When and in what ways can gooseberries be propagated?
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The gooseberry in the gardens of Russians is one of the most popular berry bushes, because its fruits are not only tasty, but also very useful. But one bush, no matter how productive it is, is not able to provide a whole family with berries. To acquire a few more, it is not at all necessary to go to the nursery. There are several ways to propagate gooseberries; even a novice gardener can complete all the necessary procedures.
The best time to breed gooseberries
Both spring and autumn are suitable for breeding gooseberries. It mainly depends on the chosen method.
You want to save the best gooseberry bushes, but even anti-aging pruning cannot extend the productive period indefinitely, so you have to use one of the plant propagation methods
Layers from the bush are taken in early spring. The procedure can be combined with the next pruning. It is important to be in time before the plant begins its active growing season. If the leaf buds have turned into green cones, or even more openly, it is too late. They should only swell slightly. They are planted too early. It is necessary to wait until the ground has completely thawed at a depth of 8-10 cm, this is quite enough. In temperate regions, this usually occurs in mid-April or early May. There are also reliable folk signs on which it is quite possible to be guided - blooming leaves on birches or dandelions that have begun to bloom.
Green cuttings are planted in the ground throughout June, lignified cuttings - in mid-October. In the first case, there is no need to procure planting material in advance. You can cut them on the same day or a day or two before the expected disembarkation.
The division of the bush can be carried out both in spring and autumn. The main thing is that its parts have time to settle down in a new place. Therefore, for the warm southern regions, the period from late August to early October is quite suitable. There, winter, as a rule, comes in accordance with the calendar, so you can be more or less sure that at least two months are left before the first frost. To divide the bush in the fall, you must definitely wait for the leaves to fall. A hibernating plant will take the procedure less painfully.
In spring, gooseberry bushes are divided in regions with a temperate climate. Over the summer, they manage to adapt to new living conditions and properly prepare for winter. In this case, you need to have time before the kidneys swell. A not fully awakened bush reacts much less painfully to the procedure.
The choice of a specific method for breeding gooseberries depends on many factors - the age of the bush from which the planting material is taken, the presence of young one- or two-year-old shoots on it, the desired number of future seedlings. In any case, the donor plant must be completely healthy, without the slightest signs of damage by pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses, as well as harmful insects.
It is advisable to start breeding preparations last summer. The selected bush must be looked after especially carefully. The procedures absolutely necessary for him are sanitary and formative pruning, regular watering, timely application of the necessary fertilizers, prevention of the appearance of pests and the development of diseases.
Regardless of the chosen breeding method, the gooseberry bush, from which the planting material is obtained, must be absolutely healthy.
The place for planting future seedlings also needs to be decided in advance. Like many other garden crops, gooseberries love warmth and sunshine. Their absence negatively affects the yield and taste of berries. Equally unsuitable for gooseberries is an open hill (from there in winter almost all the snow is blown off by the wind, which protects the roots from freezing), and a lowland (in spring, melt water does not leave there for a long time, and the rest of the time, cold moist air stagnates). The best option is a flat open area, at some distance from which there is a fence, a building, a structure, or another barrier that protects it from the north from cold winds. The culture has a negative attitude to high soil moisture.
For planting gooseberries, choose an open place where the bushes will receive enough heat and sunlight.
Pits for planting seedlings are prepared about 15-18 days before the proposed procedure. The approximate dimensions are 45-50 cm deep and 50-60 cm in diameter. When planting several bushes at the same time, the distance between them is determined based on how compact the plants are, or, conversely, powerful, vigorous. On average, 70–80 cm between bushes and 150–180 cm between rows are enough. It is better to plant them in a checkerboard pattern so that they do not shade each other.
A planting hole for the received gooseberry seedlings is prepared in advance, be sure to fertilize the soil
The top 15–20 cm of soil extracted from the pit (it is the most fertile) is mixed with fertilizers. Enough 10-15 liters of humus or rotted compost, as well as 100-120 g of simple superphosphate and 80-100 g of potassium sulfate. The latter can be replaced with sifted wood ash - about one and a half liters.
Video: general tips and tricks
Reproduction methods and step-by-step instructions with photos
There is nothing difficult in any of the gooseberry breeding methods, even for a novice gardener. Nevertheless, each of them has its own nuances, which you need to familiarize yourself with in advance.
Gooseberry cuttings can be green or lignified. The first, as practice shows, take root faster, especially when it comes to varieties that are atypical for culture capriciousness (Polonez, Consul, Cooperator). But the seedlings obtained from lignified cuttings can be transplanted to a permanent place in the fall, and those from green ones may have to be grown next summer.
The time for harvesting gooseberry cuttings depends on their type - green or lignified
The best time to harvest planting material is early morning or late evening in June or early July. The optimal length of a green cutting is 8–14 cm; 6–8 growth buds are required. The top of the shoot or a completely cut one-year twig rooted best. The donor bush must be no older than 4–5 years. The lower cut is made at a slight angle, the upper cut is straight, 7–10 mm above the last kidney.
Green gooseberry cuttings are cut early in the morning or after sunset - at this time, the maximum concentration of nutrients and moisture is noted in the tissues
Green cuttings are rooted like this:
- All leaf plates are cut from the cutting, with the exception of two or three upper ones, without touching the petioles. Longitudinal cuts are made with a razor blade or scalpel on the existing kidneys, and 2-3 more of the same ones are made at the base of the cutting.
- The lower part of the cut shoots is immersed for 8-10 hours in a solution of a root formation stimulator prepared according to the instructions (Heteroauxin, Kornevin, Zircon).
- Small containers are filled with a mixture of peat chips and coarse river sand (approximately in equal proportion), the substrate is well moistened. If there is free space in the greenhouse or greenhouse, you can dig a shallow trench by filling it with the same soil. In this case, 5 cm is left between the cuttings, 7–8 cm between the rows.
- The cuttings are planted, deepening 2–2.5 cm at an angle of approximately 45º to the soil surface. Those in containers are covered with plastic bags to ensure high humidity (85–90%). The air temperature is maintained at 25-27 ° C, the substrate temperature - 20-22 ° C. The soil is periodically sprayed from a spray bottle, it should be moderately moist all the time.
A prerequisite for rooting green gooseberry cuttings is high air humidity and frequent watering.
- The cuttings are covered from direct sunlight with branches or a white covering material stretched over them. You can also spray the glass of the greenhouse in this place with a solution of slaked lime in water.
In the absence of space in the greenhouse, an appropriate microclimate for green gooseberry cuttings can be created at home.
- Under optimal conditions, cuttings should root in 10–12 days. After that, they need to be fed by spraying with a solution of a complex fertilizer containing nitrogen (Nitrofosk, Diammofosk, Azofosk) - 15–20 g per 10 l of water. Top dressing continues throughout the season, in the fall the seedlings are transferred to a permanent place. If the roots seem underdeveloped to you, you can postpone this procedure until next spring.
Most of the planted green cuttings over the summer have time to get strong enough to survive planting in the ground.
With lignified cuttings, most gooseberry varieties of domestic selection do not reproduce too willingly. But this method is very suitable for foreign, primarily North American hybrids.
Planting lignified gooseberry cuttings at an angle stimulates the development of the root system and new lateral shoots
Planting material is cut from root shoots in late September or early October, when the bush loses its foliage. The tip of the branch is best rooted. They should not be long - 15-17 cm is enough.
- Cut cuttings are buried in the snow during the winter or, if possible, stored on a glacier. If you have a cellar or basement, you can do it differently. After cutting, the planting material is placed for 1.5–2 months in boxes with wet sand, completely buried. When a characteristic influx appears at the cut site (called callus by botanists), they are removed for storage, covered with wet sawdust or shavings.
- The next year, in May, they are planted at an angle in a trench filled with loose fertile soil so that one or two buds remain above the soil surface. The distance between adjacent cuttings is 10–12 cm.
- The soil is well moistened when the water is absorbed - mulch with sawdust, peat crumbs, humus (a layer of such a thickness that the cuttings cannot be seen) or tighten the bed with black plastic wrap.
- When the cuttings take root, the shelter is removed. Caring for them during the summer consists in watering, loosening the soil, weeding the beds. Once every 15–20 days, they are watered with diluted water in a ratio of 1:10 with an infusion of fresh cow dung or nettle and dandelion greens. In the fall, the resulting seedlings are transferred to a permanent place.
To judge whether lignified gooseberry cuttings have taken root, can be judged by the appearance of new leaves
In regions with a warm climate, cuttings can be immediately planted in the ground. They are tied in a bundle, turned upside down and buried into the dug hole by about 40-50 cm. Because of this planting, the development of growth buds is inhibited, and new roots, on the contrary, are stimulated, because the soil from above warms up faster. The hole with the cuttings is covered with peat or humus (layer 10-15 cm thick), covered with a thick film. In the spring, they are planted in the garden in the same way as lignified cuttings.
In addition to the traditional method of planting lignified gooseberry cuttings (photo below), there is another option (photo above), but it is suitable only for regions with relatively warm winters
There are also so-called combined cuttings. This is a part of a branch cut at the place where the green shoot (at least 5 cm long) turns into wood, with the obligatory preservation of a piece of lignified shoot, usually called the heel. Such planting material is suitable for propagation of most varieties of gooseberries; these cuttings do not need to be kept in a greenhouse. Its length does not really matter, as well as the quality of the substrate and air humidity. They give roots quickly enough in ordinary water, even faster - in a weak (2-3 ml per liter of water) solution of a biostimulant.
Combined cuttings are suitable for propagation of any gooseberry varieties and hybrids, regardless of their origin.
Video: propagation by cuttings
Reproduction by layering
Gooseberry propagation by layering is the most popular method among amateur gardeners. In this case, the plant is not exposed to severe stress, as when cutting or dividing a bush. Already formed seedlings with their own developed root system are separated from the bush. Layers can be horizontal, vertical and arcuate.
In the fall, seedlings obtained from gooseberry cuttings are carefully removed from the ground and evaluated, they have a somewhat developed root system
Propagation by horizontal layers is best suited for young shrubs, 3-4 years old. Each of them can produce 4–7 viable seedlings per season. The mother bush continues to bear fruit.
- Choose 3-5 healthy annual shoots. In the spring, when the soil warms up enough, they dig trenches 5–7 cm deep, fill them with a mixture of humus and peat crumbs, and place branches in them so that along their entire length, including the base, they are in contact with the substrate. To do this, the shoots are fixed in several places with pieces of bent wire or ordinary hairpins. Pinch the tops, cutting off 3-4 cm.
- From above, the shoots do not fall asleep with soil, the substrate in the trench is constantly kept moist. They are covered with fertile soil only when vertical shoots 4–5 cm high appear.
- When the seedlings grow up to 12-15 cm, they are huddled, completely covered with earth. Further care consists in regular watering, application of fertilizers containing nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and weeding. If they are too stretched, in the middle of summer, pinch the top of the shoot on 1-2 leaves to stimulate branching. In extreme heat, it is advisable to protect young plants from direct sunlight, covering them with branches, covering them with hay or straw.
- In early autumn, the obtained seedlings are removed from the ground and the root system is examined. Those in whom it is sufficiently developed can be immediately transferred to a permanent place. The rest are grown next summer, digging in for the winter.
When propagated by horizontal layers, the bush from which the planting material is obtained continues to bear fruit
Reproduction by arcuate layering is carried out according to the same scheme. The only difference is that the branch is fixed near the ground at one point, approximately in the middle, and this place is immediately covered with earth, well watered. The top and base of the shoot remain on the surface, the first pinch at a distance of 10-15 cm from the place of fixation of the branch.
The methods of propagation of gooseberries with arcuate and horizontal layers differ little from each other, the choice depends on how many and what kind of seedlings you want to get
In the fall, a viable seedling is guaranteed to turn out from an arcuate cut. The branch connecting it to the mother plant is cut off, the young bush is dug up and transferred to a permanent place. Compared to reproduction by horizontal layering, less seedlings are obtained, but they are more viable, adapt faster to new living conditions and begin to bear fruit. As a rule, the first crop is harvested two years after transplanting.
Old gooseberry bushes older than 6–8 years old, whose productive period is already coming to an end, are propagated by vertical layering. This and next year, the harvest from them can not be expected.
- In early spring, before the leaf buds wake up, all shoots older than 2-3 years are cut to the point of growth. The remaining ones are shortened by two-thirds. This procedure stimulates the intensive formation of new branches.
- When the young shoots reach a length of 12-15 cm, the bush is spud around the perimeter, filling the new shoots with soil by about half. All voids between them must be filled.
- During the summer, the earthen mound, as it shatters, is refurbished 3-4 more times, gradually bringing its height to 18–20 cm. Before each hilling, abundant watering is required. In the second decade of July, the tops of annual shoots are pinched so that they branch more intensively.
- During the season, future layers are fed 2-3 times, watering with a solution of complex mineral fertilizer for berry bushes. Regular watering is also required.
- In the fall, they rake the earth from the bush. The rooted cuttings are separated from the mother plant and transplanted to a permanent place.
Compared to other methods, propagation of gooseberries by vertical layering is a rather laborious method.
There is another method of propagation by layering, which is most suitable for those who grow gooseberry seedlings for sale. Up to 30 new plants can be obtained from one bush.
- In spring, all the shoots are cut off from the bush that will be the donor, leaving stumps 10–12 cm high. Since this stimulates intensive branching, many annual shoots appear during the season. A few of the weakest can be cut to the point of growth, the rest are left until next spring.
- In mid-April, all the shoots, except for three or four, located closest to the center of the bush, are folded back and laid out on pre-dug grooves 8-10 cm deep, filled with fertile soil or humus. The resulting design resembles the sun with rays, as children draw it.
- The bent branches are fixed in a horizontal position, sprinkled with soil, and watered with warm water as it dries.
- By the beginning of summer, almost every growth bud on buried shoots should give rise to a scion. When they grow up to 12-15 cm, they are half covered with light fertile soil to stimulate the development of the root system.
- In September, all the shoots on which the layers have formed are separated from the mother bush. All plants with at least small roots are preserved.
- The cuttings are transplanted into suitably sized pots. They hibernate in the basement or in the cellar, at a slight positive temperature and humidity of 65–75%.
- In the spring they are transplanted into a greenhouse. The distance between the bushes is about 30 cm, between the rows - 0.5 m. The root collar must be deepened 3-4 cm more than it was before. By autumn, the grown layers are ready for planting in a permanent place.
The latter method allows you to get up to 30 new seedlings from one gooseberry bush.
Video: growing new gooseberry bushes from cuttings
Dividing the bush
Dividing a bush is the most suitable way when you need to propagate a rare or scarce gooseberry variety. As a rule, in places of growth of shoots, its bushes form additional roots. One year before the proposed procedure, all branches older than five years are pruned to the point of growth.
It is undesirable to divide the gooseberry bush into too many parts, usually 3-4 new ones are obtained from one plant
- Gooseberry bushes are dug out of the ground and the roots are unwound, separating young shoots from old stumps. The roots are cut with a sharply sharpened disinfected knife, trying to reduce the number of damage to a minimum.
- To prevent the development of rot and other diseases, the sections made are powdered with crushed chalk, sifted wood ash, colloidal sulfur, and cinnamon. Each part must have a developed root system and at least three shoots.
- The roots are smeared with a mixture of powdered clay and a solution of any biostimulant. The correct mass is similar in consistency to thick sour cream.
- The seedlings obtained in this way are planted in pre-prepared planting pits and watered abundantly (15–20 liters of water). The soil is mulched, the existing shoots are shortened by a third of the length. If the division is carried out in the fall, preparation for winter must be especially careful.
In addition to those described, there are other ways of breeding gooseberries, but for one reason or another, they are not very popular among amateur gardeners.
Growing from seeds
The method is mainly used by professional breeders when breeding new varieties, but no one forbids an amateur gardener to try to do this. The result is completely unpredictable - the bushes obtained in this way extremely rarely inherit the varietal characteristics of the parent plant.
Gooseberry seeds are propagated mainly by professional breeders, this is a rather complicated procedure that takes a lot of time
- To obtain seeds, select several large ripe berries. The pulp is separated from the skin and dried in direct sunlight for several days.
- Planting material is placed in small flat containers filled with wet sand, deepening 2-3 cm. For winter, they are stored in a cellar or basement, or buried in a plot to a depth of 40-50 cm, sprinkled with peat chips on top (layer 15-20 cm).
- In early April, seeds are sown in a greenhouse or greenhouse, covered with humus or peat. The layer thickness is 2-3 cm.
- Seedlings with two or three true leaves are transferred to open air beds. During the summer, plantings are regularly watered, weeded, the soil is very carefully loosened.
- In early autumn, seedlings (they should reach a height of 15–20 cm) are transplanted to a permanent place in prepared pits.
Reproduction by perennial branches
Planting material is obtained during rejuvenating pruning, ridding the bush of all shoots older than 5-6 years.
There will definitely not be a shortage of planting material during the propagation of gooseberries by perennial branches - it is formed in abundance after the next pruning
- The cut branches are laid horizontally in shallow (5–6 cm) grooves, leaving the top (growth of the last season) on the surface, and covered with light fertile soil.
- Pinch the top, removing the upper 2-3 buds. The soil is constantly kept moist. During the season, the emerging shoots are watered 2-3 times with a solution of Nitrofoski or Azofoski (5-7 g / l) to stimulate the growth of green mass.
- In the fall, seedlings that have reached a height of 15–18 cm are transplanted to a permanent place. Less developed grow in a greenhouse or in a garden next summer.
The method is quite complicated, therefore it is practiced only by experienced gardeners. Vaccination is carried out only on a gooseberry bush of a different variety; on other crops, the graft takes root poorly.
Gooseberries are grafted in different ways, almost always on bushes of a different variety, although some craftsmen manage to achieve the desired result when grafted on currants and yoshta
- The shoots selected as a scion are cleaned of leaves and thorns and cut so that a piece 5–7 cm long with three to four growth buds remains. The bottom cut is made at an angle of about 60º.
- A T-shaped incision with a depth of 1–1.5 mm is made in the bark of the rootstock shoot with a scalpel or razor.
- The junction of the rootstock and the scion is disinfected with a 2% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid, covered with garden varnish in several layers. After 1–2 months, the shoot should take root and begin to form new leaves.
The term of the productive life of the berry bush is 8–10 years. Even competent anti-aging pruning cannot prolong it. Therefore, you need to take care of an equivalent replacement in a timely manner. For this, any of the described methods of propagation of gooseberries is suitable. Most of them are vegetative, and the plants obtained in this way fully retain the varietal characteristics of the donor bush.
27 years old, higher education in law, broad outlook and interest in a variety of topics.
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Breeding methods for gooseberries in summer, autumn and spring
Gooseberry bushes have the ability to age out over time. As a result, they lose productivity, which means that the volume of the harvest and the quality of the fruits are gradually decreasing. Over time, every gardener thinks about how to keep the variety he likes or get new seedlings. Therefore, you need to familiarize yourself with how you can propagate gooseberries with green cuttings and in other ways. And you should also study in what time frame it is better to carry out the procedure and what is required for this.
Gooseberry breeding methods
In addition to general unpretentiousness, gooseberries are famous for their amazing ability to take root.
Unfortunately, there are not so many really effective ways to propagate gooseberries, but there is one that gives 100% result.
Perhaps, propagating gooseberries by layering is the easiest and most effective way to propagate this thorny berry bush.
Note! Gooseberries can be propagated by arc and horizontal layering.
If you propagate by arc, then you need young, well-developed annual branches. If horizontal - biennial, on which there are already shoots of the second order (strong annual growth), which will be new seedlings.
As a rule, they are engaged in reproduction by layering in the spring - in April.
However, if over the summer the bush has released many young shoots, then, in principle, it is possible to dig in the layers in August or early September.
You can propagate gooseberries by layering using the following simple step-by-step instructions:
- It is necessary to choose the lowest-lying (close to the ground) shoots (1-2 years old).
- Bend the selected shoots to the soil and press them with hairpins (brackets, hooks) in two places, and then sprinkle with soil on top (5-8 cm).
If desired, an annular cut in the bark can be made for better rooting.
And if you multiply horizontal layering, then an incision can also be made under each second-order shoot.
- Or lay them in shallow (5-8 cm) trenches made in advance and pin the shoots to the ground with electrodes (pins).
By the way! The top of the shoot must be left above the soil surface (you can tie it to a peg).
- Sprinkle the shoot with earth on top (you can additionally put a brick or a board in the place of the digging).
- Water abundantly and cover with mulch (mulch).
- Throughout the season, do not forget to make regular watering (it is obvious that rooting will be more successful in wet soil).
- Already this fall or next year, in spring, when roots are formed in the place of the trench, it will be possible to separate (cut off) new plants from the mother plant and transplant to a permanent place (optimally together with an earthen clod).
Video: reproduction of gooseberries by arcuate layers
Video: propagation of gooseberries by horizontal layers
By dividing the bush
As a rule, they are engaged in dividing the bushes if the plant is already old (it has grown a lot, it has many shoots) and needs to be rejuvenated.
The method is universal and suitable for reproduction of almost all shrubs.
The gooseberry breeding technology by dividing the bush is as follows:
- The bush is carefully dug out of the ground, being careful not to damage the root system.
- The roots are cleaned of the earth and examined, the diseased and damaged are cut off.
- Next, the bush is directly divided into several parts using a pruner (knife).
Sections are sprinkled with ash or crushed activated carbon.
Unfortunately, by cuttings (especially green ones), gooseberries reproduce much worse than other berry bushes (the same currants, if rooted in water), so this method of propagation is rarely used.
Interesting! Nevertheless, the author of the next video assures that it is quite successfully possible to root combined gooseberry cuttings in greenhouse conditions, cutting them in early June (the heel is lignified, the top is green).
Video: basic rules for successful cuttings of gooseberries, currants and other shrubs
However, you can try to propagate the gooseberry with lignified cuttings in the fall:
- Cut 20-25 cm cuttings with or without heels (you just need a completely lignified growth of the current year).
- Remove leaves from the bottom of the cuttings
- Dig a groove (trench), spill with water.
The depth of the trench is 1/2 the length of the cutting.
- Plant the cuttings in the ground.
- Cover the groove with earth.
- Next fall dig up and plant seedlings in a permanent place.
Video: growing gooseberry seedlings - autumn planting of cuttings
It is quite easy to propagate an unpretentious gooseberry berry bush. All you need is to choose the method you like (optimally by layering) and carry out a series of simple actions. Good luck!
Breeding features of gooseberries without thorns
Gooseberry varieties that do not have thorns are propagated by green cuttings or all kinds of cuttings. When landing, follow these rules:
- The upper cut of the cutting is straight, the lower one is oblique.
The choice of the gooseberry breeding method is individual. The determining factors are the type of plant, climatic conditions, the desired result. In general, the procedure is simple, the main thing is to strictly follow the recommendations proposed in this article.
Reproduction by dividing the bush
Among the variety of possible ways of breeding gooseberries, the propagation of gooseberries by dividing the bush stands out in particular. What is this method? As a rule, it is used when a farmer decides to transplant a plant from one area to another, renewed and much more fertile. Prepare for the implementation of this method in advance. About a year before transplanting the bush, it must be properly cut (all old branches are removed).
In due time, the shrub is dug up, and then divided into several parts and planted in permanent places. The optimal time for such a procedure is spring or autumn. In the summer, it is undesirable to do this. Breeding home gooseberries by dividing the bush is a fairly effective method. The main thing is to be able to implement the planned plan for transplanting gooseberry bushes competently.
Diluting gooseberries with cuttings, layering or dividing the bush can be quite effective. Try to adhere to basic recommendations - and the results will not be long in coming.
Take care of the rejuvenation of your home mini-gooseberry plantations - it's easy and even for a novice gardener to do this. But you will get updated bushes of the berry plant, which will continue to delight you with its nutritious fruits.