How to speed up the fruiting of an apple tree

How to speed up the fruiting of an apple tree

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Palmette with horizontal branches

Growing it on low-growing rootstocks will speed up the time when the apple tree enters the fruiting period. Certain apple varieties, being grafted onto dwarf rootstocks, begin to delight with the first fruits at the age of one year (for example, the Brusnichnoe variety).

If we are talking about accelerating the onset of fruiting of already growing ordinary (vigorous) plants, then this can be achieved with the help of some methods: tilting branches, banding them, wire constriction.

It has long been noted that the closer the position of the branch to the horizontal, the weaker its growth and the more fruit buds are laid on it. In a branch brought to a horizontal position, instead of a small number of strong growths, many short shoots of the generative type are formed.

Branch slope in order to accelerate fruiting has long been used by Russian peasant gardeners. To the branches of the "stubborn", who did not want to start bearing trees for many years, they hung bast shoes, stuffing the latter with stones or earth. Punished in this way, the tree soon began to bear fruit. More precisely, not the whole plant, but only a bent branch.

One should not think that after bending 1-2 branches, the whole tree will begin to bear fruit "with fright". You can tilt the branches almost at any time, but the greatest effect is achieved when this technique is implemented at the beginning of lignification of the shoots (second half of summer).

You can fix the branches in a drooping or horizontal position by tying them with twine to the trunk, to other branches that have already taken a stable position, to stakes driven into the ground. When bending sufficiently thick branches from the bottom side, 2-3 shallow (about 1/3 of the thickness) incisions should be made in the place of their bending.

Special attention is required when bending branches that have sharp angles of departure from the trunk, which can easily lead to their breaking off. To prevent this from happening, you must first strengthen the base of such branches, for this it is tightly fastened to the trunk, tying it with twine. Then the branch is gradually folded back, making sure that it does not break at the bend.

If the bent branch is small and the trunk is small, you can, by grasping it and the base of the branch with one hand, slightly deform the branch wood at the base with the other hand until it crackles slightly and then gently tilt it. The wood of the bent branch can be softened by several decisive but careful turns in one direction or the other relative to the axis.

You can also fix the branch in the desired position by installing a spacer made of a thin board, at both ends of which there are triangular or rounded cutouts. When installing the spacers, place a soft material under them to prevent damage to the bark.

There are a number of systems for forming crowns, during the creation of which the branches are brought to a horizontal or drooping position. For example, "Spindlebusch" ("Fusiform bush"), which includes several varieties, various kinds of palmettes.

It is possible to change the orientation of the branches, while suppressing their growth and strengthening the laying of fruit buds, by interweaving them in pairs.

To accelerate the onset of fruiting of strongly growing young trees, you can use "ringing"... It is carried out at the beginning of the growing season, removing a circular strip of bark 0.5-1 cm wide at the base of the branch. The resulting wound is covered with garden varnish and tied with a film. As a result of the resulting rupture of the bark, the products of photosynthesis do not flow from the branch to other parts of the tree, accumulate in it and stimulate the laying of fruit buds. It should be borne in mind that as a result of ringing, the growth and development of the branch is weakened for several years even after the wound is overgrown.

Reception similar to ringing "fruit belt patch" (wire tie). It can be applied both to individual branches and to the trunk. In this case, the outflow of nutrients does not completely stop, but only slows down as a result of the constriction of the bark with wire, under which, to prevent damage to the bark, a strip of soft sheet is placed with a length slightly larger than the circumference of the branch (trunk). It makes sense to make several cuts along both edges of the strip, which will exclude damage to the bark when the branch thickens.

V. Stepanychev,
candidate of agricultural sciences

How to deal with the frequency of fruiting?

There are several ways to regulate fruiting:

  • intensive pruning
  • application of increased doses of fertilizers
  • thinning flowers and ovaries.

Strong pruning and plentiful food provoke the tree to active growth, moderate fruiting and the formation of shoots of reserve fruiting for the next productive year. If you follow all the rules, these techniques help to avoid periodicity.

Pruning helps to form the right amount of fruit

You can also resort to manual thinning, leaving only the best quality ovaries on the tree. Moreover, the distance between adjacent ovaries should be within 10-20 cm. One ovary should have 10-30 leaves. In large-fruited varieties, it is necessary to leave 10 leaves per fruit, and in summer varieties, 30 leaves.

Thinning of the ovaries in late June - early July does not significantly affect the regularity of fruiting, but significantly improves the quality of the fruit.

Solution of problems

Let's figure out how to make an apple tree bear fruit.

In the case of a young tree, if it is planted incorrectly, you can correct the mistake by transplanting it higher - the root collar should be at ground level.

If we are talking about the removal of overgrown wood, then we leave all of the above, we will not cut the apple tree for the next year or two. We need to give her time to gain strength and direct these very forces to work.

If the apple trees bloom every year, but they do not set fruit or are tied in small quantities, first check with the State Register if your variety is suitable for growing in the area. If everything is observed, we proceed to the excess nitrogen - here you just need to know when to stop. Its main sources are compost and manure - they are used for young trees even before fruiting. As soon as the first flowering has occurred, any nitrogen-containing fertilizing should be canceled, it is necessary to avoid even mulch with grass in the near-stem circle. Fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus are what you need to replace your nitrogen sources with.

Trapping belts work well against weevils. They are set before the kidneys swell. Late with them - take up insecticides. The first time they are used when the buds open, the second - after the flowering of the garden. It is at this point that the larvae are more vulnerable to chemicals.

Do not try to use insecticides during flowering - along with the pests, kill the helper insects.

In the case of crown thickening, competent pruning will be required, which should be carried out in spring or autumn. The order of deleting branches is as follows:

  • get rid of old, dead and damaged branches
  • then from those that grow incorrectly and interfere with others
  • cut off weak and thin branches of the second order (which grow from the main ones).

This pruning improves the fruiting of the apple tree. But the lack of iron in the soil can be corrected with the help of iron-containing preparations like copper sulfate, which should be sprayed on the plant in early spring.

To prevent the apple tree from getting sunburn, take care of whitewashing the trunk and skeletal branches in the fall.

How to grow an apple tree from a seed on your own

The availability of apple seeds often raises the question - is it possible to grow a tree from them? Sure you may. True, this will take time and some effort, and as a result, wild animals with tasteless or bitter fruits may turn out. However, with a little labor, unexpectedly tasty apples or good rootstocks can be grown.

How to speed up the fruiting of an apple tree - garden and vegetable garden

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Planting an apple tree

Mix the soil removed from the pit with fertilizers:

  • potassium chloride 70 g
  • superphosphate 100 g.

If the soil is acidic, add 700-800 g dolomite flour.

Loosen the bottom of the pit and lay a layer of gravel, rubble or other similar material. Pour a small mound of the prepared earthen mixture. Not far from the center of the pit, drive in a stake about a meter or two in height for support. Place the seedling on a mound, spread the roots and cover with the mixture to the top, leaving the root collar 3-5 cm above ground level. Then you need to pour 2-3 buckets of water under the seedling and mulch the soil.

Apple trees. Illustration for this article is used under a standard license ©

For better growth and proper development, cut the seedling at a height of 75-90 cm and shorten the side branches, leaving ⅓ the length.

If the groundwater is high on the site, this can cause diseases of the apple trees. In this case, you need to choose a place higher, dig up and install there a wooden box 1x1 m and a height of 70-80 cm. Cover the box with earth on all sides and plant an apple tree in the middle in the usual way.

You will have to water this apple tree more often and every year add earth to the hill.

How to accelerate the fruiting of apple and pear?

In recent years, gardeners each time more widely use techniques that not only accelerate the entry of trees into fruiting, but also contribute to obtaining high yields. One of the main ones is the cultivation of apple and pear varieties on shorter, fast-growing rootstocks or on intermediate inserts of dwarf rootstocks.
Another extremely important technique is the minimal pruning of young trees without significant annual shortening of the annual growth of skeletal and semi-skeletal branches. The abolition of a significant shortening of one-year growth, which was previously widely recommended, is due to the peculiarities of the fruiting of young apple and pear trees.
So, in young apple trees and pears of many varieties (Jonathan, Jonared, Idared, Melba, Ruby Duki, pears - Williams summer), lateral flower buds are laid on strong annual growths, which can yield the next year. In this case, flower buds are placed in the upper part of the one-year growth, which, with significant shortening, is usually cut out. The annual removal of the growth with flower buds stimulates the intensive growth of young trees and distracts them when they enter fruiting. therefore trim the crown young apple and pear trees are needed minimally, based on the needs of its formation.

A very effective technique that stimulates early fruiting of young trees is the deviation of skeletal and semi-skeletal branches from their vertical position. Even more effective, as the experience of the Lviv Research Station of Horticulture shows, is the combination of minimal pruning of the crown of young apple trees with the rejection of vigorous branches. This not only weakens the growth of the tree, significantly increases the illumination of the central and lower parts of the crown, accelerates the entry of trees into fruiting, but also improves the quality of the fruit.
The acceleration of the entry of trees into fruiting is influenced by their thickened placement in a row. So, apple trees on dwarf rootstocks they are planted at a distance of 1.8 - 2 m from each other, on semi-dwarf ones - 3 m, and on medium-sized ones - 4 m.

Watch the video: What is the Fastest Growing Fruit Tree?


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