens in your country. Be sure to study the recommendations given by the manufacturer of your chosen model.

Much attention should be paid to the arrangement of the chimney. Its design will depend not only on safety standards, but also on the device of each specific furnace model.

Glass stairs for a country house (photo)

Despite the fact that glass stairs have a design that is not entirely familiar to the home, today the popularity of these designs is quite high. Their elegant design will be appropriate for any interior design, and specially hardened impact-resistant glass, from which the steps and railings are made, make the structure absolutely safe for home use.

But there is no limit to the perfection of beauty, and today's manufacturers offer glass stairs, with neon illumination of each step. In the evening, this spectacle looks truly magical and bewitching.

This mounting method creates the effect of steps hanging in the air.

Glass partitions look easy and do not visually clutter up the space

The variety of forms and types of structures makes it possible to make the style of your interior unique and inimitable. And with the help of various lighting devices and other decorative elements, your staircase can be turned into a real work of art.

Neon lighting of the steps will add romance and comfort to your interior

Airy snow-white staircase with glass railings in the living room

All about the dacha: a website about construction at a summer cottage.

A dacha with our own hands is a project where we will share our solutions to certain issues that suburban life poses to us. On the site "All About the Dacha" you will learn how to equip a dacha with your own hands, photos, videos, master classes, interesting ideas for dachas, drawings, diagrams with a detailed description of the work performed, will give you the opportunity to independently do everything you need to dacha. A summer cottage is a whole world that you can really turn into a piece of paradise with your own hands. On the pages of the site, we share our own experience, consult with experts, offer ideas for inspiration and creativity. Here you will find information about proven experience and innovative ways of growing plants, about technologies for summer cottage construction, about the choice of tools and equipment, interesting recipes for a variety of dishes, recommendations from specialists in landscape design and even advice from doctors and teachers.

My name is Vyacheslav, I am not a professional builder, but I want to build my house in the country with my own hands, and equip the cottage for permanent residence. In order to collect the information that is needed to equip a summer cottage for permanent residence, I created this site. There are many sites on the Internet about summer cottages, and often the information in them is compressed and there is not enough detail. There are construction and summer cottage forums where information is abundant and very much useless. Therefore, I had a need to collect useful materials in one place.

Since I am not a professional builder and gardener, I will fill the site with a team of experienced builders, gardeners and gardeners. Their task is to provide the texts of articles that they find useful in achieving their goal.

If you have any questions related to the construction of a summer cottage, the arrangement of a summer cottage, and landscape design, then please ask your questions in the comments to the article most similar to the topic of the question. Share your experiences and opinions on our articles.

Watch the video: DIY Staircase Railing - Horizontal Metal and Wood for Modern Farmhouse Style


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