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New technologies for raising pigs: cold keeping, two-phase and Canadian technology

 New technologies for raising pigs: cold keeping, two-phase and Canadian technology


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Raising pigs will turn out to be highly profitable or unprofitable; a business plan may not always reflect the true picture. Indeed, in addition to the cost of feed and pig maintenance, it is necessary to take into account which breed was chosen, and by what method the animals were fed. It is not at all necessary to follow the traditional rules of pig breeding - raising pigs using new technologies can be much more profitable and efficient.

Danish and Canadian technology

For fattening, choose those piglets that have a good appetite, grow quickly and have a constitution characteristic of the breed.

The main secrets of success in pig breeding are the following:

  • correct selection of breeding stock;
  • for fattening choose those pigs that have a good appetite, grow quickly and have a constitution characteristic of the breed;
  • providing pregnant sows with nutritious food to maintain optimal body condition (but not to obesity!);
  • compulsory walks for sows in the fresh air in the pen;
  • maintaining a clean and comfortable temperature in the pigsty;
  • growing piglets under a sow with the introduction of early feeding in order to accustom them to coarse and juicy available feed;
  • fast fattening of young stock, starting from four months.

On average, when these conditions are met, the meat yield from a pig can reach four tons per year. However, in reality, it is not always possible to obtain good benefits from raising pigs. And then modern effective technologies come to the rescue.

Video about keeping pigs using Canadian technology

For example, French pig breeders have proved that in Russian conditions it is possible to achieve high profitability of pig breeding by employing a minimum number of workers. A livestock complex built according to European technologies, pure-bred livestock, careful control over the weight and health of animals and a caring attitude towards them make the raising of pigs as profitable as possible (the video in the tab will give you a visual idea of ​​the basic principles of the technology used by the French).

Consider the features of other pig breeding technologies. Perhaps you can use some of them in your household.

The traditional construction of a concrete or brick pigsty is now considered obsolete. Instead, for the effective development of the economy, complex solutions are used that fully meet the requirements of modern livestock farming. So, Danish and Canadian pig breeding technologies suggest an alternative option for building a pigsty.

Canadian pig technology

It should be noted right away that the Danish method is more suitable for large pig-breeding complexes, while the Canadian one can be used in small farms as well.

Danish technology

According to Danish technology, animals are kept in pens of 30 animals on slatted floors, equipped with a self-alloy system for removing manure into special concrete baths. The floors are combined: for growing pigs - plastic (more hygienic and comfortable), for sows and fattening pigs - concrete slit, which better withstand weight loads and are resistant to mechanical damage.

The pigsties are equipped with birthing pens and separate pens for pregnant sows. To heat the piglets, a special den is built, equipped with heating panels or infrared lamps. The ventilation system can be simple, but special attention is paid to the installation of an automatic feed line and warm water. In addition, the workers of the pig complex carry out the necessary veterinary procedures on a daily basis and take preventive measures against the main diseases of pigs.

Danish pig breeding technology

Danish pig breeding technology has several advantages:

  • it is suitable for animals of any age;
  • provides automation of basic pig care processes;
  • reduces labor costs for farm maintenance;
  • creates comfortable conditions that meet sanitary and hygienic standards;
  • reduces stress and conflict situations among animals.

As a result, with a rational consumption of feed, young animals develop intensively, and the gross production of pork increases by fifteen percent.

Canadian technology

Also known as the cold keeping technology, this technique is of increasing interest among pig breeders, although among domestic experts there is still debate about its effectiveness in the harsh climatic conditions of our country.

Shelter for pigs using Canadian technology

Basic principles of Canadian technology:

  • installation of a spacious tent hangar instead of a barn for pigs;
  • deep, permanent bedding made of straw or wood shavings, sawdust and other organic materials;
  • equipping the farm with self-heating drinkers and bunker feeders with compound feed for free access of animals to water and feed at any time;
  • keeping pigs in numerous homogeneous groups.

Initially, the litter layer is about 20 cm, then it is added as it gets wet. There is a process of composting the litter with manure, as a result of which, even in winter, the litter layer will keep the temperature up to +15 degrees, warming up the pigs. The main thing in this case is to prevent drafts.

Canadian technology is suitable for keeping sows, boars and fattening pigs

Raising pigs using Canadian technology is convenient because up to 250 animals can be kept in an 11x33 m structure, while the animals move freely throughout the hangar, developing their muscles and skeletal system, strengthen their immunity and increase productivity due to exposure to heat and cold , direct and diffused sunlight. Under such conditions, the weight of the pig increases daily by 500 g per day, and the taste characteristics of the meat increase. Additional advantages of cold keeping include the absence of costs for regular cleaning of the premises and minimal costs for the construction of a hangar.

Canadian technology is suitable for keeping sows, boars and fattening pigs. After finishing the fattening, all pigs from the hangar are sent to the meat-packing plant, the structure is cleaned of manure, washed, disinfected and prepared for the next group of animals.

Two-phase technology

Usually, in large pig farms, pigs are raised for meat using a three-phase technology: during the suckling period, piglets are kept in queen cells, then they are transferred to specialized nurseries for rearing, and from four months they are in pigsties-fatteners until they reach slaughter weight. Such rearrangements cause stress in animals and lead to a decrease in productivity.

Pork in-line production video

Acceleration of growth and development of piglets, as well as a greater survival rate of weaners, can be achieved using a two-phase system, in which immature young animals, before being transferred to a fattening house (up to three to four months), remain in the usual environment of a broodstock. For convenience, sows are grouped according to gestational age in order to achieve "friendly" farrowings. After weaning the piglets (at the age of one to one and a half months), the sows are transferred from the broodstock to another room of the pigsty. This approach allows more intensive use of sows, receiving 2-2.2 farrowings per year.

At present, experts recognize the two-phase technology of raising pigs as more effective than the three-phase one, because the rejection of frequent rearrangements and hauls minimizes the stress state of animals and positively affects their development, which leads to a noticeable increase in pork production.

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Growing and caring for Chinese cabbage in the open field in the garden

Many will be surprised, but Chinese cabbage is divided into varieties that differ in appearance, weight of heads of cabbage, duration of ripening and other characteristics. The early ones ripen within 1-1.5 months, differ in small size, tender leaves, and do not form a head of cabbage. These varieties are great for fresh salads, but not suitable for long-term storage. Late species can be stored for a long time in a cool place, they have large, heavy heads of cabbage and denser leaves.

There are two ways to get seeds:

  • purchase from suppliers who sell them already fully prepared for planting
  • use freshly harvested cabbage bushes.

If you used the second option, then the seeds must first be disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate, and then germinated by placing them between layers of wet gauze. In a warm place, seedlings will appear within 3-4 days. Already at this moment it will become clear how high-quality and suitable the seeds are for further use. Then you can start seedlings or immediately place the vegetable in open ground, while the first method is considered more preferable.

The predecessors, which were previously cultivated on the soil used for planting Peking, play an important role in its high-quality cultivation. After their cruciferous relatives, as well as beets, Chinese cabbage can become sore and wither. On the soil left over from other crops, it is great to grow and give good shoots. Favorable predecessors include:

  • cucumbers
  • carrot
  • eggplant
  • beans and peas
  • watermelons and melons
  • onion and garlic.

Peking cabbage is cold-resistant, and germinates already at 2-5 degrees Celsius. Considering that full-fledged growth begins in fairly warm weather (18-20 degrees), the seedling growing method is considered more effective. In southern Russia, this method begins to be used in mid-spring, about four weeks before planting in open ground. Sowing is carried out later in northern latitudes. Late varieties that will be harvested for the winter are best planted by mid-summer.


Choosing a piglet for fattening

Piglets are selected for fattening that are capable of rapid growth, healthy, of the appropriate breed. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the financial side of the issue: it is cheaper to feed a pig during that period of the year when feed is more available.

Features of choosing the right age to buy

Breed - half-breeds are distinguished by the best vitality, enhanced growth and health - animals obtained by crossing a boar and sows of different breeds.

When choosing a pig for breeding, they do the opposite: in order to preserve the characteristics of the breed and its advantages, they choose purebred animals. However, such individuals, although they can reach record weight, grow more slowly.

Time of birth - the cheapest food is grass and garden waste. Accordingly, it is most profitable to feed the pig in the summer. To do this, take small piglets from winter or early spring farrowing.

Feed - it is recommended to buy monthly piglets in order to accustom the animal to a variety of feeds from an early age. There are principles on how to feed correctly, two-month-old piglets require less care, but they may already have stable food preferences, which is unprofitable, it will be more difficult to fatten such pigs due to the inability to digest some types of food.

Read the recipe for mixed feed for pigs with your own hands here.

Appearance - the exterior of a fattening animal is of great importance, since both the proportions of the body and the condition of the skin and bristles indicate the physical qualities of the animal. The following parameters are evaluated:

  • the head is wide, medium in length, the eyes are set wide apart, the ears should not hang over the eyes. Thick ears are a disadvantage as they indicate rough skin. A short or pug-shaped head indicates effeminacy, a straight profile indicates late maturity, which is unprofitable
  • chest - wide and deep. But if the pig is raised for meat, individuals with narrower breasts are preferable.
  • the neck is wide and short, and should blend imperceptibly into the body. Long neck indicates late ripeness
  • the withers are wide, without depressions between the shoulder blades. The latter indicates the poor health of the animal.
  • the back is broad, straight and long. Piglets grow fastest if their back and withers are in one line
  • the sacrum should be wide and straight or slightly sloping. Loose, narrow, or too short indicates soreness.
  • legs - straight, strong, set straight. This is especially important for meat breeds of pigs, which require a lot of movement.
  • hams - developed and without interceptions. A thick tail indicates a rough body, drooping - a general lethargy of the pig and poorly developing muscle tissue
  • the skin should be firm, soft and not wrinkled, except for special breeds of pigs. The bristles should be soft, shiny and thick, bristling bristles indicate an inability to grow quickly.

Read about feed for fast growth of pigs here.

You cannot buy piglets for fattening with sunken sides, with poorly sculpted ribs, with a sagging belly. All these are clear signs of weakness and soreness of the animal.


Types of feeding technologies

So, the basis of the diet of these farm animals is grain feed and vegetables. There are only two types of fattening pigs: meat and to fatty conditions. In this article, we will take a closer look at the features of the first technology. She, in turn, is subdivided into two more varieties: actually meat and bacon. Both of these methods can be used to feed all breeds bred in our country.


Planting care

Growing a good harvest requires mandatory care, but it is quite simple to care for the planted root crop: it is enough to thin out the garden in time, loosen the soil as necessary, weed, feed and, of course, water.

It is necessary to thin out the carrots at the first shoots, the smallest (and therefore the least viable) shoots are pulled out with an interval of 20-25 mm between the roots. The second thinning is carried out in June-July, observing the interval of 75-100mm. The second thinning makes it possible to use the extracted roots for food, or for livestock feed. It may be necessary to discharge the carrots a third time if the fruits obviously interfere with each other.

In the period from the appearance of the fifth to sixth leaves + 2-3 days, mineral fertilizers are applied. After feeding, you can make the first hilling, which is repeated after the first thinning, after the second thinning and then every 2-4 weeks. Hilling helps to hide the fruit in the ground, avoid sunburn and greening of the shoulders. Also, when growing, you can adhere to a three-phase method: 5,7,10 leaves. But it should be borne in mind that in any case, the fruits must be underground at a depth of about 50mm.

Watering carrots should be intense enough to prevent drying out of the soil, but not excessive to prevent hypothermia. The best thing is uniform watering, because when there is a lack of water, the roots become coarse and “woody, and when oversupplied, they are small and tasteless. It is best to stick to the following watering tactics:

  • from germination to the formation of carrots: regularly, every three to four days, 3-4 liters per square meter
  • from the appearance of carrots until the end of August: once a week, 10-20 liters per square, depending on the rainy summer, the rainy it is, the less water. If precipitation continues for more than 5 days in a row, watering is postponed for 5 days from the day the rains stop
  • from the end of August, once every one and a half to two weeks, 8-10 liters per square meter
  • watering stops 14 days before harvesting.


Sweet pie

The advantages of the pumpkin variety include a stable, fairly high yield. Sowing with seeds is carried out in May-June, seedlings can be grown from mid-April, after 20 days they are transplanted into the ground. The distance between the plants is 70 cm, the depth of the holes is 6 cm.

Description of the pumpkin variety Sweet Pie is as follows:

  • pumpkin fruits reach a weight of 2-3 kg, have a rounded, slightly flattened shape with a well-defined segmentation
  • the skin is smooth, bright orange
  • the pulp is juicy, crispy, sweet.

There are at least a dozen large-fruited varieties. When choosing them, one should take into account the peculiarities of the region and the possibilities for caring for the plant, and then the beautiful pumpkin will certainly please with a bountiful harvest.


How to choose the right pig

The question of how to choose the right piglet worries every novice livestock breeder, because the success of the business, that is, the maintenance and breeding of pigs, will depend on the choice. As already mentioned, many start their business with the Big White Pig, this option is considered the most profitable.

It is recommended to purchase piglets no older than 2 months, during this period it is time to separate them from their mother and prepare them for fattening. It is not bad if the purchased piglets were breastfed all the time, and not on powdered milk: this will provide them with good immunity.

It is advisable to choose piglets that meet the breed requirements and weigh at least the norm for a given age. It is recommended to get as close to the animals as possible and listen to their breathing. Normally, it should be even, not have wheezing. The bristles covering the skin should have a characteristic shine, and the tail should wriggle in a ring.

It is advisable to devote some time to examining the muzzle. Normally, the patch should have a pink color, the same applies to the mucous membrane of the mouth. Livestock breeders always inspect the structure of the body, normally the back should not have a hump or deflection, a healthy animal has an even profile.


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