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Correct planting of potatoes in the Moscow region

Correct planting of potatoes in the Moscow region


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Potatoes are a root vegetable that all owners of vegetable gardens and summer cottages plant. The method of cultivation, the time of collection and planting largely depends on the region, so gardeners have many questions in this regard. When planting potatoes in the Moscow region, you need to strictly monitor the temperature, and also know whether it is possible to plant tubers without sprouts, and if there are any, do it with long sprouts up or down.

Ground and air temperature for planting potatoes

The higher the soil temperature, the faster the seedlings appear.

If you plant potatoes at a soil temperature of 11-12 degrees, then seedlings will appear on the 23rd day, 14-15 degrees - for 17-18 days etc.

The buds of the potato eyes "wake up" at an air temperature of 5 degrees, but in order to avoid diseases, it is better to wait until the air warms up to 12-15 degrees.

Traditional methods of determining optimal weather

When planting potatoes, the people are guided by the flowering time of apricots and bird cherry. They also pay attention to the appearance of small leaves on the birch. This indicates that the soil and air have warmed up well.

Permissible soil moisture

The need for moisture in potato tubers in different periods of development is different. During the germination period, at the beginning of the formation of tops, the need for moisture is minimal.

After flowering and the appearance of foliage, it increases significantly. During landing soil moisture should not exceed 75%, otherwise the fruits will simply rot.

Planting tubers without sprouts

Before planting potatoes, it is recommended to germinate them in a warm room so that sprouts appear on the tubers. Thanks to this, the root crop bears better fruit. However, not only this parameter affects the quality and quantity of the crop, therefore there is no clear relationship here.

If the soil is fertile, and the climatic conditions are good, then it is possible at all do without preliminary germination.

Is it possible to plant non-sprouted potatoes

It is difficult to give an exact answer. If other planting conditions are met, then it will sprout already in the ground, release leaves and give a crop.

If you plant unsprouted potatoes at the wrong time, do not fertilize the soil, then under such conditions neither fruits with sprouts, nor fruits without them will germinate.

How to plant tubers without sprouting step by step

  1. Sort out the potatoes, discard all low-quality fruits... For germination, potatoes are kept in a warm room for 1-2 weeks, but if you plan to plant them without sprouts, then this is not necessary. You can start disembarking immediately after you took it out of the basement or purchased it in a store.
  2. Further landing technology is almost no different from the classical one. Since you do not have sprouts, you can put the fruits in the hole. by either side... Do not forget that the potatoes need to be fertilized and hilled in time. Another important point is regular watering.

Please note that potatoes that were planted without fruit need more time to ripen.

Planting technology for sprouted root crops

Potatoes with eyes begin to be prepared for planting in early spring in the last days of February. The fruits are sorted out, only the strongest and highest quality... If there are sprouts, you need to pick them off.

Arrange the potatoes in small boxes in 3-4 layers and transfer to a warm place. It is important that the tubers are well illuminated by indirect sunlight.

At the time of planting, the tubers have time to turn green. Very small leaves appear on the sprouts.

Landing

Prepared sprouted potatoes are planted late March-early April... The exact time depends on the weather conditions.

The day before disembarkation, boxes with sprouted potatoes are immersed in a solution prepared from 10 liters of water, 1 tsp. copper sulfate and boric acid. The water should turn dark pink. Leave the box in the solution for 10-15 minutes. The rest of the boxes can be processed in the same solution. Put the prepared potatoes to dry under a canopy.

The disembarkation itself takes place the next day. Sprouted potatoes are planted in holes, planting depth 16 cm... Between the rows, it is necessary to maintain an optimal distance of 60 cm.

Care

Immediately after the first shoots appear, do a shallow loosening with a walk-behind tractor... After the bushes grow to 10-15 cm, carry out the second loosening. Be sure to free the soil from the grass. You do not need to throw it away, spread it between the beds.

After the bushes reach a height of 20 cm, make a deep hilling. If there are bushes with signs of disease. Start a massive cleaning at the end of July... The leaves are completely dry.

How to plant sprouted potatoes

Traditionally, potatoes are planted sprouts up... It is believed that the sprouts stretch out faster and foliage appears on them. However, you can achieve a good harvest when planting potatoes with sprouts down, and potatoes with sprouts up. When choosing the appropriate method, several important factors must be considered.

  1. If you plan to plant potatoes early when the earth has not yet had time to warm up enough, then the tubers should be laid out sprouts down.
  2. If you are used to plant potatoes shallow, then the method of planting sprouts up is suitable for you.

Benefits of sprouting down:

  1. The sprouts grow in different directions, do not accumulate and do not "gather" in one heap. Thanks to this, they do not interfere with each other and receive adequate nutrition.
  2. The first leaves appear later than when planting sprouts up. This allows them to easily survive the threat of frost.

Disadvantages:

  1. You cannot plant the tubers deeply, since the sprouts already need to "travel a long way."
  2. The soil for planting must have a sufficient level of moisture. To do this, it is enough to cover the soil with a layer of grass.

When in doubt which planting method to choose, plant the potatoes with experimental beds.

Plant part of the beds with fruits, laying them with sprouts down, and some with fruits, laying them with shoots up. At the end of the season, you will already know exactly which planting method suits you best.

With long branches

If the potatoes were stored too warm room, long shoots appear on it. This is not very good, since the fruit itself spends strength on germination and loses its elasticity.

If the length of the shoots more than 10 cmthen the potatoes are not suitable for planting. If the sprouts are smaller, then you should carefully prepare the fruits for planting so that they give a rich harvest.

First, cut off the longest shoots and leave only those that are does not exceed 3 cm... In the upper part of the root, it is advisable not to break off the sprouts.

Place the processed tubers in a box, provide them with diffused sunlight. The temperature in the storage room for potatoes should be 13-16 degrees. After 14 days, the tubers will be fully prepared for planting. Irrigate the tubers with water 1-2 times a day so that the sprouts do not plant. Prepared potatoes are planted according to the classical scheme.

Landing conditions in the Moscow region

Each region has its own climatic characteristics, which must be taken into account when planting potatoes. Moscow region is a rather cool region, therefore do not rush to land.

Timing

The main condition for good sprouting of potatoes is heated soil... Here it is appropriate to focus on the appearance of leaves in bird cherry and birch. In the Moscow region, this happens at the end of May.

You can plant potatoes from May 17 to 25. The first shoots will appear in about 10 days.

Of great importance for the timing of planting potatoes in the Moscow region is soil moisture... In May, the soil moisture is sufficient for planting potatoes, but in June the soil becomes too dry. For this reason, it is not worth delaying the planting of potatoes until the beginning of June.

June 1-5 - this is the deadline for planting potatoes in the suburbs. In very dry soil, potato tubers do not do well, so there is a good chance they will not germinate at all.

Depth

If the soil moisture is sufficient, and the weather is good outside, then potato tubers in the Moscow region can be planted at a depth 10-15 cm.

Landing with siderates

Positively affects the growth of potatoes nitrogen and phosphorus... These useful substances are found in large quantities in legumes: vetch, peas, melilot and alfalfa. You can also use wheat, mustard, rape, etc. before planting. Plants not only enrich the soil, but also protect it from leaching and blowing away.

White mustard has another useful property - it repels pests... Beans do the same job perfectly. You need to plant it between the rows of potatoes. But after the potatoes, you can plant cabbage. In the place where it grew, it will give a rich and very high quality crop.

How to use green manure

Siderata can be sown only in well-prepared soil.

Grown plants need regular watering. They are sown 1.5 months before the onset of cold weather... For a hundred square meters of land, you will need from 800 g to 2 kg of green manure seeds.

If you did not succeed in sowing the plants in the fall, you can do it in early May. Siderata should be cut a couple of weeks before the intended planting of potatoes. During this time, they must rot and enrich the soil.

Tuberless technology

The technique is called tuberless. It is not new, but for some reason it is rarely used by gardeners. This method was used by breeders when they wanted to quickly multiply a valuable variety.

What they were doing? Separated the sprouts from the potato tuber and planted them in insulated ground. Modern experiments have shown that the quantity and quality of the crop when planting potatoes with sprouts is the same as when planting tubers.

There are 2 types of sprouts on potato tubers: light and shadow. The former are formed as a result of keeping potatoes in the sun, and the latter as a result of keeping them in the basement.

Most often used for reproduction shadow sprouts... They have a very delicate structure, so you cannot keep them at high temperatures. They must be planted immediately after separation from the tubers. For planting, it is better to use sprouts 6-8 cm long. Light sprouts are strong, therefore they are highly productive.

Preparation

It begins in 30-45 days before the intended planting of potatoes. Seed tubers are selected first. It is better to give preference to mid-season varieties.

Make a small box out of the boards, set it on the southern windowsill. Cover the bottom with sand, put cups filled with nutrient mixture on top. There should also be sand drainage at the bottom. It will protect the soil from drying out. Pour the soil in cups with a solution of boric acid or potassium permanganate.

Planting seed tubers

In the first row of cups (the one closest to the window), use for planting seeds. Make indentations here, plant the tubers. Wait until sprouts appear on them long 6-7 cm... Cut them off and transplant them into the cups of the next two rows.

Water the seeds 2-3 times a week... After they are rooted, replant them to their permanent location.

Fertilize seedlings obtained from sprouts regularly, as they have not received the necessary nutrients from the mother tuber.

After the first rain, spud the potatoes. In dry weather, it is enough to loosen the beds. Be sure to remove weeds that prevent plants from growing fully. After 2-3 weeks, carry out a second feeding and spud them again. It is better to plant potatoes in this way after May 10.

Cleaning

As soon as the tops began to dry out, you can proceed to harvesting. Something like this comes after 50-60 days... It is impossible to wait for the harvesting of potatoes, since the fruits decrease in volume, lose their density and nutrients.

Proper preparation and planting of potatoes is the key to obtaining a high-quality harvest. It is important to take into account the air and soil temperature, soil moisture, planting depth, variety of tubers, location of sprouts.

The landing time is largely determined by the climatic features of the region. Pay attention to detail and you will enjoy delicious DIY potatoes.


Planting potatoes, useful tips

Looking at the statistics of recent years, we can say that summer residents most often plan to plant vegetables on weekends, and potatoes are no exception to the rule. The culture is planted from mid-April to late May in warm weather and warmed up topsoil. This allows you to achieve increased fruiting, which is weighty and large in size. The number is chosen according to the lunar calendar, focusing on the fertile constellation and favorable periods that do not affect the phases of the New Moon and Full Moon.

Unfortunately, in comparison with other root crops, such as carrots, turnips or earthen pears, potatoes negatively perceive frosts and stop developing after the first frosts. Stress for the plant increases the growing season, reducing fruit productivity several times. It is noted that the potatoes planted before the arrival of the anticyclone often get sick and grow small, not the same as the manufacturer promises. To avoid such a mistake, agronomists recommend planting, checking the weather in advance and based on last year's temperature in the region. If the cold gave way to heat, and the soil had time to warm up, then you can already take care of the planting.

Potatoes are planted in April only in regions with a warm climate, where spring comes much earlier. We are talking about the Krasnodar Territory, Kuban, Rostov Region and the Crimea Peninsula. In other regions, including Central Russia and the Central part, cultivation occurs later. According to the established tradition, in the Moscow region and the Moscow region, Tula, Ryazan, Voronezh, Lipetsk regions, potatoes are planted during the May holidays, starting from May 1.

In Siberia and the Urals, potato planting is postponed to late May - early June, when the soil temperature warms up to at least 10 degrees Celsius. Such values ​​are necessary for the full growth of the root system and the growth of root crops. At low temperatures, the plant will receive stress and may even stop developing for a while until the sun's rays warm up the lower layers of the earth.

In previous years, earlier plantings were made, falling at the end of March. The reason for this is the abnormally warm temperature, which does not correspond to the month. The second option that summer residents started planting earlier is growing in a greenhouse. Greenhouse conditions allow the soil to warm up, postponing the beginning of the growing season from early May to the first month of spring.

When choosing a variety, you should start from the variety of potatoes. In the northern regions, due to the short summer and permissible cold snap, it is recommended to prefer early maturing or ultra-early varieties that are resistant to cold climates and common diseases. In the southern zones, gardeners can prefer late varieties of root crops, distinguished by long storage and resistance to transportation. Usually, the fruits can be grown both for food and for sale. The rest of the regions with moderate temperatures are suitable for medium-sized species belonging to the "golden mean".

If, unexpectedly for the summer resident, the hydrometeorological center warned about frosts that are not typical for the region, it is better to postpone planting so as not to risk the future harvest. In a situation with already planted potatoes, the cultivation site is insulated by covering it with agrofibre or making a pillow of dry hay.

To get strong, healthy and tasty potatoes, there are 6 simple rules to consider before growing:

1) the seed should be fresh and of high quality, without damage with two or three eyes. When sowing seeds, you should pay attention to the expiration date. It should not exceed one to one and a half years of incubation.

2) favorable landing days, excluding prohibited and neutral periods indicated by the lunar calendar

3) treating the soil from pests and insects before planting, applying fertilizers and normalizing the PH level. Acid-base balance can be leveled with wood ash

4) in order for the potatoes to take root well in a new place, the material should be planted in warm weather. It is better to study the forecast in advance so that an anticyclone with a cold climate is not expected in the next few weeks after landing.

5) after emergence and before flowering, potatoes are treated twice as a preventive measure against the Colorado potato beetle. If summer residents also grow potatoes in the neighborhood, work should be carried out on one day by agreement so that the pest does not move from one site to another, making the gardener's work meaningless

6) regular watering as the soil dries up, if an exhausting heat without precipitation is established on the street.


Prevention of diseases and pests

To protect against fungal diseases, before planting, the holes can be poured with a solution of copper sulfate (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water), and to protect against the bear - add 1 teaspoon of crushed eggshell mixed with a small amount of vegetable oil.

After that, 0.5 kg of compost or humus is added to each hole or a spoonful of ground bird droppings, also 1-2 tablespoons of wood ash. The fertilizers introduced into the holes are mixed with the soil and covered with a layer of earth of 2-3 cm, and then the tubers are planted to the required depth with the tops and sprouts upwards. After planting the potatoes, the area is leveled with a rake.


Square-nest method of planting potatoes for mulch

Modern vegetable growers have found a way to combine two effective technologies. If you plant potatoes in a square-nesting way, but do not sprinkle it with earth, but cover it with mulch, then much less water will be needed for irrigation, and weeding and hilling will not be needed at all.

Hay or straw is used as mulch. Due to the temperature difference, moisture condenses under the mulch layer, which is absorbed into the ground, and does not evaporate. Therefore, potatoes under mulch need watering only in case of severe drought. Instead of hilling, the bushes are sprinkled with an additional layer of straw

  • weeding and hilling are not required
  • saving water.

Disadvantage: Needs a lot of hay or straw.


Planting potatoes with a hiller

Plowing, planting, weeding, hilling and other gardening tasks can be facilitated for yourself if you use a walk-behind tractor for these works. And for planting potatoes, a walk-behind tractor with a hiller is used. A hiller and lug wheels are mounted on the unit in order to cut even furrows in the soil into which the tubers are manually laid. Then the lug wheels are changed to rubber wheels corresponding to the track width, the tubers are covered with earth and tamped down.

If you need to plant a large area with potatoes, then use a walk-behind tractor with a potato planter. The lug wheels and a potato planter are mounted on the unit, after which the parameters for further work are adjusted. First, the soil is prepared: plowing, harrowing and moistening of the site are carried out. Then the correct combs are cut. The potato planter, equipped with furrowers, a device for feeding tubers and a hiller for embedding them, simultaneously makes furrows in the soil, places tubers in them and covers them with soil.


How to plant onions in the spring in the suburbs: instructions with video

A good harvest is influenced not only by the preparation of the seedlings and the soil, but also by the correct planting. Therefore, it is important for gardeners to know to what depth to plant onions on a turnip in the spring in the Moscow region, what distance should be between rows and between sets.

Landing scheme

It will be convenient to weed the beds and loosen the soil on them if you plant the onion sets in spring in rows, the distance between which is one and a half the width of the hoe, that is, about 20 cm.The distance between the onions themselves should be about 10 cm.

What depth to plant

On the garden bed for spring planting of turnip onions, the groove must be made so deep that from the sharp part of the onion to the top of the groove it is 2-3 cm.That is, it turns out that the onion sets in the spring should be planted on the head to a depth of two to three centimeters. This is not the depth of the groove itself, but the distance from the top of the seed to the soil surface.

How to plant correctly

Having dealt with the scheme and the depth of planting sevka in the spring in the Moscow region, you can proceed directly to planting work. Plant the onions in moist soil. In April-May, the land is usually wet and the garden does not need to be watered.

Take the set in your hands and plant it upside down in the groove, slightly pressing it into the ground. The bottom of the onion should be squeezed with moist soil.

As soon as the planting material is placed in the furrows, we immediately sprinkle it with earth. This is necessary in order for the soil to retain as much moisture as possible.

Experienced gardeners recommend mulching planting, for example, with compost. Under it, the earth will retain moisture longer and will not dry out.

Video about the preparation and spring planting of seedlings

Watch the video clip, which shows and tells in detail about the pre-planting preparation of the seed, the beds for planting it and how to properly plant the onion on the head in the spring.

Experienced gardeners are not advised to rush into the spring planting of sevka. Even if it is warm outside in April, it is not necessary that the soil has warmed up. Therefore, it is best to plant onions to get a head in the spring in the Moscow region in May. And do not forget to check the lunar calendar when choosing auspicious days for planting sevka in 2021.


Watch the video: HOW TO PLANT POTATOES IN COLD CLIMATES. SIMPLE, EASY u0026 PRODUCTIVE. Gardening in Canada


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