Black currant pruning. Diseases of black currant
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Vitamin champion. Part 2
Black currant pruning
All pruning is best done in spring or at the very beginning of summer, but not in August or early September, because with early autumn pruning, young shoots will grow at the ends of the branches, which will die in winter. In either case, the ends of the branches will have to be cut off again next spring.
Why do double work? If the branches grow inside the bush, then they only thicken the bush, but do not bear fruit, therefore, they should be cut out. If the branches cross, then one of them should also be cut. If root shoots do not grow, then it is necessary to make a strong pruning of several branches, shortening them by about a third of the length. If such a shortening pruning does not help, the balance between the aerial part and the roots should be disturbed by cutting out one or two weak branches to the ground. The roots will turn out to be more powerful than the aboveground part and, in order to restore balance, they will immediately push a new root shoot out of the soil.
An adult blackcurrant bush (which is 5-6 years old) should have about 12-15 shoots of different ages. How can this be achieved? Regular (annual) cutting of obsolete stems. As soon as you cut the old stem to the base, without leaving a hemp, a new root shoot appears from the soil, which must be shortened next spring, leaving only three or four buds above the ground. If too many root suckers appear, then no more than two should be left annually, the rest should be removed.
The main indicator for pruning is the growth of the current year. If it is weak and small (about 10 cm), then you need to go down the branch to the place where there are a lot of fruits or a strong top grows (it always appears if things are not going well in the upper part of the branch) and cut off the upper part of the branch to this place ... Black currant bears fruit mainly on the growths of the previous year. They are clearly visible, they are lighter than the rest of the branches.
How to distinguish an old stem from a young one? First, it has an old gray bark. Secondly, there are practically no berries on the old shoot. This is clearly visible in the spring, since there are no flower brushes on the old shoots. Rings are visible on the branches - indicators of the number of years. Branches older than 5-6 years must be removed annually, otherwise the harvests fall.
How to rejuvenate an old bush?
If the bush is more than 20-25 years old, then it must be uprooted and burned, no rejuvenation will help. If the bush is about 15-17 years old, then first you need to cut about a third of the stems to the very base. Of the replacement shoots that appear, the three strongest should be left, the rest should be cut out. Then next year it is necessary to cut out another third of the old branches and again leave no more than three new shoots of replacement. And only in the third year, remove all other old stems. It is undesirable to cut off the entire bush at once, although it is possible.
If frail basal shoots grow in the center of the bush, then they should be cut immediately without leaving hemp. Weak thin branches must also be removed, cutting them out to the point of attachment to a thicker branch. Now you should take a close look at this branch, more precisely at its upper part. If the upper part of the stem has few fruit (small fruit branches located throughout the stem), then it must also be cut off.
The berries become smaller, therefore, the bush is aging if new basal shoots (shoots of zero order) do not appear from the ground. Strong pruning causes them to appear. After any trimming, all cut off parts must be burned immediately!
What diseases does black currant suffer from?
The worst disease is an incurable viral disease terry... It is easy to spot during flowering. Usually, the flowers of black currant with white rounded petals, and in patients with terry bushes, the flowers are deformed, and the petals resemble the narrow tentacles of a squid of a dirty pink color extended forward. The ovary formed from them is torn apart. We must not just cut out a branch with such flowers, we must immediately uproot the entire bush and burn it. Black currants cannot be planted in this place for 4-5 years. If you leave a diseased bush, there is a high probability of ruining the entire plantation, since insects carry the disease with their saliva from one plant to another.
Another widespread disease is powdery mildew (spheroteka)... It manifests itself primarily on young leaves that grow in mid-summer (in the North-West in July) in the form of a white bloom. Then it moves on to berries and old leaves, which then darken, curl and die off. This is a fungal disease. Spores of the fungus overwinter on the affected parts of the bushes. The easiest way to combat any disease is with good care. Weakened plants are mainly affected.
In the spring, on young leaves, and then two weeks later, on young ovaries, the bushes can be sprayed with one of the chemicals: vectra, topaz, colloidal sulfur, which are diluted according to the instructions or with a 0.1 percent solution of copper sulfate, Bordeaux liquid or copper oxychloride (1 teaspoon spoon for 5-7 liters of water). You can use iodine, for which one bottle of 5% iodine (10 ml) is diluted in 10 liters of water.
They make a small birch broom and "spank" the bushes from top to bottom with iodine solution. After three days, the execution is repeated (the iodine solution can stand for several days in a sealed container). Or the bushes are sprayed with a phytosporin solution. Fitosporin is not a chemical and is not absorbed by leaves and berries, so they can be washed and eaten right after spraying. Therefore, this drug, along with iodine, is preferable to others. Spraying is carried out systematically, once a month, starting in mid-May.
If you have fresh manure, especially horse manure, then you can avoid diseases and pest attacks if in June you simply throw one shovel of manure from above into the center of the bush, in which bacteria develop that destroy the pathogens of powdery mildew.
There is another harmless old-fashioned way: regularly wash the tops of the bushes with a soap-ash solution or kefir diluted in water, or whey from yogurt. You can spray the bushes with a solution of drinking or soda ash before flowering and immediately after flowering (3 tablespoons of any of them per 10 liters of water). Since black currant leaves are poorly wetted, a little soap of any kind (40 g) should be added to the solution for better adhesion.
The disease is facilitated by the introduction of nitrogen under the bushes and watering with infusion of weeds (one shovel of manure in the center of the bush does not make the weather). The ends of the branches affected by powdery mildew are clearly visible - they turn black. They must be cut off in early spring, since they died anyway, but at the same time they are a breeding ground for the spherotek. Since powdery mildew begins on young leaves at the ends of the branches, as soon as the berries begin to ripen, pinch the tips of the branches (plucking out the growth bud).
In early spring, immediately after full blooming of leaves on black currant, it can move goblet rust, usually wintering on sedge. It manifests itself as raised orange warts. Spores ripen on the underside of the leaf, then fly further.
There is another similar disease - columnar rustwintering on coniferous crops, mainly on pine. It appears as small yellow-orange dots on the leaves. If you do not take any measures, then the spores of the fungus can spread throughout the leaf, and it will turn yellow entirely, and then fall off. Control measures are the same as for goblet rust.
In the middle of summer, red-brown spots usually appear on black currant leaves, which then merge into solid spots; leaves, starting from the bottom, turn brown and fall prematurely. it anthracnose... The fungus that causes this disease hibernates on the remains of leaves. Therefore, immediately after the onset of the disease, they should be sprayed with phytosporin and repeated at the end of summer. It is usually recommended to either remove the leaves or bury them in the soil under the bushes.
I just in late autumn, when the temperature drops to 8 degrees Celsius, I spray the entire garden, including black currant bushes, as well as the soil under bushes and trees, with a very high concentration of urea solution (700 g per 10 liters of water). This spraying destroys the causative agents of fungal and bacterial diseases, as well as all pests that winter in the forks of branches and in fallen leaves. This spraying should be repeated in early spring, even before the start of sap flow (in the North-West in late March - early April).
Sometimes, especially on the old bark, small orange dots appear. It is a mushroom that settles on dying wood. You just need to cut out the aging branches and burn them.
It should be recalled that all spraying should be done in the evening, in calm weather without wind and rain. There should be no rain for at least three hours after spraying.
The widespread pouring boiling water over the bushes in early spring is a titanic work and completely useless.
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G. Kizima, gardener
Pruning old currants in autumn
Currant rejuvenation can also be carried out in the fall. Although, with proper pruning, the bushes can grow in one place and actively bear fruit for a long time. So, black currant begins to give maximum yields in the fourth or sixth year, and by the eighth it already needs rejuvenating pruning. True, the result obtained is also not eternal and by the age of twelve the bush will completely deplete and degenerate, therefore, in parallel with the rejuvenation, start preparing a replacement for it.
Red currant begins to bear fruit at a similar time, but retains its vitality and yield much longer. She will need rejuvenation only at the age of fifteen, and after "coming of age" the bush will have to be replaced. However, it can give berries longer, but they will be small and tasteless.
As in the case of sanitary pruning, it is better to hold out until the end of the natural fall of leaves without stimulating this process. If you are not sure when is the best time to prune currants in the fall, schedule this work in late September - mid-October.
Rejuvenating currant pruning can be carried out both in stages (in 2-3 years), and radically (at a time). The first method is better suited to bushes under the age of 10 years, the second - to very decrepit and sick plants.
So, if you decide to prune in stages, remove no more than a third of the old branches each fall. Start with those that are withered and sick, then gradually move on to the wrong ones. The branches must be cut off at the very ground and immediately dust the hemp with ash. In the third year, the main part of the bush will change, and the yield will increase again.
If the bush, in your opinion, is almost hopeless, you can act according to the "pan-or-go" method. In late autumn or early spring, before the buds awaken, cut off the entire ground part and dust the cuts with ash. Mulch the roots of the plant with straw, peat or rotted sawdust so that they do not freeze in winter. In the spring, pour the bush with Fitosporin solution according to the instructions, and then use mullein-based feeding and form it as a young seedling in the future.
Now you know how to cut currants in the fall, regardless of the variety, age and degree of neglect of the bush, which means you can carry out this procedure annually, rejoicing in abundant berry harvests.
If you are not yet growing this shrub, learn how to properly plant it in the fall so that you can wait for your own berries as soon as possible.
Black currant pruning. Diseases of black currant - garden and vegetable garden
Fruit buds of black currant are laid on the growth of the current year, that is, on the branches that have grown this year. Therefore, the greater this growth, the more berries can be harvested next year. If pruning is not carried out, then the currant bush 2-3 years after planting gives a good harvest, provided that the planting was carried out correctly.
Video. How to plant black currants?
Then it becomes very thick, the growth decreases, the berries are tied only at the ends of the branches. So the harvest decreases every year, and the bush itself can get sick and generally disappear.
Pruning black currants is a fairly simple procedure and can be done both in autumn and spring. But it is better to do it in the fall, after the bush has shed its leaves, because the currant begins to develop very early, and the consumption of nutrients by the bush on the branches that you remove leads to a weakening of the bush itself.
I want to warn you right away that a black currant bush can grow and bear fruit for no more than 15 years. Then you need to throw it away and plant new young seedlings, which can be obtained by vegetative propagation methods from the branches of the old bush.
Video. How to propagate currants?
Reproduction of currants by layering.
Propagation of currants by cuttings.
And in this issue of the magazine how to do everything, I will talk in detail about two ways to trim black currants. The first of them is spelled out in all textbooks, and the second is used only by some gardeners who do not want to bother studying the technique of cutting currants.
To begin with, a little about the structure of the currant bush. It has branches that are annual, biennial and older. For fruiting, it is necessary to leave one and two summer branches in the bush. Therefore, the first two years after planting, the currant bush does not require pruning. Provided, of course, that you planted it correctly and cut it after planting.
On one and two-year-old branches the best quality berries. After all, currants bear fruit on a one-year growth, and in old branches this growth is very small and is located at the very tops. Therefore, the harvest will be only at the very top, and the rest of the branch will remain without berries. In addition, older branches are often affected by pests and diseases, so the berries on them become smaller, and the yield is sharply reduced.
How to distinguish branches by age?
Annuals are golden in color and evenly spaced branches along the entire length of the shoot. The color of the bark is golden or whitish.
The biennial branch has a smooth, uniform brown bark and good lateral annual shoots.
Older branches have a rough, gray bark, very small annual growth and a large number of branches.
The difference in the color of the bark of all three types of currant branches is very clearly visible. The annual branch is golden, the two-year branch is brown, and the perennial branch is gray.
And now about the pruning itself. I want to immediately draw your attention to the fact that the branches should be cut as low as possible to the ground, and, if possible, not leave hemp.
The first way.
First, you need to cut out all the perennial branches, leaving only one and two years old. Then cut branches that tilt towards the ground. If left behind, they will sink to the ground under the weight of the berries and the fruits will rot. After, it is necessary to leave 5-8 branches of annual and 5-8 two-year branches, depending on the age of the bush. In this case, you need to cut out all dry, underdeveloped, twisted by diseases and broken off branches. Don't be afraid to cut out something extra. If you are in doubt about whether or not to cut a particular branch, then be sure to cut! Especially those branches in which, when cut, you notice a black core in the center of the cut. This branch is struck by the glass and there will be no sense from it. With proper care and feeding, the currant bush will fully recover the next year.
As a result of such pruning, the bush turns out to be beautiful, compact, even with young and strong branches that will bring a good harvest.
For those amateur gardeners who do not want to learn the currant pruning technique.
It is necessary mentally or with the help of a wire stuck in the ground, to divide the bush into two parts. In one of the halves of the bush, all shoots must be cut out completely.
The next year, new strong annual shoots will grow in this part of the bush. And next year you need to cut out all the shoots in another part of the bush at ground level.
That is, in one year, the branches of one half of the bush are cut, the next year - the other. This pruning is done annually. With this method, there is no need to choose which branches and how old to leave and which to cut. Annual branches will be on one part of the bush, and biennial branches on the other.
Both of these methods ensure constant ripening of berries on young branches, so the harvest will be worthy of this variety of currants. In addition, young branches are less susceptible to diseases, so less treatment of bushes with pesticides is required.
Good harvests, thank you for your attention.
Video. How to cut currants. Pruning currants in the fall.
Black currant: chemical-free pest control
Even the best modern blackcurrant varieties are attacked by pests such as moth, aphid and glass. There are no varieties resistant to them yet. To get ecologically clean berries, you have to resort to clever methods of destroying the harmful "trinity". I will share my personal experience.
The easiest thing turned out to be exterminate aphids: at the first signs of damage, either sprinkle the ends of young branches a couple of times, or dip them into a bucket with a solution of soap or washing powder (they are replaced by a decoction of wood ash - 300 g per bucket).
Green moth caterpillars do not even appear, if in April, a few days before bud break, the soil under the bushes, where their larvae winter, is thoroughly mulched with a thick layer of compost, sawdust, moss or covered with a circle of non-woven material, polyethylene - from under them the larvae are not able to crawl out and perish.
Co glass bowl that gnaws the stems from the inside, it is difficult to cope only at first glance. Traces of her stay are clearly visible on the drying tops of the branches. They should be cut out regularly and cleanly (without leaving stumps) to the very base of the bush, however, like all old branches of five years of age and older. Then the glass will leave your site sooner or later.
Such worries are troublesome at first glance, but they pay off handsomely! In general, one must always bear in mind that healthy, densely leafy bushes with good growth get sick less often. This means that for their best development during drought, they must be watered generously, and from May to July, inclusively, periodically fed with a solution of complex mineral and organic fertilizers: Ryazanochka, Fertika, Radogor, wood ash and a weak solution of nettle and dandelion infusion ...
Pruning red and white currants
Since the growth of zero shoots in red and white currants is more restrained (compared to black), mainly bouquet branches and shortened annual growths bear fruit. Therefore, the principle of pruning these bushes will be somewhat different.
Fruit-bearing branches of red and white currants can remain "efficient" for up to 8 years. Thus, you can leave them on the bush for a fairly long time. And yet, the plant must have both old and young shoots at the same time, otherwise you will not get a good harvest from it.
If you cut red currants incorrectly, you can be left without berries.
So that the bushes of red or white currants do not thicken, no more zero branches should be left on them annually than is needed to replace the aging ones. On such shoots, only the upper part, which has not matured, should be cut off. Removing some of the tops and cutting out the oldest branches (even if they are still capable of fruiting) will help stimulate their growth.
Try not to touch the branches of the higher (first and second) orders: this can cause a decrease in yield. If in black currants it is undesirable to cut branches with a transfer to a strong lateral branch, then in red and white currants it is even recommended to do this.
During the first 5 years, it is very important to correctly form the currant bushes, so that in subsequent years you can only refine the plant with regular pruning. Remember that only from well-groomed bushes a year can you collect up to several buckets of berries.