Fires: What to do in case of fire
We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
EVERYTHING WE NEED TO KNOW ABOUT FIRE
What to do in case of fire
In case a fire is sighted:
If you spot a fire, the first thing to do is to call the national telephone number 1515 of the FORESTRY CORPS OF THE STATE or the other emergency numbers.
Follow the rules suggested below
- if it is a fire beginning, try to put it out, only if you are sure of an escape route, keeping your back to the wind and beating the flames with a green branch until they are suffocated;
- do not stay in the places above the fire or in areas where the wind blows;
- do not cross the street filled with smoke or flames;
- do not park on the streets. The fire is not a show;
- is the road closed? Don't queue up and go back;
- allow the intervention of emergency vehicles, freeing the roads and not overshadowing them with their own cars;
- indicate to the fire brigade the roads or paths you know;
- provide water reserves and other equipment;
If you are surrounded by fire
- look for a safe escape route: a road or a watercourse;
- cross the front of the fire where it is less intense, to go to the part already burned;
- lie on the ground where there is no flammable vegetation. Sprinkle yourself with water or cover yourself with earth. Prepare for the arrival of smoke by breathing with a wet cloth on your mouth;
- on the beach, gather on the beach and immerse yourself in the water. Do not try to retrieve cars, motorcycles, tents or what you have left inside. Life is worth more than a stereo or a backpack;
- do not leave a house if you are not sure that the escape route is open. Report your presence;
- sealed (with sticky paper and wet cloths) doors and windows. The fire will pass through the house before the smoke and flames penetrate inside;
- do not leave the car. Close the windows and the ventilation system. Signal your presence with the horn and headlights.
N.B. The information reported was elaborated from the news published by the State Forestry Corps
WHAT TO DO IN THE EVENT OF A FIRE
Fires are accidents that are as frequent as they are dangerous, both due to the direct effects of the flames and the indirect effects of smoke and soot.
In fact, a fire can take a few seconds to flashover: the moment when everything that can burn, burns. For this reason it is essential to get out of the burning building as quickly as possible, trying to stay calm.
To cross a smoke-filled environment it is advisable to cover your face with a wet cloth, to protect your eyes and nose from harmful particles, and proceed on all fours. Remember never to use the lift!
Finally, it is extremely dangerous to try to put out a fire yourself, especially due to the abundant presence of very harmful and dangerous contaminating particles.
Fires: tips for securing oneself
The contribution of the Canadair CL 415 is certainly fundamental, however the means available are always few and without the contribution of helicopters many fires would have ended in tragedy. The Forest Rangers, with its tank trucks and large equipped off-road vehicles, in coordination with S-64 F, NH 500 and AB 412 aircraft it is always at the forefront both from the sky and from the ground. There is a simple regulation to follow if you are a hiker found themselves surrounded by flames, which unfortunately often happens.
What should be done after reporting the fire to one-one-two or 115?
- Look for a safe escape route, through a road or a stream
- Cross the fire front where it is less intense for pass on the ground already burned
- Lie down on the ground where there is no flammable vegetation by sprinkling oneself with water or covering oneself with earth
- Defend yourself from smoke by breathing with a wet cloth over his mouth
- If you are on the beach plunge into the water, giving up the attempt to recover luggage, car, tent or other
- If it is at home, seal doors and windows with sticky paper and wet cloths, signal your presence and do not go out unless you are sure that the escape route is open
- By car, do not abandon it, but close the windows and the ventilation system, signaling your presence with the horn and the headlights.
By following these simple rules, but above all cactively collaborating with the Forestry Corps rescuers avoiding do-it-yourself measures, many lives can be saved. We remind all those who love to walk through beautiful woods that prevention is the first useful gesture to avoid unnecessary tragedies: do not light fires, do not throw cigarette butts, do not abandon waste as they are excellent fuels and finally do not park your car on land where the grass is particularly dry.
The fight against fire is often unequal, means and men are always too few and the results are often seen during the hot Italian summers, which produce a real massacre of green areas. Here perhaps it would be worthwhile to quote a famous phrase said by a great statesman like Winston Churchill referring to its pilots: never so many, they owe so much to so few
What to do in the event of a forest fire?
Millions and millions of years ago the most beautiful invention of nature came to make the Earth's atmosphere breathable: flora. Green algae and plants, thanks to their green cells and the energy of the Sun, eliminated gases that are lethal to life, starting to produce oxygen.
Even today it is the trees, the grass in the meadows and the microscopic green plants suspended over the seas and lakes (phytoplankton) that purify the air and provide us with the oxygen that allows us to live.
The Plant World does not just make the air breathable, it helps to transform non-assimilable mineral salts into assimilable organic substances. Thanks to this it creates food for more complex beings such as insects and animals. Man, who represents the last link in the food chain, draws support and benefits from this by eating fruits and animals.
The most complete and interesting image of the Plant World is the forest, a set of large plants called trees, small plants that represent the undergrowth and micro-plants such as mushrooms and mosses. Inside this forest, insects and animals find their natural habitat and live in close relationship with plants, with which they have relationships regulated by biological laws that allow a perfect natural balance, (in fact, while herbivores limit the excessive growth of vegetation , the birds spread the seeds and destroy the harmful insects. Above these animals are the predators that control the various species. Each animal then with the excrement and death returns the mineral salts to the soil).
Today, unfortunately, large forests are limited to a few geographical areas of the globe such as Russia, Indonesia, South America and Canada elsewhere, as vestiges of ancient forests remain the woods. Italy has 8,675,000 hectares of wooded area, more or less intact, almost all distributed over hills and mountains.
In the 19th century we had 15 million hectares of wooded area, today the woods have significantly reduced due to senseless deforestation, fires and cuts to make room for agriculture and urbanization. But about 9 million hectares of land covered by trees are always so important it is today to ensure that these "biotopes" can survive for future generations.
To do this, the State and the regions have enacted protection laws for the natural environment, establishing parks and nature reserves and in particular for the protection of forests from degradation and fires but despite this the pollution of the air and rivers, the degradation of the undergrowth and the fires every day threaten the life of our woods. Especially the fires! Destructive fire that kills plants and animals, eliminating in a few minutes what nature has patiently built over millennia.
Let's start by saying that in Italy, as it can happen in tropical and equatorial countries, the woods cannot burn on their own due to self-combustion. Fires can only occur through the direct or indirect fault of man. We will see later the specific causes of the fire in the woods, in the meantime let's see what is the damage that the fire causes.
Woods, as we know, not only supply oxygen to the atmosphere, but also provide humidity. In fact, the tree breathes, transpires and emits water vapor through the leaves. This aspect is extremely important because even in a period of drought there is the emission of water vapor, with the consequent survival of all plants this fact becomes beneficial for the countryside, for the neighboring villages and countries, which succeed in periods of prolonged heat. to have an attenuation of the solar effects (microclimate). In addition to this, the forest retains large quantities of water during rainy periods, which it reuses in hot periods. The retention of water, especially on the slopes of the hills and mountains, avoids floods and landslides. A fire can erase all this in one fell swoop, leaving the land, especially the steeply sloping ones, at the mercy of rainwater, determining the sterility of the soil over time.
The disappearance of a forest facilitates the free release of rainwater, which, no longer held back by the canopy of trees, leaf litter and humus, spread freely along the slopes of the mountains, bringing with it a large amount of fertile soil , to the point of creating hydrogeological disasters which are then at the basis of disastrous floods such as that of Sarno.
It is impossible to quantify the damage caused by the loss of a forest. The only economic aspect that can be immediately assessed is the loss of wood. We must not forget, in fact, that Italy imports huge quantities of wood from abroad every year at very high costs. If we were to add the loss of human life and artifacts, then the damage would be immense.
HOW A FIRE BEGINS AND SPREADS
Fires generally occur in the summer, when it hasn't rained for weeks and when the continuous solar heat evaporates a large part of the water retained by the humus and by the plants in this case many plants of the undergrowth dry up, the grass turns yellow and the leaves of the trees begin to "curl up". In this situation, a small heat source is enough to unleash the disaster. (In Northern Italy a fire can also be triggered in winter due to drought caused by dry air and cold wind that accelerates the drying of the grass and evaporates the water retained by the humus, however these are limited fires that do not cause serious damage such as summer ones.)
But what is this heat source that can start a fire? In very drought periods, a still lit cigarette dropped in the dry grass, sparks coming out of exhaust pipes and from the wheels of running trains, fires lit to play or to cook and then not extinguished well, fires lit by farmers to burn the stubble after the harvest: these are called negligent events, that is, carried out without criminal intent, but in any case a cause of fire. Then, unfortunately, there are arson fires, that is, intentionally determined by men, The reasons in these cases are for exclusive personal interests. In fact, the shepherd burns because then from the ashes of the forest with the first rains a tender and nutritious grass will grow for his sheep, it burns the building speculator who, despite the existence of laws that sanction the prohibition of construction in burnt woodland, hopes
in the complicity of some municipal administration to evade the law burns those who want to damage areas of naturalistic interest in order to divert, after the disaster, tourists to other areas with less naturalistic and landscape values, then burn the arsonists, sick people who in the flames of the flames they experience feelings of pleasure.
A forest fire does not suddenly explode, in fact it starts with low fire, which affects dry grass, litter with rotting leaves, small shrubs such as gorse and bushes, then moves on to medium heat that envelops small shrubs, fruit trees and foliage lower than adult trees and finally ends with the general focus in which an entire forest or part of it is involved. From the first phase (low heat), to the third (general fire), there is always a certain time that can vary depending on the time of day (the most dangerous hours are from 11 in the morning to 18, when the sun is hottest) , the wind present and the slope of the land (a wood along a slope of a hill or a mountain burns faster than a wood on the plain). In real terms, from the first outbreak to the actual fire it can go from 30 minutes to an hour and a half.
Prompt intervention in this delicate phase can prevent disaster. In fact, on a "low" fire, only a few willing people with just green branches and a little water are enough to suffocate the fire. On medium and general forest fires, specialized teams such as forestry or firefighters are needed.
WHAT TO DO TO AVOID WOOD FIRES
There are two moments for the fight against forest fires: one personal and one collective-social, the second however does not exclude the first.
Therefore our intention is that of soliciting, especially among young people, their own individual interest in the fight against forest fires.
But what can a person alone do? To begin with, it can avoid being a direct or indirect reason for a fire, avoiding lighting fires in the vicinity of woods and woods in summer, avoiding smoking and throwing cigarette butts in the grass of a forest, etc. The first moment is personal behavior towards the natural environment, the next is that of vigilance over the behavior of others. In this second phase you will have to intervene first on your parents, relatives and friends and then towards strangers, pointing out for example that lighting a fire near trees, bushes and small shrubs is extremely dangerous to throw even a cigarette butt lit by a window of the moving car can cause a fire in the forest that runs alongside the road. So far we can call it the "protective" phase, followed by the active one, that is, direct intervention, such as extinguishing a cigarette that is still burning in the grass, dampening a fire left on by inattentive tourists with water or earth and calling forestry workers by telephone. , firefighters, carabinieri and municipal officials as soon as suspicious smoke was seen in the trees.
In this regard, it is advisable to always carry a notebook with useful numbers for any prompt interventions, the printed sheet on the last page could serve the purpose.
In case of a well developed fire it will be better to avoid running alone to try to put it out unless you are of adulthood and you know the first rudiments of the attack on fire, and this to avoid dangers for your own safety. . If the love for nature is such that you would like to be more involved in the active defense of the woods, then it will be good to agree with other friends to set up surveillance groups in order to verify the possible outbreak of fire outbreaks, communicating promptly the fact to those in charge. Another purpose of this possible surveillance group could be to raise awareness among the wood-goers.
THESE RULES TO PREVENT THE WOODS FROM BURNING:
1 - Do not throw cigarette butts that are still lit from car windows
2 - Do not light fires near wooded areas
3 - Do not light the stubble in the countryside in periods of strong heat and in any case without having first taken the right precautions
4 - If you see a small fire along the side of the road or in a wood, do not go away as if it did not concern us, but take care to put it out by yourself
5 - If the fire is already of medium proportions, immediately notify the Forestry or Fire Brigade.
6 - If you are busy putting out a fire it is important to remember the following:
a) use a green branch beating firmly on the base of the flames, if you have a shovel available, look for earth and throw it on the base of the flames
b) never stand in front of the fire front if the wind blows, the heat and smoke could make you lose consciousness in strong wind it is advisable to attach the front of the fire to the sides
c) to protect yourself from smoking, a handkerchief on the face wet with water is sufficient
d) do not face the flames alone, always in company, in case of discomfort you can be rescued in time
e) if you want to block the front of the fire with a fire line it is necessary to choose a less wooded area along the path of advancement of the flames and only there start to dirt and cut the various shrubs
f) absolutely avoid lighting counterfires especially if there is wind, this very difficult operation should be left to those who are competent in fighting forest fires
g) put out a fire, never leave the area, because the fire could resume, after having "walked" through the roots, on the other side, but carry out a careful check of the perimeter of the fire, definitively reclaiming the still smoking areas.
Finally, never tire of making others aware of the need to protect our already small wooded heritage, a source of life and tourist interest. Destroyed other forests would mean facilitating the processes of erosion and desertification that are already affecting some southern regions of our country.
WHAT TO DO IN THE EVENT OF A FIRE
Call the National Forestry Corps of the State 1515 or other emergency numbers.
Follow the rules suggested below:
- If it is a beginning of fire, try to put it out, only if you are sure of an escape, keeping your back to the wind and beating the flames with a green branch until they are suffocated.
- Do not stay in places overlooking the fire or in areas where the wind blows
- Do not cross the street filled with smoke or flames
- Do not park on the streets. The fire is not a show
- Is the road closed? Don't queue up and go back
- Allow the intervention of the emergency vehicles, freeing the roads and not
- overshadowing them with their own cars
- Tell the fire brigade which roads or paths you know
- Make water reserves and other equipment available
IF YOU ARE SURROUNDED BY FIRE
- Look for a safe escape route: a road or a stream.
- Cross the front of the fire where it is less intense, to go to the already burned part.
- Lie on the ground where there is no flammable vegetation. Sprinkle yourself with water or cover yourself with earth. Prepare for the arrival of smoke by breathing with a wet cloth over your mouth.
- At the beach, gather on the beach and immerse yourself in the water. Do not try to retrieve cars, motorcycles, tents or what you have left inside. Life is worth more than a stereo or a backpack!
- Do not leave a house if you are not sure that the escape route is open. Report your presence.
- Seal (with sticky paper and wet cloths) doors and windows. The fire will pass through the house before the smoke and flames penetrate inside.
- Do not abandon the car. Close the windows and the ventilation system. Signal your presence with the horn and headlights.
- Do not use any type of firework inappropriately
- If you smoke, do not throw away cigarette butts or lighted matches, even if you are driving or near the sea
- Lighting fires in the woods is dangerous and is governed by specific regulations (see the aforementioned regional fire prevention regulations for more details, in summer it is strictly forbidden without authorization, ed)
- The catalytic converters they can easily ignite dry grass
- If you are in a forest fire risk area, pay attention to the environment that surrounds you
- Observe all rules and precautions when work tools are used in the countryside (devastating fires caused negligently by sparks released by work tools, ed)
- Don't leave litter in the woods: collect them and take them away (the glass of bottles, for example, can act as a lens, while plastics are a strong fuel, ed)
- In the areas most exposed to fires, around homes and buildings, clean the soil from weeds is from easily flammable waste.
- Try to shut it down only if you are sure of an escape route, holding the back to the wind and beating the flames with a branch until they are suffocated
- Do not stand in the places above the fire or in areas where smoke is being directed
- Do not cross the street filled with smoke or flames
- Do not park on the streets
- Do not queue up to the other machines and go back where possible
- Facilitate the intervention of emergency vehicles, clearing the streets and not cluttering them with your car
- Indicate the roads or paths that can be traveled to the fire brigades
- Make water reserves and other equipment available.
What to do with strong smoke in the room
Combustion poisoning is very dangerous. According to statistics, more people die during the fire than from burns and other contact with the flame. What to do with heavy smoking:
- Close the windows and doors, fill in the gaps with dense, damp cloths. Any draft increases the flow of smoke into the room. If possible, it is recommended to close the ventilation openings.
- Protect your respiratory tract by covering your nose and mouth with a damp, natural cloth (linen, cotton). Experts recommend: if there is no water at hand, wet something from your clothes with urine. They will make a scarf, a hem of a dress, a sleeve of a sweater. Urine is a much more reliable filter for combustion products than water and will protect you from poisoning much better ..
- Lean as low as possible, move towards the exit. You can move on all fours or crawl.
- Once out of a smoky room, consult a doctor first.
Sanitation after a fire: how does it end?
The thing we deal with at the end of a post fire remediation is the treatment of ambient air with ozone.
The ozone sanitization system is a completely ecological cleaning method, leaving no chemical residue behind, and has been defined as a safe agent "GRAS" by the F.D.A, the US Food and Drug Administration.
In Italy, the Ministry of Health, with protocol No. 24482 of 31/07/1996, recognized the ozone sanitation system as a natural safeguard for the sterilization of environments contaminated by bacteria, viruses, spores, etc. and infested with mites and insects.
Numerous studies state that ozone sanitation is over 2000 times more effective than any type of traditional sanitation.
The main goal is to get our customers back home to resume their daily life as soon as possible.
You need to play one sanitation after a fire? Our toll-free number is 800038460.