What you need to have time to do in the garden before the onset of steady heat - the spring work of the gardener
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When plant buds swell
Spring is the time for the awakening of nature. During this period, the buds of plants begin to swell, from which then the rudiments of buds and leaves, or both together, depending on the type of buds, appear.
Currants, gooseberries and honeysuckle are the first to start growing in the garden. If for some reason you did not have time to prune these crops in March, then do it in early April - before bud break. Cut off the shoots of newly planted 1-2-year-old currant and gooseberry seedlings, leaving only 2-4 buds on each.
The central shoot can be 2-3 buds longer, so that later a pyramidal crown is formed. In three-year-old bushes, leave 3-4 of the strongest basal shoots. Subsequently, create a bush with branches of different ages, leave 3-4 of the strongest basal shoots annually to form new skeletal branches of the bush, and remove the rest to the base. For better branching of basal shoots, shorten them: in varieties that are poorly branching - by one third, in well-branching ones - cut off only unripe tops with underdeveloped buds.
With the passage of time and the aging of the bushes, in addition to excess root shoots, annually remove the old branches lying on the ground, growing inside the bush and intertwining, dry, broken, damaged by pests and diseases. A formed fruiting bush of currants and gooseberries should have 3-4 branches of different ages (from 1 year to 5 years), i.e. 15-20 branches of different ages.
Pruning of fruiting bushes of white and red currants is somewhat different from black. They cut off the tops of the branches, since it is there that the main crop is formed. Their skeletal branches are more durable, so cut the old branches to the base of the bush only after they reach the age of seven.
After currants and gooseberries, trim the honeysuckle, it also starts growing early. Young 3-4-year-old honeysuckle plants do not require pruning, and in fruiting bushes, thin out the crown, which is prone to strong thickening. With age, cut out the aging branches and clean up small overgrown branches that grow poorly and do not bear fruit due to shading in the crown. For older bushes, cut the oldest skeletal branches to the base or cut them to a side branch.
Start pruning cherries and plums last when traces of freezing are clearly visible after overwintering.
In the second half of April, prune on raspberries. If old shoots were not cut out in the fall, cut them to the base, leaving no stumps. Be sure to remove the shoots with thickenings (galls), which contain the larvae of the stem gall midge. Cut off the dry tops of the shoots, they are either frozen or the larva of a raspberry fly in them. Be sure to burn all branches after cutting trees and shrubs, and use the ash for fertilization.
As soon as the soil thaws and dries up, use a fan rake to clean the strawberries from dry leaves, and also clear the entire area of last year's leaves, debris and burn.
Start planting work as soon as the soil allows. Carefully examine the seedlings that were in the trench, especially their roots. Cut broken, dried, rotten roots to a healthy place. Dip the dried roots into water for a day. When preparing the soil, fill it with the required amount of fertilizer, make sure that the planting is correct.
If the root collar of seedlings of fruit trees during autumn planting was buried in the soil, then be sure to correct this error, otherwise the plants will lag behind in growth, slow down their growth and bear little fruit.
If groundwater is close to your site, plant fruit seedlings on mounds up to 0.4-0.5 m in height with an initial width of at least 1.3-1.5 m.As the roots grow, the mounds will increase.
In order to reproduce the crops you need during the period of sap flow, vaccinate with a cuttings, prepare and plant shoots of own-rooted plum and cherry trees. These crops can also be propagated by root cuttings. As soon as the soil thaws, in uterine self-rooted plants, expose horizontal roots 0.5-1.5 cm thick, cut root cuttings 15-20 cm long and plant them on pre-prepared ridges or in a greenhouse with a film cover. Plant the cuttings in the grooves vertically or obliquely, deepening the upper end of the cutting by 1-2 cm. Water and mulch the soil abundantly, monitor its moisture until the cuttings germinate, otherwise they will dry out.
Propagate currants, gooseberries, sea buckthorn in April with lignified cuttings harvested in late autumn or early spring. Plant them at an angle of 45 degrees in moist, fertile soil, leaving two to three buds on the surface. For a better retention of moisture in the soil, plant the cuttings in ridges covered with plastic wrap, make holes in it, into which you plant the cuttings. Such a planting will help speed up the rooting of cuttings and increase the percentage of their survival. Planting raspberries in spring as early as possible, since they germinate root buds very early.
As soon as the soil is ready, start planting strawberries planted in the fall for growing in special seedling beds. To speed up the ripening of future strawberries, immediately after the snow melts and the removal of dry and diseased leaves, feed the plants, and cover some of the fruit-bearing plantings with film frames. At the end of the month, when the soil dries up, dig it in the near-trunk circles of fruit trees and berry trees, after applying fertilizers. Apply mineral fertilizers for digging, and leave organic fertilizers (humus or peat) on the surface as mulch.
In April, before bud break, take preventive pest and disease control measures. Treat plants and the soil in the near-stem circles to kill pests that have hibernated in them. Use phytoverm preparations and phytosporin, ammonium nitrate or urea (500-700 g per 10 liters of water). Replacement of drugs makes it possible to more successfully suppress the number of various pathogens or pests. If you did not treat the garden with the above preparations in time, then in the phase of swelling of the flower buds, spray with Bordeaux liquid.
candidate of agricultural sciences
Work in the garden and in the garden in the fall: sowing, fertilizing, preparing for winter
Author: Natalya Category: Garden plants Published: October 13, 2020 Updated: October 13, 2020
The hot summer days are over, a motley harvest autumn is approaching the middle. The frost will begin soon. Almost the entire crop is processed or stored. And thoughts already about the next season: has everything been done to bookmark the next year's harvest?
Our story will be about how to put things in order in the garden and garden on the eve of winter and how to prepare for the next growing season.
Autumn work on the site
Cleanliness is the key to a healthy garden
The tops of vegetables, weeds, small and unripe fruits must be collected and taken out or burned, and the ash remaining after burning must be scattered over the site: it will serve as a fertilizer. Healthy plant organs can be laid in a compost pit, which is carefully covered with foil so that rodents do not get there in winter.
If legumes were growing in the garden, their tops should be buried in the soil to saturate it with free nitrogen.
It is necessary to feed, a well-fed plant is warmer in frost
It is better to apply fertilizers to the soil in the fall, and not in the spring, before sowing or planting: during the winter they will dissolve, nourish the soil, and in the spring the plants will not get burned. It is better to use manure and other organic substances containing calcium as fertilizer: limestone, chalk, quicklime, slaked lime (fluff). They should be evenly distributed over a damp surface, and then buried in the ground by digging.
If lumps form during digging, do not break them: in winter they freeze, and pests and pathogens hibernating in them die. Light sandy soils are not dug up in autumn. They are sprinkled with fertilizers containing calcium to neutralize high acidity. You can also spread the manure over the surface.
Sown before winter and cover warmer
During the autumn period, when the ground has not yet frozen, but the cold weather has already established, they carry out the winter sowing of such garden crops:
As well as the following flowering plants:
Sow their dry seeds in the beds prepared in warm weather. The consumption of sowing material should be double compared to the spring rate, on the basis that part of the seeds will freeze in extreme cold. But the strongest seeds will undergo natural stratification in the soil in winter and will give strong and healthy shoots in the spring.
If there is a warming and podzimny crops suddenly turn green with seedlings in the fall, you should cover them for the winter with spruce branches, peat or any non-woven material.
Perennials also want to sleep warm
Perennials in the fall are cut to short stumps, only diseased and unripe green shoots are completely cut out. The soil around the plants is loosened and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied to it. Then the root area is covered with a layer of sawdust, straw or leaves mulch. This will not only protect the root system from freezing, but also provide plants with nutrition in the spring.
Containers must be dry
Do not forget about the containers that held water in the summer. Plastic and silicone watering cans, barrels and buckets must be dried and removed indoors so that they do not crack from temperature extremes. All water must be drained from iron containers and drained to prevent rust formation.
Small ponds, in which fish are not found, are usually also drained for the winter, so that their shape is not crushed by the ice formed in winter.
The coming winter frightens many gardeners and gardeners, because no one knows what it will be like, how the wintering plants will endure severe cold weather, lack of snow or inopportune thaws. But if you are well prepared for any challenge, you can spend the winter months relatively calm.
After this article, they usually read
The time of the end of the warm and the beginning of the cold season is considered one of the hottest periods in the life of summer residents, since in the fall, work is especially actively carried out in the garden and vegetable garden. Particular attention is paid to harvesting, summing up the summer cottage season, as well as preparing for the winter.
The entire extensive list of work in the garden and the garden is conventionally divided into periods and for each month - September, October and November, one or another list of tasks is determined. These types of activities in the fall have much in common with spring, but the main emphasis is now on preparing plants for winter, as well as on harvesting the garden plot. For each autumn month, as well as the summer one, certain events are intended to be carried out, and it is important not to miss the dates favorable for their implementation. What kind of work in the garden and vegetable garden is performed in September, October and November?
Works in September
Compared to the summer months, the day becomes much shorter and the air temperature drops noticeably. The main types of work during this period are:
1. Sanitary cleaning in the garden
The first step is to start removing weeds growing on the site, as well as get rid of dry vegetation and foliage.
You should not neglect the harvesting of fallen fruits, since they are the home for many pests, which, with the onset of the first heat, will begin to increase their population. All collected dry leaves, as well as diseased branches, must be destroyed or taken out of the summer cottage.
September is considered a favorable period for pruning and transplanting perennial plants, since the land is well saturated with moisture and heat, and there is plenty of time for good rooting before the first frosts appear. In addition, bulbous plants such as daffodils, lilies and crocuses are also planted. It was during this period that coniferous and deciduous trees and shrubs, as well as raspberries, gooseberries and blackberries, are planted.
In some regions, the beginning of autumn is a favorable period for sowing lawns, but this must be done with caution. After all, autumn weather is quite deceptive and frosts can replace warm and humid days, in which case all work will have to start from scratch.
2. Preparing the garden
In September, an active harvest is carried out in the garden. The beginning of the month is a favorable period for digging up potatoes and root crops such as carrots and beets, and at the end of the month it is recommended to start collecting pumpkin, zucchini and cabbage.
Do not forget about soil fertilization. Many summer residents prefer compost, which is a natural fertilizer, others choose organic in the form of manure, humus or peat. Since nitrogen fertilizers have a stimulating effect on plant growth, they should be abandoned.
3. Preparation of trees and shrubs
The end of the month is a favorable time for planting young seedlings, however, spring is still the ideal period for heat-loving plants. It is worth paying attention to the harvesting and planting of currant cuttings. Preparing shrubs for winter consists of three stages: cutting off old branches, applying top dressing and hilling procedure.
It is possible to improve air movement, as well as oxygen access to the root system, by loosening the soil around the tree. It is recommended to cultivate the land around the shrubs taking into account the individual characteristics of a particular plant. For example, currants have a positive attitude to deep loosening of the soil, while raspberries like loosening only the surface layer of the soil.
The whitewashing of the garden is of no small importance, which is considered the final stage in the preparation of trees and shrubs for the winter season. Many summer residents consider whitewashing only as a way to protect plants from garden pests, and therefore it should be done only in spring. However, this opinion is erroneous, as whitewashed trees become less susceptible to severe frosts that occur at the top of winter.
What other types of work should be paid attention to in September?
- the lawn is mowed and brushed with a fan rake. To improve soil drainage, a lawn piercing procedure is carried out with ordinary forks.
- small artificial reservoirs located on the territory of the suburban area need to be drained. All equipment and vegetation are stored in a special room. Do not forget about the cleaning of reservoirs, as well as the removal of various debris.
- September is a period of active harvesting, therefore, the premises intended for storing vegetables and fruits must undergo a disinfection procedure using rasters of soda or formalin. This will help prevent mold infestation and also extend the shelf life of the fruit.
- active work is underway to catch and destroy garden pests, since it is during this period that some of them begin to lay eggs on tree trunks
- in the greenhouse, it is necessary to remove the top layer of soil, since it is he who is a good place for wintering pests of the garden and vegetable garden. The collected soil is mixed with compost and filled into the compost pit
- in order to prevent the growth of the root system of raspberries and sea buckthorn to the sides, they dig into the ground slate or roofing material folded in several layers
- at the beginning of the month, to increase the harvest next year, they cut the leaves of strawberries and strawberries, and also feed them with organic fertilizers.
Works in October
Summer cottages located in close proximity to the metropolis still feel the breath of heat, which is explained by the influence of the "greenhouse" effect. More distant territories are sinking deeper and deeper into the power of natural conditions. October is the middle autumn month, which is characterized by the process of abundant leaf fall and the complete completion of the summer cottage season for colder regions.
The second month of autumn is a suitable period for planting young seedlings and renewing the orchard. If it becomes necessary to transplant adult trees, you have to wait for their foliage to completely fall off and only then start work.
In October, they are engaged in transplanting fruit shrubs to their permanent habitat, and also begin preparing trees for the winter season. To do this, thoroughly loosen the near-stem circles, and then, after thorough watering, warm the soil with the help of dry leaves, grass or manure.
By the end of October, it is recommended to plant trees and shrubs with an open root system, since a later time is suitable only for planting plants with closed roots. Cutting off diseased, dry branches and branches that do not differ in an abundance of harvest must be completed before the onset of the first frost. In October, work continues on the formation of the crown of trees and shrubs, and they stop with the onset of sub-zero temperatures.
2. Autumn preparation of flowers
At the end of October, all plantings of bulbous plants need mulching with peat or humus, which will allow them to survive the cold season favorably. Until the middle of the month, it is necessary to dig up gladioli, dahlias and begonias in order to move them to a special room for wintering. It is recommended to carry out such work at a positive air temperature in sunny and clear weather.
Do not forget about the preparation of perennial plants that remain in the ground for the winter. It is important to pay attention to the condition of the leaves: dead and painful foliage must be cut and burned. To improve the condition of the soil, the soil around the flowers should be loosened and the necessary amount of fertilizer should be applied.
You can start planting annual plants such as aster, calendula, poppy and cornflowers, taking into account the weather conditions. It is necessary to sow seeds for the winter in cold weather at the first signs of soil freezing, so that they, once in an earthen lump, plunge into hibernation. Warm and sunny weather can provoke plant growth this season, leading to its death.
In October, the preparation of flower beds for spring planting begins, which includes loosening the soil, killing weeds and leveling the surface layer of the soil. It is too late to start sowing the lawn this month, as unexpected frosts can cause the death of young shoots.
3. Types of work in the garden
Of all the variety of crops growing in the garden, the most cold-resistant is the salad, which is able to sit quietly in the garden until the onset of winter and the appearance of snow. After the onset of the first frost, its green shoots are cut and wrapped in any non-woven material. For wintering in the open ground, there is also a leek, which feels comfortable all winter in a layer of compost or sawdust.
The tops of potatoes, tomatoes and cucumbers remaining from the harvest must be harvested and destroyed. The remains of such vegetable crops are poisonous, so you should not use them for compost, and also bury them in the ground for rotting.
At the end of October, it is recommended to start planting dill, lettuce, spinach and radish. The ideal weather conditions for this process will be cold autumn weather, but without severe soil freezing. If a light crust of ice appears on the ground, then this is absolutely not scary, such a soil is quite suitable for sowing seeds.
After complete harvesting of the plots from the harvest, they dig up the garden, which differs from doing this type of work in the spring. In the fall, do not break up large clods of earth during digging, as is done before preparing the soil for planting vegetables. This is due to the fact that a large number of garden pests larvae accumulate in the ground, which have settled there for hibernation. Lumps of large sizes freeze much better than small ones, which leads to the death of harmful insects.
4. Final cleaning of the pond
When preparing the pond for winter, it is worth cutting off underwater plants - oxygenators that enrich the water with oxygen, as well as dark coastal plants. Work should be done so that the stems protrude several centimeters above the water, which will allow oxygen to enter the water during the freezing of the pond, as well as bring harmful and toxic substances to the surface from the depths of the pond. It is necessary to complete the cleaning of the pond by removing the flowers and leaves of the water lilies, as well as transferring frost-resistant aquatic plants to the house.
What other types of work are carried out on the garden plot in October?
- work continues to restore order in the garden and vegetable garden
- trees and shrubs are transplanted, which have already completely dropped their foliage
- in the garden, the soil is being prepared for the upcoming spring plantings. It includes the application of potash and phosphorus fertilizers, as well as manure and ash. To increase the degree of soil protection and better warming it up at the beginning of spring, the finished ridges are covered with a black film
- if there is soil with high acidity on the site, liming is performed with chalk or lime.
Works in November
November is the last month of autumn, which finally closes the summer cottage season. This month is distinguished by its grayness, gloominess, high rainfall and the appearance of the first permanent snow at the end of the month. The short duration of the day, cold weather more and more reminds that the summer season is coming to an end. However, even now there are many gardening activities for the true gardener.
Fruit trees and berry bushes are characterized by a state of deep dormancy, and cold weather favors the natural hardening of plants. Young saplings threw off the yellowed foliage and got rid of the fruits, and right now the cuttings are a real storehouse of the plant's vital energy, which will actively manifest itself when nature awakens in spring.
A suitable temperature for storing cuttings is considered to be from minus 2 to + 4 degrees, which is quite problematic to provide at home (but it is quite possible in the basement of the garage). There are several ways to store cuttings, the most common of which are:
- cuttings are placed under the snow cover and stored there throughout the winter. However, this method is not entirely reliable, since winters have recently been distinguished by a small amount of snow and their unpredictability.
- for storage, you can use a cold room, such as a basement. This method is not suitable for all plants and early thaws, warming a house with a basement, can provoke the awakening of cuttings ahead of time.
- with a small number of cuttings, you can use the refrigerator as a storage room.
In recent years, there has been a protracted autumn with an abundance of rains, which reduces the resistance of plants to the effects of cold weather, so it is important to insulate them for the winter. On branches bare from leaves, you can see the nests of the ringed and gypsy moth, hawthorn and goldtail, which must be removed and destroyed.
November is a favorable time for sanitary pruning of diseased trees, as well as those affected by a large number of pests, and for cleaning the trunks. Fallen leaves and diseased fruits must be removed from the site and tree trunks must be treated. In November, the whitewashing of tree trunks with a lime mortar ends, as well as binding of boles and skeletal branches using spruce legs, cherry and plum branches. If a frosty winter is expected, then it is worth taking care of the raspberries: the shoots are tied to each other and bent to the ground. Under dense snow cover, the plant will be able to survive the winter safely.
It is worth taking care of protecting the winter garden from hares and rodents, who choose places with a large accumulation of debris, branches, straw and manure as their home. Usually tree trunks are wrapped with old newspaper, on top of which a layer of roofing material, oilcloth or dense fabric is laid and the resulting structure is sprinkled with earth.
The planting of crops such as hawthorn, mountain ash and viburnum is coming to an end, the seedlings of which are placed in a pre-fertilized pit, covered with earth and watered with the required amount of water.
2. What is done in the garden
In November, in the southern regions, the final harvest of the grown crop is carried out, as well as the digging of soil free from planting. This work must be completed before the first snow, otherwise an abundant amount of moisture will penetrate into the soil, which will evaporate in the spring for a long time.
Despite the frozen soil, various vegetable crops are planted in the garden in November. Cold weather will not allow the seeds to germinate, and during the winter, under the cover of snow, they will have the opportunity to harden and germinate in full force with the appearance of the first spring heat. Vegetable crops that remain in the open field for the winter should be covered with peat, humus, or covered with fallen leaves. Crops such as onions, parsley, lettuce, dill, Chinese cabbage and other types of vegetables are planted.
It is necessary to complete the preparation of seeds for the upcoming sowing summer cottage, which are obtained from previously cut and dried testes of beets, carrots and other vegetables. If necessary, they are thoroughly threshed, and the resulting seeds are sifted and packaged in sachets. The procurement of mineral fertilizers for the spring season is being completed, and it is also necessary to shovel the compost and add water or slurry to it, if necessary.
3. Preparing the flower garden for winter
In November, the final preparation of the flower garden and its inhabitants for the coming winter is carried out. Perennial plants are pruned to a height of 15 - 20 cm, which will keep snow on them during the winter. The flower garden is being cleaned from diseased plant residues, and dry and healthy ones are used to cover such flower plants as roses, clematis, honeysuckle - honeysuckle and others. Old plantings of perennials must be watered with mineral fertilizers, and the young should be covered with peat or humus, which will allow them to survive the cold winter favorably and not freeze out.
The tubers of such plants as gladioli, dahlias, as well as the rhizome of the cannes are reviewed, the diseased are discarded, and the healthy ones are placed in storage. For the safety of begonia tubers, they are cleaned from the ground, then dried well and placed in a perforated plastic bag, which is placed in wet sand, peat or sawdust.
Work is underway to insulate climbing roses, which are a thermophilic plant and are not well adapted to life in cold conditions. Before the onset of the first cold weather, their shoots must be pressed to the ground with the help of hairpins, covered with peat or humus, and covered with the paws of coniferous trees.
4. Pond care
November is no longer happy with clear and sunny weather, but such luck falls out, then it is worthwhile to start thinning out the overgrown plants in the water garden. It is necessary to cut off floating plants at the base using special scissors and remove it from the reservoir. It is necessary to carry out this procedure, provided that they occupy a large surface of the reservoir, which can lead to the formation of impassable thickets.
All algae and fallen leaves are removed from the water. In artificial reservoirs, you do not need to drain the water until it is completely empty, you can only make the mirror area a little smaller. Plastic bottles filled with water and immersed in the bottom of the reservoir will help to maintain the shape of the reservoir bed and not deform. Reservoirs with fish are by no means drained, the fish in them only plunge into hibernation. In southern regions, with warm enough water and soil, you can start planting new plants in the coastal zone.