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What Is Cenangium Canker: Managing Sooty Bark Canker On Trees

What Is Cenangium Canker: Managing Sooty Bark Canker On Trees


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By: Bonnie L. Grant, Certified Urban Agriculturist

Diagnosing plant ailments is crucial to plant management and health. Cenangium canker of trees is one of the more insidious diseases. What is Cenangium canker? Read on for tips on recognizing, treating and managing sooty bark canker.

What is Cenangium Canker?

Pine, spruce and fir trees provide much needed shade, animal food and cover, and enhance the landscape with their architectural elegance. Unfortunately, these species are prone to fungal diseases such as sooty bark canker, or Cenangium. Over time, the disease can girdle your trees, reducing nutrients and water to the upper growth and preventing the flow of plant starches that feed development. Trees can die without proper treatment.

Cenangium is a fungal disease that produces a slow growing canker that affects the above mentioned evergreens as well as aspens. It is the most widespread canker on trees in the West. Infection begins in July through September when spores germinate and land on damaged or cut parts of the tree.

Once the spores have taken root, they fruit and spread anew. Damage is seen as small oval, dead areas of bark. Over time, it can kill entire branches and in a bad year, spread to all parts of the tree. Fortunately, Cenangium canker of trees is extremely slow growing and tree death rarely results unless it is repeatedly attacked over several seasons and also experiences stresses such as low water and other disease or pest issues.

Managing Sooty Bark Canker

Sadly, there is no effective Cenangium canker treatment. This means early recognition is essential to managing sooty bark canker. In addition to dead areas of the bark, the needles will begin to brown and die or leaves will wither and fall off. Each year’s growth of the fungus will produce light and dark areas, “zebra”-like girdling of the stems. As the outer bark is eaten away, the interior bark is exposed as powdery and black.

Over time, the canker girdles the stem or branch and it will completely die. In nature, this has a somewhat beneficial effect, helping trees get rid of old limbs. Fruiting bodies are 1/8 inch wide, cup-shaped and gray and granular.

Since there is no effective Cenangium canker treatment, management of the disease is the only option. The only line of defense is recognizing the symptoms early and taking steps to remove infected plant material.

The spores can persist, so it is not recommended to compost the material but rather bag it and send it to the landfill or burn it. Use good pruning techniques when removing diseased limbs. Do not cut into the branch collar and use sterile tools to prevent spreading the spores.

Remove infected limbs as soon as possible before fruiting bodies shoot ripe ascospores into the air in moist conditions. Ascospores are the next generation of the fungus and will rapidly spread in ideal weather climates.

This article was last updated on

Read more about Plant Diseases


Rose Diseases

Factsheet | HGIC 2106 | Updated: Nov 11, 2019 | Print

Roses are one of the most popular and versatile flowering shrubs grown throughout South Carolina. Most roses require a lot of care to grow and bloom properly. One of the most common causes of failure with roses is poor disease control. The three most serious diseases of roses in South Carolina are black spot, powdery mildew, and stem canker and dieback. For more information on roses see HGIC 1172, Growing Roses.

Remember that different types of roses vary greatly in their resistance to diseases and the maintenance they require. To grow roses successfully, you must select varieties that require an amount of care equal to that which you are able to provide. Shrub type roses bloom beautifully with few chemical controls needed, while the more susceptible varieties such as hybrid tea roses require an effective spray program to be in place before the growing season begins.


How to Treat Canker in Plum Trees

Canker in plum trees comes from an invasive fungus, which can eventually eat away at and kill your plum trees if left untreated. Cankers can develop on the large branches or even the trunk and enlarge to the point where they’ll choke off and kill the part of the tree above them. Prevention is just as important as treatment when one of your plum trees has canker. Preventing the spread of canker is essential in not only saving the infected tree, but also preserving the health of surrounding plum and other fruit trees.

Diagnose canker in your plum trees by inspecting them for holes in the outer bark and rust-colored ruptures on the trees. The first sign of cankers is oozing light-amber gum near the infection point beginning in April or early May. Dieback will also occur on infected twigs during the spring and early summer, with gumming at the twig’s base.

  • Canker in plum trees comes from an invasive fungus, which can eventually eat away at and kill your plum trees if left untreated.

Remove infected branches completely from your plum tree, especially if the branches are dead from the cankers. Burn the infected wood or throw it in the trash.

Cut out small cankers in the summer. Cut away the bark and remove the infected areas using a sharp knife. Cut at least four inches below the canker, and try to keep the margins as smooth as possible.

Disinfect your pruning shears, knife and other tools used on the infected plum trees after each use. Place tools in a solution of one part bleach and four parts water. Wipe the tools down and dry them immediately to avoid corrosion.

  • Remove infected branches completely from your plum tree, especially if the branches are dead from the cankers.
  • Cut away the bark and remove the infected areas using a sharp knife.

Apply a wound dressing to the excised canker wounds. Then, inject a Bordeaux mixture into the plum trees to treat the cankers. A Bordeaux mixture is a combination of copper sulphate and hydrated lime that is effective at killing fungi.

Prevent further infection, do your summer pruning after harvest so that the weather is dry. Also, postpone your dormant pruning until January or February.

To help avoid re-infection or spreading the infection, remove the grass and weeds from around the bottom of the plum trees. This will help to keep the trunk dry and increase air circulation around the plum tree.

Don’t remove cankers during wet, rainy weather. You’ll risk rain and water splash-back that could infect other parts of the tree or surrounding trees. Likewise, don’t use a sprinkler to water infected trees.

Take special care when using a Bordeaux mixture, because the copper in the mixture can harm fish, livestock and earthworms in your soil. Investigate other fungicides if you keep farm animals near your plum trees or if your trees are located near a water source.


How to Treat Cankers on an Eastern Redbud Tree

With its green leaves and bright red and pink flowers, the eastern redbud tree (Cercis canadensis) is a visual delight. The eastern redbud’s early blooms of bright color herald the commencement of spring. But the sight of withering leaves and dying branches can cause a gardener’s heart to clench because these are the signs of canker (Botryosphaeria). The U.S. Forest Service states that canker is the “biggest problem” for the eastern redbud. If left untreated, canker can ultimately kill the affected tree. There is no chemical treatment for canker on an eastern redbud tree. But a gardener is not without hope: If caught early, canker can be stopped in its tracks by aggressive pruning, saving the tree.

  • With its green leaves and bright red and pink flowers, the eastern redbud tree (Cercis canadensis) is a visual delight.
  • But a gardener is not without hope: If caught early, canker can be stopped in its tracks by aggressive pruning, saving the tree.

Plan to prune in the early spring, before the leaf buds break open. If canker is noticed after the tree has started leafing, prune in mid-June after new leaves are fully grown. Cover the ground under the pruning area with a large tarp to catch pruned branches and leaves.

Sterilize your pruning equipment between each cut to assist in stopping any transport of canker to other parts of the tree. Mix 10 percent bleach to 90 percent water in a sterile container, such as a bucket. Dip pruning equipment in this sanitizing agent. Keep the bucket of bleach and water at the pruning site.

  • Plan to prune in the early spring, before the leaf buds break open.
  • Sterilize your pruning equipment between each cut to assist in stopping any transport of canker to other parts of the tree.

Locate affected areas on the eastern redbud. Examine wilting or dying branches to spot signs of canker. Canker in eastern redbud trees can be difficult to identify because the bark over the canker area often does not crack. Look for sunken areas at the base of the affected branches, where the branch joins the trunk. Use a sharp pocket knife to peel away a small segment of bark over the suspected area. The wood will be discolored to a brown or reddish-brown under the bark of the affected area.

Use sanitized garden or lopping shears to prune off dead or dying branches. Make the cut in healthy tissue, not in the canker itself. Prune the branch close to the trunk of the tree but do not cut too close to the trunk. Do not prune too far away from the trunk, leaving a stub. Sterilize pruning tools between each and every cut.

  • Locate affected areas on the eastern redbud.
  • Canker in eastern redbud trees can be difficult to identify because the bark over the canker area often does not crack.

Fold the edges of your tarp to contain pruned material. Collect any other pruned branches and leaves. Dispose of them well away from the tree to avoid further contamination.

Prevent a return of canker by providing the eastern redbud tree with a healthy environment. Daniel H. Gillman, plant pathologist at University of Massachusetts, says that a healthy redbud will naturally protect itself from being affected beyond the isolated canker site. Watering, mulching, fertilizing and correct pruning will go a long way in maintaining the eastern redbud’s health.

Remember to sanitize all pruning and cutting instruments between each cut.

Follow correct pruning methods.

Eastern redbud trees badly affected by canker are unlikely to survive. These trees should be removed and disposed of well away from the garden or landscape area.


The Bearer of Bad News…

Most of my job as a horticulturist and garden writer is fun.

But sometimes, I have to be the bearer of bad news.

Last week, I was called to a home where the homeowners were worried about one of their citrus trees. Although I am a horticulturist, I am also a Certified Arborist, which can also be very helpful – especially when I am dealing with trees.

There was a large lemon tree in their front garden. They were concerned because they had some branches dying back and wanted to know what the cause was.

So, I stopped by and took a look at the lemon tree. At first glance, it looked fine – the homeowner had had the dead branches removed.

But, I had to look more closely, which meant getting close to the interior branches and the trunk.

What I saw in one of the remaining branches wasn’t good…

Can you see that the branch on the left is missing bark and is colored black?

What is this you may wonder?

Sooty Canker is a fungal disease that infects many different species of trees including citrus. It spreads through fungal spores. The spores enter the tree through damaged areas on the branches or trunk, forming lesions and eventually causing the bark to peel off.

It is called ‘sooty canker’ because of the black color of the fungal spores. The branches almost looked as if they have been scorched by fire.

In this case, the lemon tree had experienced severe frost damage 1 1/2 years ago. Frost can cause splitting and other damage in the bark. Sunburn damage can cause similar problems as well. The fungal spores enter through these damaged areas and begin to grow.

If only branches are affected, they can be pruned 6 inches to 1 ft. below where you see evidence of the sooty canker. Pruning tools must be disinfected with a 20% bleach solution to keep the disease from spreading between each pruning cut.

I was hopeful that I could tell the homeowners that all they had to do was to prune the affected branches.

But that was before I looked down at the trunk…

The entire trunk was infected with sooty canker. Unfortunately, this almost certainly means that the tree will die.

In this case, the tree should be removed to avoid spreading it to other trees.

I hated to tell the homeowners that they would have to have their tree taken out. Especially after they told me how much fruit they had enjoyed over the years from this tree.

After I told them the fatal diagnosis of their lemon tree – I offered to look at their other four citrus trees. I wanted to make sure that they weren’t infected as well.

Well, the good news was that their Meyer lemon tree was healthy.

The bad news was that their two orange trees and pommelo tree were all badly infected with sooty canker.

Did I mention that I hate being the bearer of bad news?

I must say that the clients accepted the bad news very well.

In fact, they said that they had gotten tired of picking up dropped fruit AND that one of them couldn’t even eat citrus any more due to dietary constraints.

They will be removing their five infected citrus trees while keeping a close eye on their disease-free Meyer lemon tree. At the first sign of a lesion, they will prune it away to help keep it safe from infection.

They asked me to return in spring to design a new landscape area in place of their citrus trees. I like being with people who see things as “a glass half-full”.

If you suspect that your tree has sooty canker – have a professional confirm the diagnosis and discuss with you the treatment options. If the trunk is not affected, you may be able to save your tree.

For more information, check out this link.

Noelle Johnson, aka, 'AZ Plant Lady' is a horticulturist, certified arborist, and landscape consultant who helps people learn how to create, grow, and maintain beautiful desert gardens that thrive in a hot, dry climate. She does this through her consulting services, her online class Desert Gardening 101, and her monthly membership club, Through the Garden Gate. As she likes to tell desert-dwellers, "Gardening in the desert isn't hard, but it is different."

Cytospora Canker – 2.937

Quick Facts…

Figure 1: Orange discoloration found in spring and early summer associated with cytospora canker.
Figure 2: Cytospora canker on three branches, each with scattered pycnidia.
Figure 3: Orange spores oozing from pycnidia.

Cytospora canker is caused by various species of the fungus Cytospora (sexual genera of Valsa and Leucostoma). These pathogens affect many species of shrubs and trees in Colorado, including aspen, cottonwood, lombardy and other poplars, apple, cherry, peach, plum, birch, willow, honeylocust, mountain ash, silver maple, spruce, and Siberian elm. Some Cytospora species are host-specific while other species can infect several different tree species. For example, willow, cottonwoods, and aspen are susceptible to one species. The fungus attacks trees or parts of trees that are injured or in a weak or stressed condition. The fungus grows in the living bark (phloem) and wood (xylem) and kills by girdling the branch or tree. The fungus can attack tree bark during the fall-winter spring seasons when temperatures are warm but the tree is dormant and cannot defend itself. Trees affected by drought, late spring frosts, insect and fungi defoliation, sunscald, herbicides, or mechanical injury are susceptible to Cytospora infection. The disease especially affects trees with root damage, which are often found in areas under construction, or trees that recently have been transplanted. Stands of aspen that have been thinned and young aspen sprout stands may suffer from Cytospora canker.

Sexual and asexual spores of Cytospora species infect freshly wounded tissue. The spores are released after fruiting bodies have absorbed water during rain events. Conidia ooze out of the wet fruiting bodies and are dispersed by rain splash and blown by wind. Many times fruiting bodies are not formed since the cankered tissue dries out too rapidly in the dry western climates.

Symptoms

Cytospora species cause branch dieback and cankers on trees or shrubs. Cankers on stems and branches are often elongate, slightly sunken, discolored areas in the bark. Many times, however, the discoloration is not evident because the fungus killed the bark rapidly. The fungus grows so fast on stressed trees that there is no evidence of a sunken canker. Bark often splits along the canker margin as the tree is defending itself and callus formation occurs. The fungus may quickly girdle and kill twigs without forming cankers. Symptoms vary with host species affected and stage of disease development. Bark above infected cambium may appear sunken and yellow, brown, reddish-brown, gray, or black. Diseased inner-bark and cambium turns reddish-brown to black, and becomes watery and odorous as it deteriorates. Wood below the cambium is stained brown (Figure 1). Liquid ooze on aspen and gummy ooze on peach and cherry are common. Cankers, sunken dead areas of bark with black pinhead-sized speckling or pimples, may be evident (Figure 2). The pimples are the reproductive structures of the fungus. Under moist conditions, masses of spores (seeds) may ooze out of the pimples in long, orange, coiled, thread-like spore tendrils (Figure 3). Reddish-brown discoloration of the wood and inner bark also may be evident. Dead bark may remain attached to the tree for several years, and then fall off in large pieces.

On spruce trees, the disease appears as sunken, resinous areas surrounded by swollen callus, giving a gall-like appearance. Small black fruiting bodies may occur on the canker. Once the branch is girdled, needles may yellow or redden. The branch eventually dies. Large amounts of resin flow from infected areas, coating branches and stems. Unless you see sunken areas surrounded by swollen callus, resin flow on spruce may indicate that other stresses, diseases or insects are affecting the tree.

Control

Because this canker disease usually occurs on a weakened host, the primary method of control is to prevent stress on the tree. Drought and oxygen starvation of roots by flooding soil with water are the two most common stresses that predispose trees to Cytospora infection. High temperatures seem to be related to Cytospora canker on our local alders.

To help a tree resist infection, prepare soil before planting, fertilize, water properly for winter and summer, prune, and avoid injury to the trunk and limbs. Proper care of recently transplanted trees also is essential to avoid stress and infection. See fact sheets 2.932, Environmental Disorders of Woody Plants, 7.211, Fall and Winter Watering, and GardenNotes 635, Care of Recently Planted Trees.

Wounds caused by lawnmowers and weed trimmers are prime targets for infection on trees in landscaped areas. Insects, such as oystershell scale, stress the tree and predispose it to Cytospora infection. Insects should be controlled to prevent mortality by the combined stress of the insects and Cytospora canker.

Help prevent cankers at pruning wounds on peach and cherry trees by applying labeled fungicides as wound dressings. Do not rely on the effectiveness of fungicides on wounds of other trees to prevent infection.

Another way to prevent Cytospora damage is to use species or varieties well adapted to the planting site conditions. These cultivars will be more likely able to resist the disease. Purchasing healthy nursery stock will decrease the possibility of infection. Once infection occurs, the best treatment is to increase plant vigor and sanitation. Remove all infected limbs and other areas. When removing branches, arborists and homeowners should make a smooth cut at the base of the limb, as near the trunk as possible, without damaging the branch collar (swollen area at base of branch). Jagged and rough cut surfaces promote infection. Once infection occurs, the best treatment is to increase plant vigor and sanitation. Remove all infected limbs and other areas. Clean wounds to avoid further spread of infection. Remove dead bark to dry out the diseased area and help the tree defend itself against insect and fungal attacks on the cankered area. Directions for proper wound and canker treatment are as follows:

  • Prune or cut trees only during dry weather.
  • Clean tools and wipe them with ethyl alcohol, Lysol or other disinfectant. Clorox may be used at a concentration of one part Clorox to nine parts water.
  • If a wound is fresh (one month old or less), use a sharp knife to carefully cut and remove all injured or diseased bark back to live, healthy tissue. If the wound is older, just remove loose bark pieces. It is important not to cut, remove or damage callus that may be forming at the canker edge. Callus will look like swollen bark growing across the dead area. Scrape the wound surface clean of loose bark.
  • Clean tools and disinfect after each cut.
  • Cleaned wounds should not have any sharp angles.
  • Do not apply any tar, oil-based paint or other wound dressing. The best method to prevent infection or decay is to allow the cleaned tissue to dry out.
Table 1: Some resistant species and cultivars.
AshMost cultivars.
AspenResistant cultivars not commercially available.
CottonwoodCultivars: Noreaster, Platte, Mighty Mo, Ohio Red. Avoid Lombardy, Bolleana, Sioux Land.
ElmsMost cultivars
HackberryMost cultivars
HoneylocustMost cultivars.
JunipersMost cultivars.
LindensBig and little leaf.
MaplesMost species and cultivars.
PinesMost species and cultivars.

1 Colorado State University professor, bioagricultural sciences and pest management. 9/99. Revised 12/13.


Other Problems

Sooty mold primarily on the previous year’s foliage. J. McLeod Scott, ©2010 HGIC, Clemson Extension

Sooty Mold: A charcoal-black, powdery or velvety coating on leaves and other plant parts is the result of the growth of one of the commonly occurring sooty mold fungi. The good news is that despite its appearance, the fungus is not infecting plant tissue and is not causing disease. It grows on the surface of the plant and gets its nourishment from honeydew that is excreted by sap-sucking insects such as aphids, some scales, whiteflies, leafhoppers, mealybugs, and others. As these insects suck plant sap, they are unable to digest all of the sugar that they ingest. The excess is excreted as a sugary liquid called honeydew. For information on controlling the insect pests whose feeding habits result in sooty mold problems, see HGIC 2059, Gardenia Insects & Related Pests.

Diagnosis of sooty mold is made simple by the fact that the black fungal growth can be removed by wiping with a moist paper towel, or in some cases, by peeling it off to reveal an undamaged plant surface.

While mainly a cosmetic problem, when sooty mold is severe, it can reduce the vigor of plants by blocking sunlight necessary for photosynthesis (food production). On the other hand, insect feeding can seriously damage a plant. Between insect feeding and reduced photosynthesis, the plant may be more susceptible to other insects, diseases, and environmental problems.

Control: Since the cause of the problem is insect activity, control measures should be directed at the insects rather than the fungus. Important first steps include identifying the plant that is infested and the insect that is causing the problem. When identifying the infested plant, always look at plants growing above the gardenia as well as the gardenia itself. With a sufficiently heavy infestation of sap-sucking insects, the sticky honeydew may drip from an infested over-hanging tree or taller nearby plant to non-infested plants growing below (as well as onto objects such as lawn furniture, decks, cars, etc.).

Bud Drop: When a gardenia is stressed, unopened flower buds may drop from the plant. Potential stressors include infestations of thrips or aphids, root feeding by nematodes, too much fertilizer, over-watering, under-watering, poor soil drainage, insufficient light, unusually cool weather, rapid drops in temperature, or very hot, dry weather.

Yellowing Leaves: As an evergreen shrub, it is normal for the older leaves of a gardenia to turn yellow and drop. This typically occurs during early spring before new growth appears. If chlorosis (leaf yellowing) occurs at other times of the year and there is no evidence of insect pests or disease, and the remaining leaves look healthy, then there may be an environmental or cultural factor causing yellow foliage. As with bud drop, several stressors, including insect infestations, nematode feeding, over-watering, under-watering, poor soil drainage, insufficient light, soil temperatures below 70 °F, and poor nutrition, may cause leaf yellowing and drop.

Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides) exhibiting iron chlorosis (yellowing between the veins) on newer foliage.
Meg R. Williamson, ©2010, Plant Problem Clinic, Clemson University

Iron Chlorosis: Gardenias are acid-loving plants that grow best in soil with a pH of 5.0 to 6.0. Iron is an essential nutrient that plants use to produce the green pigment chlorophyll. While iron is rarely deficient in the soil, if the soil pH is above 7.0, the iron may be in a form that is not available to the plant.

When a gardenia does not get the iron it needs, its leaves generally turn pale green to yellow. Young leaves may turn completely yellow except for the veins and nearby tissue, which remains green. This symptom is known as interveinal chlorosis. Older leaves may only be yellow along the edges. Overall, the plant may become stunted.

Control: Ideally, soil pH problems need to be corrected prior to planting. Since this option is often not available, the first step for solving a suspected iron deficiency problem is to take a soil test to determine the soil pH. Make sure that turfgrass lime applications, which raise the soil pH, do not reach the soil beneath gardenias. If the existing pH is identified as being too high, instructions are provided in HGIC 1650, Changing the pH of Your Soil on how to lower soil pH as needed.

In cases where the soil pH was raised above 7.0 due to the application of lime, water-soluble sulfur or aluminum sulfate can be applied to the soil beneath the shrub. However, in soils with a naturally high pH, applications of these materials will not result in a permanent lowering of the soil pH.

In lieu of changing the soil pH, annual applications of chelated iron can be applied to the soil or directly to gardenia leaves to provide the necessary iron. Another iron source that can be used for foliar applications is ferrous sulfate (FeSO4·2H2O). When foliar applications are used, the addition of a couple of drops of dishwashing soap per gallon of water will help wet leaves and aid absorption. These soil or foliar applications may need to be applied more than once during the growing season if the underlying soil pH problem is not resolved. Reapplication time should be determined by observing the leaves for the reappearance of symptoms. See Table 2 for brands of iron-containing products.

Once the soil pH has been corrected, it can be maintained by using a slow-release fertilizer that is designed for acid-loving plants, such as Vigoro Premium Azalea, Camellia & Rhododendron Food (10-8-8) Scotts Evergreen Flower, Tree & Shrub Continuous Release Plant Food (11-7-7) Lilly Miller Azalea, Camellia & Rhododendron Food (10-5-4) Hi-Yield Azalea, Camellia, Gardenia & Evergreen Fertilizer (4-8-8) or Espoma Holly-tone (4-3-4). Also, when applying lime to nearby lawns or landscape plants, keep it away from gardenias. Keep in mind that lime can leach from cement and brick mortar and affect the pH of the surrounding soil.

Table 1. Fungicides for Gardenia Disease Control

Pesticide Active Ingredient Brand Names & Products
Chlorothalonil Bonide Fung-onil Multi-purpose Fungicide Concentrate
Ferti-lome Broad Spectrum Landscape & Garden Fungicide Concentrate
GardenTech Daconil Fungicide Concentrate
Hi-Yield Vegetable, Flower, Fruit & Ornamental Fungicide Concentrate
Ortho MAX Garden Disease Control Concentrate
Southern Ag Liquid Ornamental & Vegetable Fungicide
Tiger Brand Daconil
Horticultural oil 1,2 Bonide All Seasons Spray Oil & RTS 3
Ferti-lome Horticultural Oil Spray Concentrate & RTS 3
Monterey Horticultural Oil Concentrate & RTS 3
Safer Brand Horticultural & Dormant Spray Oil Concentrate
Southern Ag ParaFine Horticultural Oil
Summit Year Round Spray Oil Concentrate
Myclobutanil Ferti-lome F-Stop Lawn & Garden Fungicide Concentrate
Monterey Fungi-Max
Spectracide Immunox Multi-Purpose Fungicide Concentrate
Neem oil Bonide Neem Oil Concentrate
Bonide Rose Rx 3-in-1 Concentrate
Concern Garden Defense Multi-Purpose Spray Concentrate
Ferti-lome Rose, Flower & Vegetable Spray Concentrate
Garden Safe Fungicide 3 Concentrate & RTS 3
Garden Safe Neem Oil Extract Concentrate
Monterey 70% Neem Oil Fungicide/Insecticide/Miticide Concentrate & RTS 3
Natural Guard Neem Concentrate
Southern Ag Triple Action Neem Oil Concentrate
Propiconazole Banner Maxx Fungicide
Bonide Infuse Systemic Disease Control Concentrate & RTS 3
Ferti-lome Liquid Systemic Fungicide II Concentrate & RTS 3
Martin’s Honor Guard PPZ
Quali-Pro Propiconazole
Sulfur 2 Bonide Sulfur Plant Fungicide (also wettable for spray)
Hi-Yield Wettable Dusting Sulfur
Southern Ag Wettable or Dusting Sulfur
Thiophanate-methyl Cleary’s 3336 WP Turf & Ornamental Fungicide
Southern Ag Thiomyl Systemic Fungicide
1 Add 3 tablespoons of horticultural oil to a gallon of water with 3 tablespoons of baking soda for powdery mildew control.
2 Never apply a horticultural oil spray within 2 weeks of a sulfur spray, and do not apply horticultural oils or sulfur when the temperature is above 90 °F or to drought-stressed plants. Do not apply a horticultural oil spray when rainfall is forecast within 24 hours.
3 RTS = Ready to Spray (hose-end applicator)With all pesticides, read and follow all label instructions and precautions.

Table 2. Iron-containing Products to Correct Iron Chlorosis in Gardenia

Brand Names & Products Containing Iron Percent Iron & Comments
Ferti-lome Chelated Liquid Iron & Other Micronutrients 3.25% iron (as iron EDTA) plus copper, manganese, & zinc For foliar or soil application liquid
Ferti-lome Soil Acidifier Plus Iron 4.5% iron (as ferrous sulfate) plus zinc, sulfur, magnesium, and copper liquid
Ferti-lome Chelated Iron 6% iron (as iron EDDHA) liquid
Hi-Yield Iron Plus Soil Acidifier 16% iron (as iron oxide) with ammonium sulfate granules, 11-0-0
Ironite Mineral Supplement (1-0-1) 26% iron (as iron oxide), plus calcium and sulfur granules
Southern Ag Iron Granules 30% iron (from ferrous sulfate) plus sulfur granules
Southern Ag Essential Minor Elements 5% iron from ferrous sulfate & chelated iron (FeNaEDTA), plus sulfur, boron, copper, manganese, and zinc granules
Southern Ag Chelated Liquid Iron 5% iron (chelated as iron sulfonate) plus sulfur for soil application or foliar spray liquid

If this document didn’t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at [email protected] or 1-888-656-9988.

Original Author(s)

Janet McLeod Scott, Former Horticulture Information Specialist, Clemson University

Revisions by:

Joey Williamson, PhD, HGIC Horticulture Extension Agent, Clemson University

This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed.


Watch the video: Bacterial Canker on Apricot Trees


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