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Pears: time of harvest and sale of Italian pears - elcriso.it

Pears: time of harvest and sale of Italian pears - elcriso.it


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TIME OF HARVEST AND SALE OF ITALIAN FRUIT

PEARS

Pears are grown mainly in temperate climate areas, with fertile, soft, well-drained soils. It does not like acidic, humid or very calcareous soils.

Botanical classification


Family: Rosaceae
Section: Pomoideae
Kind: Pirus
Species: Pirus communis

Main varieties


The main varieties of pears are:
  • SUMMER VARIETIES: Coscia, Summer Spadona, Clapp's Favorita, Gentile, San Giovanni, Butirra Giffard and Hardy, Triumph of Vienna, Max Red Bartlett, Dr. Guyot;
  • AUTUMN-VERNINE VARIETIES: Conference, William, Kaiser, Abate Fetel, Decana d'Inverno, Decana del Comizio, Passa Crassana.

Main production regions


The main pear production regions are: Piedmont, Lombardy, Veneto, Emilia Romagna, Lazio, Campania, Sicily.

Average yields per hectare


The average yields per hectare (10,000 m2) of pears are: 200-250 quintals / ha.

Preservation after collection pending sale


The conservation after the harvest of the pears pending the sale is:
  • SUMMER VARIETIES: in the refrigerator between 0 - 1 ° C and 90% relative humidity for two and a half months;
  • AUTUMN-WINTER VARIETIES: in the refrigerator between -1 - 0 ° C and 85% relative humidity for a period of two to five months.


Pear variety innovation at the CREA-OFA in Forlì

The pear tree genetic improvement activity in progress in Forlì, at the Research Center for Olive, Fruit and Citrus Growing of CREA (Council for Research in Agriculture and Analysis of Agricultural Economics), has about half a century of life. The first controlled crosses were in fact made in 1968 and the activity has continued continuously until today, creating 7 varieties: Tosca (1993), Carmen, Norma and Turandot (2000), Aida and Boheme (2003) and Falstaff (2012).
The program was kept active thanks to the temporal support of various public and private research funds, a sign of the considerable interest in the varietal innovation of this fruit species whose most widespread varieties date back to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In particular, in the last decade the program conducted in Forlì has been co-financed by New Plant, a private group made up of three Emilia-Romagna Producer Organizations: Apo Conerpo, Apofruit Italia and Orogel Fresco which, overall, produce 70% of the pears. collected in Emilia-Romagna. New Plant and Crea together identify the most promising selections among those present in the first level fields located in Magliano di Forlì, which are then reared, for the final evaluation, at two companies controlled by New Plant located in the province of Modena. Only the best lines will continue the selective process that provides for phytosanitary controls and, finally, the possible spread as new varieties.
Following this working pattern, the Falstaff variety was spread in 2012, which is arousing considerable interest among industry operators for the red coloring of the epidermis and the remarkable organoleptic quality of the fruit. Since 2016, the final activity of evaluating the best selections is part of the 2014-2020 Rural Development Plan project "New genotypes for fruit and sustainable horticulture (NovOrtiFru)" in which numerous new lines of pear, apple and strawberry are evaluated obtained from Crea-Ofa in Forlì with the general aim of creating new cultivars with improved characteristics and able to stand out from those available and cultivated today.
The project
Overall, over 1,400 intervarietal cross combinations have been performed in 50 years of breeding with a production of over 100,000 seedlings. Currently 17,000 seedlings are subjected to selection, of which almost half are fruiting, the selections in the first evaluation phase in the fields located in Magliano di Forlì are 240, while a considerable number (about 50) are those in an advanced evaluation phase (2nd level ) located in the two New Plant companies.
The main objectives of the pear genetic improvement program conducted in Forlì are:
- extension of the collection calendar, especially in the late period
- high quality (organoleptic, nutraceutical, low susceptibility to enzymatic browning) and shelf life of the fruit
- resistance and / or tolerance of the tree to pathogens (Erwinia amylovora) and phytophages (Cacopsylla pyri)
- introduction of new aesthetic and nutraceutical characteristics of the fruit such as red color of the skin and pulp
- new types of fruit from the interspecific hybridization between European pear and Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) characterized by various types of shape and color: crunchy and juicy pulp like that of nashi and aromatic like that of European pear.
Expansion of the calendar
collection
The extension of the harvest calendar in the early period was, until a few years ago, the goal pursued with greater success because of the 7 licensed varieties, 5 (Tosca, Carmen, Norma, Turandot, Bohéme) are characterized by the harvest of the fruits in the second-third decade of July. In recent years there has been a reduction in the demand for pears in the early period since falling back to a season (late June-July) in which the concentration of other fruit is high, the consumer prefers to buy "summer" fruit over apples. and pears, whose consumption is mainly autumn-winter. Precisely for this reason, the selection has been increasingly oriented towards new varieties with an autumn-winter ripening, with a high aptitude for conservation, so as to remain on the market until April-May.
Among the early selections in an advanced study phase, the following is reported.
CREA 194, soon to be commercialized: it is an early ripening selection (+10 days compared to Carmen *). It is characterized by an early entry into production and a constant productivity.The fruits are of medium size, with a faded red overcolour on about 40% of the surface.The pulp is of a melting texture, fine and sweet taste resistance to manipulation is high and good is the shelf life in normal refrigeration. The variety has been successfully tested in the same cultivation areas as the Carmen * pear, from which it derives and from which it is a valid alternative thanks to its constant productivity and prolonged shelf life. The markets potentially affected are the same currently occupied by early varieties, but with the advantage of allowing an extension of the marketing period. Has grafting affinity with vigorous rootstocks (Farold® 40 Daygon *, Sydo®, Ba29) and with weak quince rootstocks (MC, MH) in no case has disaffinity emerged even if the intermediate grafting is still recommended with quince . Due to its medium vigor, the tree is suitable for intensive planting.
CREA 327, originating from Bohéme and S. Maria, is characterized by regular fruits, of medium size, with an attractive red overcolour on about 20% of the surface, the pulp is fine, juicy and acidulous.
The varieties harvested after William autumn winter, Abate Fetél, Conference, Decana del Comizio and Kaiser, represent nationally over 60% in terms of pear production and over 90% of that of northern Italian areas. Among the selections in an advanced phase of study that occur with this period of maturation, the most promising are CREA 42, CREA 171, CREA 399 and CREA 185. The first, obtained from the cross between Mellina and Decana del Comizio, is tolerant to "Fire blight". The fruits, green in color, have widespread russeting on 20-30% of the surface, the pulp is medium-fine, melting, juicy and aromatic. CREA 171, CREA 185 and CREA 399 are selections characterized by harvesting in the second decade of September and red or two-colored skin.
Resistance to fire
and in psilla
The identification of new varieties with resistance / tolerances to Erwinia amylovora and Cacopsylla pyri, single or multiple, with a view to a more sustainable fruit growing, focused on the reduction of chemical inputs, is a priority objective. The inheritance of resistance to blight fire appears to be regulated by multiple genes, however, the environmental component is strong, so much so that it is reported that less than 50% of the phenotypic variability is due to genetic factors. In the context of national and international projects, resistant and / or tolerant genotypes to "fire blight" have been identified and complementary recombination schemes have been adopted that provide for interval crossings between tolerant or resistant parents and susceptible parents, but of high agronomic value. Thus, the first two fire blight tolerant varieties, Aida and Bohème, were launched.
The genetic improvement activity aimed at resistance to Cacopsylla pyri was started from the beginning of the program when specific cross combinations were carried out with the Spina Carpi cultivar and some American selections indicated as resistant to psylla. In the first generation Spina Carpi, while showing a high tolerance, was unable to transmit the character to the progeny. Instead, from the American material - which is already hybrid - various selections were obtained, all tolerant. Some of these are also interesting for the organoleptic characteristics of the fruits and the tolerance to fire blight. This is the case of CREA 133 which is harvested in the third decade of August and is productive, with medium-sized fruits, red overcolour on 15-20% of the epidermis and good organoleptic characteristics of the pulp.
Red skin color
The innovation of the "pear" product seems to be the only way to obtain a change in the varietal standards of this species. Consumers are increasingly attracted to red fruits, not only for their aesthetic quality, but also for the content in biologically active substances, such as polyphenols and anthocyanins, which give the characteristic red breakfast to the peel.
The obtaining of new varieties with bright red skin color was possible thanks to the crossing with varieties that present this character, such as, for example, Max Red Bartlett whose components of the skin color appear under the control of single genes, dominant . The selections obtained so far, not from mutation, but from crossing, in addition to having a red skin, fall into a period of autumn-winter commercial ripening, which is the period of greatest demand for the product by the market.
Thanks to the contribution of New Plant in 2012, the Community right of the selection CRA-FRF 180, called Falstaff, was requested. Even the CREA 179 selection, originating from Cascade, has almost totally red fruits (65% of the surface), similar in shape to that of Decana del Comizio and medium-large in size, the pulp is white-yellow, fine, sweet and juicy, with good flavor, it is harvested in the second ten days of September.
As for the "William-like red skin" type, the CREA 171 selection obtained from the Super Elliott x Max Red Bartlett cross, is harvested in the third decade of September and presents medium-large sized fruits with dark red overcolour on 100 % of the surface the pulp is creamy-white, fine and of excellent flavor. From an earlier period (third decade of August) the CREA 125 selection appears, obtained from the Conference x Piros Wilmos cross.It has medium-sized fruits with an orange-red overcolour on about 70% of the surface.The pulp is white-yellow, fine , juicy and sweet in flavor.
The CREA 185 selection, originating from the crossing between Conference and Cascade, is harvested in the first ten days of September and is a "Decana-like" with a bright red overcolour on about 60% of the surface. The pulp is white, very fine and juicy, sweet in flavor.
New types of fruit
With a view to obtaining a diversification of the type of fruit pulp, in 1988 the first interspecific crosses were made between varieties of European pear (Pyrus communis) and Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). Several hybrids have been selected that have tree characteristics, fertility and fruit pulp texture similar to the Asian pear, but the shape and aroma of the fruit similar to Pyrus communis. Three of these hybrids, CREA 89, CREA 655, CREA 509, are being observed at the second level fields.
Furthermore, with a view to obtaining new types of pulp, some cross combinations were carried out with the Cocomerina pear, a variety belonging to the Romagna germplasm that is interesting for the red color of the pulp. Some seedlings with traditional pear shape, good organoleptic characteristics and red color have been identified, which have been propagated and will be observed in first level fields. n

Acknowledgments
Initiative carried out within the regional rural development program 2014-2020 - Type of operation 16.1.01 - Operational groups of the European partnership for innovation: "Productivity and sustainability of agriculture", Focus Area 2A - Project "New genotypes for fruit growing and sustainable horticulture ".


Index

  • 1 Biography
    • 1.1 The family
    • 1.2 Training
    • 1.3 The years in Ferrara
    • 1.4 The artistic maturity
  • 2 Methodology
  • 3 The artistic activity
  • 4 De Chirico writer
  • 5 Works
  • 6 Writings
  • 7 Acknowledgments
  • 8 Giorgio de Chirico in museums
  • 9 Notes
  • 10 Bibliography
  • 11 Related items
  • 12 Other projects
  • 13 External links

The Edit family

Giuseppe Maria Alberto Giorgio de Chirico was born in Volo, a city of Thessaly, Greece, on 10 July 1888 from Italian parents belonging to the nobility: his father Evaristo (son of the Palermo baron Giorgio Filigone de Chirico) [1] was a railway engineer, one of the main builders of the first rail network in Bulgaria and Greece the mother was the baroness [2] of Genoese origin Gemma Cervetto [3] [4] [5]. Both parents were born in Constantinople [1]. In 1891 his elder sister Adelaide [6] died and his brother Andrea Alberto was born in Athens, who took on the pseudonym of Alberto Savinio [7] from 1914 for his activity as a musician, man of letters and painter. For the first seventeen years of his life he lived in Greece between Volo and Athens [3]: he learned modern Greek [3].

The training Edit

In 1896 the family returned from Athens to Volo and De Chirico took his first drawing lessons from the Greek painter Mavrudis and later from the painter and soldier Carlo Barbieri and the Swiss Jules-Louis Gilliéron [8]. In 1899 he briefly attended the Liceo Leonino in Athens and then returned to study at home with private teachers: he studied Italian, German, French and music [8]. In 1900 Giorgio enrolled at the Athens Polytechnic to undertake the study of painting (in those years he will paint the first still life) [7]. In 1906, together with his brother and mother, he left Greece for Italy, where he visited Milan and moved to Florence, attending the Academy of Fine Arts [7]. In 1907 he enrolled at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich [7] at that time he became acquainted with the art of Arnold Böcklin and Max Klinger.

In the summer of 1909 he moved to Milan, where his mother and brother already resided [7] at the beginning of 1910 he went to Florence, together with his mother [7], where he painted his first metaphysical square, The riddle of an autumn afternoon, born after a revelation that he had in Piazza Santa Croce. From 1911 to 1915 de Chirico lived in Paris, where his brother Alberto lived, he participated in the Salon d'Automne and al Salon des Indépendants and he frequented the main artists of the time such as Guillaume Apollinaire, Max Jacob and Pablo Picasso [9]. It was above all his acquaintance with Apollinaire to influence him [9]. He then began to make paintings with a more confident style. It was influenced by Paul Gauguin, from whom the first representations of the squares of Italy took shape.

Between 1912 and 1913 his fame spread, even if he still did not obtain an adequate economic advantage. In this period he began to paint his first mannequins. In the Parisian years Giorgio completed some of the fundamental pictorial works for the twentieth century.

The years in Ferrara Edit

At the outbreak of the First World War, the de Chirico brothers enlisted volunteers and were sent to Ferrara, in the villa del Seminario, [11] assigned to the 27th infantry regiment (Giorgio remained in Ferrara for about three and a half years, with the task of scriptural). After an initial difficult period of disorientation due to the change of city, he found new inspirations and no longer painted large sunny squares, but still lifes with geometric symbols, biscuits and breads (the typical Ferrara couple). In this period in Ferrara the de Chiricos became friends with Carlo Carrà, also employed here, Filippo de Pisis and Giorgio Rea, a homosexual anarchist sculptor who committed suicide shortly after in circumstances that were not clear to the authorities of the time, an event that greatly influenced the style of the painter in the following years [12]. In particular, De Pisis often hosted friends in his apartment in the Calcagnini palace, in via Montebello [13], where the Tibertelli de Pisis family lived at the time (rented by Count Giovanni Grosoli). Probably the environment greatly affected the metaphysical sensitivity of the two brothers [14].

As mentioned, the first meeting with Ferrara was not easy. In his memoirs, some thirty years later, he wrote: "I was leaving for Ferrara, I was leaving for that city that Burckhardt called the most modern in Europe and which to me turned out to be the deepest, strangest and most lonely city on earth". After this first impression, however, his attitude changed and his stay in the Este city proved to be important for de Chirico also under the sentimental aspect. From a correspondence published only in 2014 it was discovered that the muse of one of his famous works, Alceste, was the young Antonia Bolognesi from Ferrara. With her, known almost as soon as he arrived, but attended regularly only since 1917, he had a very long correspondence relationship that went up to the 1950s. [15]

The artistic maturity Edit

In 1936 and 1937 he settled in New York, where the Julien Levy Gallery exhibited his works. He also collaborated with the major fashion magazines of the time, Vogue and Harper's Bazaar and worked as an interior decorator, for example creating a dining room at the Decorators Picture Gallery together with Picasso and Matisse. [16]

In the fifties his painting was characterized by self-portraits in baroque style and by views of Venice. In the meantime he collaborated with various magazines and newspapers, including The Meridian of Italy by Franco Servello (on which he initiated a controversy against Picasso and modernism [17]), White, The Journal of Italy [18] .

In 1944 he moved to Rome, in Piazza di Spagna, where he also had his atelier. In the sixties he worked in his studio Massimiliano Fuksas [19] [20]. He died in Rome on November 20, 1978 at the end of a long illness. A few months earlier, his ninetieth birthday had been celebrated on the Capitol. His tomb is located in a chapel in the church of San Francesco a Ripa: here is the tomb of the venerable Antonino Natoli da Patti, of whom the painter was a devotee and benefactor of the Order of Friars Minor. There are three works donated by the widow Isabella Pakszwer: a self-portrait, the Veiled woman with the likeness of his wife and the Fall of Christ.

The works that de Chirico painted before the birth of metaphysics were defined enigmatic, in Ferrara in 1917. His subjects were inspired by the daylight of Mediterranean cities, but then he gradually turned his attention to classical architecture. The works carried out from 1915 to 1925 were characterized by the recurrence of essential architectures, proposed in unrealistic perspectives immersed in a transcendent and ghostly climate. In the various metaphysical interiors, objects totally incongruous with respect to the context were painted in those years (for example a rowboat in a living room), represented with obsessive minutiae, a definition so precise as to have an effect contrary to that of realism.

In his art, in fact, an original and romantic interpretation of classicism and an interest in the technique of the great Renaissance masters made themselves felt more and more. The Russian painter Nicola Locoff, real name Nikolaj Nikolaevich Lochov initiated him into the secrets of varnished gouache [21]. He therefore painted naturalist canvases and executed numerous portraits, with warm but firm colors. He became interested in terracotta sculpture and translated his favorite subjects into the third dimension. He continued to paint at the same time works of metaphysical atmosphere and traditional plant and the most used colors were cobalt, ultramarine, vermilion in bright shades, and various shades of green. Many self-portraits and portraits, several still lifes were made in tempera.

He periodically returned to his metaphysical themes, while continuing to paint still lifes, landscapes, portraits and interiors in constant opposition to contemporary art trends. In 1917 he became interested again in scenography, dedicating himself to the technique of bronze sculpture which he would cultivate throughout the second half of the sixties. He invented new illustrations for theApocalypse to be made, this time, with the method of color lithography. He continued to paint works with a metaphysical atmosphere and traditional structure at the same time. De Chirico was also an engraver and set designer.

If while visiting a museum of ancient sculpture we enter a deserted room, it often happens that the statues appear to us under a new aspect. The statue erected on a palace or a temple, or in the center of a garden or a public square, presents itself to us under different metaphysical aspects. In the case of the palace, where it stands out against the southern sky, it has something Homeric, a severe and detached pleasure, with a hint of melancholy. On the square it always looks exceptional, especially if it rests on a low pedestal, so that it seems to blend in with the crowd of passers-by, involved in the rhythm of everyday city life. In the museum it takes on an even different aspect: it strikes us for its unreality.

It has already been observed more than once the curious aspect that they manage to buy beds, wardrobes, mirrors, sofas, tables, when we find them suddenly in front of us on the street, in a scenario in which we are not used to seeing them: as happens on occasion of a move, or in certain neighborhoods where merchants and retailers display the main pieces of their wares outside the door, on the sidewalk. All these pieces of furniture appear to us in a new light, gathered in a strange solitude: a profound intimacy is born between them, and one would say that a mysterious sense of happiness winds through this small space occupied by them on the sidewalk, in the middle of the animated life of the city ​​and the continuous coming and going of the people an immense and strange happiness is released in this blessed and mysterious island against which the resounding waves of the stormy ocean would be unleashed in vain.

The furniture removed from the atmosphere that reigns in our homes and exposed outdoors arouse in us an emotion that also makes us see the street in a new light. Furniture placed in a desert landscape can also make a profound impression on us. Let's imagine an armchair, a sofa, some chairs, gathered in a plain of Greece, deserted and covered with ruins, or in the anonymous prairies of distant America. By contrast, the natural environment all around also takes on a previously unknown aspect.

The birth of metaphysical painting took place in Florence in 1910. The paintings of this period were memorable for the poses and attitudes evoked by the clear images.

While he was hospitalized in the military hospital of Ferrara in 1917, de Chirico met the futurist painter Carlo Carrà, with whom he began the path that led him to perfect the canons of metaphysical painting: starting from 1920 these theories were disseminated by the pages of the magazine " Metaphysical painting ". This will inspire real architectures built in the founding cities of the fascist era, where Italian rationalism will also work on metaphysical forms, spaces and architectural details (Portolago, Sabaudia, etc.).

In 1924 he met the actress dancer Raissa Calza and an intense feeling blossomed between them. They settled in Paris and Raissa abandoned dance to devote herself exclusively to archeology studies at the Sorbonne. Together they spent a flourishing and successful period de Chirico painted some portraits of Raissa: Figure in green (Portrait of Raissa) 1926, L'ésprit de domination 1927, Archaeologists 1929, Portrait of Raissa 1930, Bather (Portrait of Raissa). On February 3, 1930, when the relationship was already in crisis, they married [22]. Inspired by his wife's study books, he began to paint archaeological subjects, a tribute to classicism revisited but in a disturbing way: examples were known Hector and Andromache 1917 and Roman villas. The marriage lasted a few months, at the end of 1930 the painter fell in love with Isabella Far (1909-1990 [23]) who became his second wife and remained with him until his death.

The figure of the mannequin, also present in the work "The disturbing muses", of the contemporary man-automaton (The great metaphysician, 1917), was instead inspired by "the man without a face", a character in a play by his brother Alberto Savinio, painter and writer.

Later, de Chirico collaborated with the magazine "La Ronda", which theorized a complete reinterpretation of the classics and a sincere fidelity to tradition. He participated in the Berlin exhibition in 1921. He had a period of contact with surrealism by exhibiting in Paris in 1925: his subsequent works were characterized by technical virtuosity and represented a tribute and thanks to the Baroque period. In 1949-50, de Chirico joined the project for the important Verzocchi collection (currently preserved in the Forlì civic art gallery), proposing, in addition to a self-portrait, the work Forge of Vulcano. In the same year some of his works were exhibited at the MoMA in New York [24]. Among them also "The disquieting muses" from the Gianni Mattioli Collection in Milan.

According to the scholar Ubaldo Nicola, some of de Chirico's works - and in particular the metaphysical painting of which he was the initiator - would have been stimulated by frequent headaches, of which the artist, just like Picasso, famously suffered, suffering from the disturbance of visual aura. [25] De Chirico was also an engraver and set designer.

Giorgio de Chirico was also the author of theoretical writings, autobiographical memoirs, short stories and a real literary work of some importance: The Hebdomeros (Hebdomero). Published in 1929, years in which classicism was in the air, imposed by the "Return to order" of the fascist era, also supported by magazines such as "La Ronda" and "Valori Plastici". De Chirico will conclude his work with the formula "Painter classicus sum": the book presented itself as a novel but in reality it was an indefinable type of narration: without a recognizable story or a plot, as a sort of uninterrupted theatrical scenography.

It was a deliberately nebulous mixture, without any spatial-temporal coordination in which figures without a specific role such as gladiators, generals, centaurs, shepherds were piled up in a set of dreams, not very faithful memories, hypnagogic suggestions, myths and reminiscences, nothing but echoes of his painting. Even the places were the metaphysical ones typical of his paintings, which moved naturally in their unnaturalness (as in a dream). Other writings include the autobiographical novel Mr. Dudron, the Small treatise on painting technique, the Comedy of modern art (written with Isabella Far) and the autobiography Memories of my life. Some of his poems in French, found in the archive Paulhan, were published by J.-Ch. Watchman (Poèmes Poems, Paris, Solin, 1981).


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Nashi Hosui (Pyrus Pyrifolia)

3 year old tree, pot cm. 22, h.cm. 150/170.

Nashi Hosui pear. Asian pear with golden-bronzed skin and fine, crunchy, sweet and aromatic white flesh.
The Nashi Hosui pear is late ripening, from mid to late August, approximately.
Self-fertile (it produces even if alone), however if associated with other varieties of nashi pear, the production is higher.
È anche un ottimo impollinatore per tutte le varietà di melo e pero.

Descrizione generale

La pera Nashi (Pyrus pyrifolia) è conosciuto anche come il nome di “pera-mela” o "pero asiatico" ed appartiene alla famiglia delle Rosacee.

Albero abbastanza vigoroso, può raggiungere i 5-6 metri di altezza.

Le foglie sono caduche, alterne, lisce, di forma ovale, di colore verde scuro sulla pagina superiore mentre quella inferiore è verde chiara.

I fiori sono di colore bianco, molto evidenti e riuniti in mazzetti di 5-6. La fioritura è contemporanea ed avviene ad inizio aprile mentre la raccolta si ha verso la fine di agosto.

Il frutto della pera Nashi è un pomo di forma rotonda e appiattita, simile a quella della mela. La buccia è liscia o poco ruvida, di colore bronzeo dorato.

Polpa bianca, tenera, succosa e zuccherina, con un'acidità molto bassa, è compatta, succosa e croccante simile a quella delle pere. Il sapore è dolce e profumato con tonalità leggermente alcoliche.

È una specie abbastanza rustica che si adatta senza problemi alla maggior parte delle aree di coltivazione italiane.

Il pero Nashi È molto resisente alle intemperie, in particolare al freddo dei mesi invernali, mentre soffre le gelate tardive che possono provocare forti danni se queste avvengono durante la fioritura.

La pera Nashi p referisce terreni leggeri, fertili, a reazione sub-acida, mentre su quelli troppo argillosi e calcarei può soffrire di asfissia radicale e clorosi ferrica.

Descrizione generale

La pera Nashi (Pyrus pyrifolia) u00e8 conosciuto anche come il nome di u201cpera-melau201d o "pero asiatico" ed appartiene alla famiglia delle Rosacee.

Albero abbastanza vigoroso, puu00f2 raggiungere i 5-6 metri di altezza.

Le foglie sono caduche, alterne, lisce, di forma ovale, di colore verde scuro sulla pagina superiore mentre quella inferiore u00e8 verde chiara.

I fiori sono di colore bianco, molto evidenti e riuniti in mazzetti di 5-6. La fioritura u00e8 contemporanea ed avviene ad inizio aprile mentre la raccolta si ha verso la fine di agosto.

Il frutto dellau00a0 pera Nashi u00e8 un pomo di forma rotonda e appiattita, simile a quella della mela. La buccia u00e8 liscia o poco ruvida, di colore bronzeo dorato.

Polpa bianca, tenera, succosa e zuccherina, con un'aciditu00e0 molto bassa, u00e8 compatta, succosa e croccante simile a quella delle pere. Il sapore u00e8 dolce e profumato con tonalitu00e0 leggermente alcoliche.

u00c8 una specie abbastanza rustica che si adatta senza problemi alla maggior parte delle aree di coltivazione italiane.

Il pero Nashi u00c8 molto resisente alle intemperie, in particolare al freddo dei mesi invernali, mentre soffre le gelate tardive che possono provocare forti danni se queste avvengono durante la fioritura.

Lau00a0 pera Nashi p referisce terreni leggeri, fertili, a reazione sub-acida, mentre su quelli troppo argillosi e calcarei puu00f2 soffrire di asfissia radicale e clorosi ferrica. ","description_short":"

Pera Nashi Hosui. Pero asiatico con buccia di colore dorato-bronzato e polpa bianca fine e croccante, dolce e aromatica.
Il pero Nashi Hosui ha maturazione tardiva, da metu00e0 a fine agosto, circa.
Autofertile (produce anche se da solo), tuttavia se associato ad altre varietu00e0 di pera nashi, la prduzione u00e8 maggiore.
u00c8 anche un ottimo impollinatore per tutte le varietu00e0 di melo e pero.

Descrizione generale

La pera Nashi (Pyrus pyrifolia) u00e8 conosciuto anche come il nome di u201cpera-melau201d o "pero asiatico" ed appartiene alla famiglia delle Rosacee.

Albero abbastanza vigoroso, puu00f2 raggiungere i 5-6 metri di altezza.

Le foglie sono caduche, alterne, lisce, di forma ovale, di colore verde scuro sulla pagina superiore mentre quella inferiore u00e8 verde chiara.

I fiori sono di colore bianco, molto evidenti e riuniti in mazzetti di 5-6. La fioritura u00e8 contemporanea ed avviene ad inizio aprile mentre la raccolta si ha verso la fine di agosto.

Il frutto dellau00a0 pera Nashi u00e8 un pomo di forma rotonda e appiattita, simile a quella della mela. La buccia u00e8 liscia o poco ruvida, di colore bronzeo dorato.

Polpa bianca, tenera, succosa e zuccherina, con un'aciditu00e0 molto bassa, u00e8 compatta, succosa e croccante simile a quella delle pere. Il sapore u00e8 dolce e profumato con tonalitu00e0 leggermente alcoliche.

u00c8 una specie abbastanza rustica che si adatta senza problemi alla maggior parte delle aree di coltivazione italiane.

Il pero Nashi u00c8 molto resisente alle intemperie, in particolare al freddo dei mesi invernali, mentre soffre le gelate tardive che possono provocare forti danni se queste avvengono durante la fioritura.

Lau00a0 pera Nashi p referisce terreni leggeri, fertili, a reazione sub-acida, mentre su quelli troppo argillosi e calcarei puu00f2 soffrire di asfissia radicale e clorosi ferrica. ","description_short":"

Note 1: Le foto delle piante sono realizzate e caricate dal nostro staff e ritraggono esemplari di piante realmente presenti in vivaio. L'aspetto della pianta inviata potrebbe differire rispetto alla foto campione pubblicata nella scheda, sia per la stagionalità (presenza/assenza di fiori, frutti o foglie nel caso di specie spoglianti), sia perché nel mondo vegetale ogni esemplare è ovviamente unico. Per ragioni di ingombro e di sicurezza dell’imballaggio, le piante potrebbero essere leggermente potate prima della spedizione. Note 2: Rispetto a quanto descritto, l'effettiva epoca di maturazione delle piante da frutto può anticipare o ritardare anche fino a due settimane, a seconda di vari fattori: luogo, clima, esposizione, andamento stagionale, etc.

Non ci sono ancora recensioni per questo prodotto.


La Sacoop di Savigliano è già nel futuro: nuova calibratrice per mirtilli e campo varietale


Controlli accurati con tecnologia di ultima generazione, altamente automatizzata, per consentire di avere un prodotto di elevata qualità e permettere agli addetti di continuare a svolgere il proprio lavoro con la consapevolezza che la “macchina” non è lì per sostituirli, ma per affiancarli e aiutarli. Con questo spirito da qualche settimana è entrata in funzione alla cooperativa Sacoop di Savigliano la nuova calibratrice per i mirtilli. Un investimento importante, unico in Italia e nel Sud Europa, che segue la crescita esponenziale del comparto dei piccoli frutti nelle fasce pedemontane della provincia di Cuneo e del Torinese.

“Il prodotto viene conferito dalle aziende agricole alla cooperativa – spiega il direttore di Sacoop, Dario Bricco –, dopo di che viene posto su un nastro dove avviene una prima selezione e poi continua, fase dopo fase, ad essere analizzato anche grazie a telecamere a raggi infrarossi che riportano a un computer centrale lo screening di ogni singolo mirtillo. In base ai parametri impostati, si determina se il frutto è privo di imperfezioni e può arrivare al confezionamento finale o va scartato". Un lavoro certosino su frutti dal calibro molto piccolo. È davvero necessario? “Assolutamente sì – continua il direttore Bricco –, da ormai 11 anni lavoriamo i mirtilli e la loro destinazione finale è quasi esclusivamente l’Inghilterra, dove il mirtillo è come uno snack. I nostri clienti d’Oltremanica richiedono un prodotto praticamente perfetto con indici di tolleranza pari a zero. Ecco perché non possiamo permetterci di mandare via mirtilli con dei difetti.

La nuova calibratrice ci aiuta in questo, ma agevola anche il lavoro delle aziende agricole che sempre più faticano a trovare manodopera specializzata per la raccolta o devono fare i conti con le bizze del clima che in caso di grandinata su appezzamenti non coperti da reti rischia di compromettere l’annata. Con questa macchina il prodotto scartato non viene buttato ma viene lavorato e destinato ad altri utilizzi”.

Addetti al controllo dello screening di ogni singolo mirtillo

A tutto ciò si aggiunge una motivazione prettamente economica: in una giornata la calibratrice è capace di lavorare 100 quintali di mirtilli, permettendo così alla Sacoop di soddisfare le richieste che giungono da Inghilterra (in crescita), ma anche da Svizzera, Austria e Germania. Un aumento di volumi che permetterà negli anni alla cooperativa di crescere, con ricadute positive per tutto il comparto. Una bella tappa nel percorso di vita della Cooperativa Ortofrutticoltori di Savigliano costituita il 25 agosto 1959 in un salone della CRS: ventinove frutticoltori davanti al notaio Secondo Zoppi diedero vita alla Sacoop con lo scopo di costruire un impianto frigorifero per la conservazione, manipolazione e vendita di prodotti agricoli.

Tra le prime cooperative attive nella Granda
Guidata da Orazio Bravo, è tra le prime in provincia di Cuneo e diventa operativa nel 1961, in pieno centro a Savigliano la sua prima sede è così funzionale che giungono da molte regioni italiane per visitarla. Intercetta, infatti, direttamente lo snodo ferroviario e i treni giungono fino in prossimità dei frigo per caricare i prodotti. “Era un sito eccezionale per l’epoca – continua Dario Bricco –. Grazie a preziose sinergie con le aziende locali, sono stati anni entusiasmanti per il modo cooperativo e per noi. Arriviamo a fine anni ’90 e la Sacoop, posta in centro città, inizia ad essere un problema perché quell’area serve per realizzare l’ingresso del Pronto soccorso e il parcheggio. Decidiamo così di spostarci nell’attuale sito, allora sede di Alpifut, concepito come ‘condominio’ ad uso di alcuni produttori frutticoli che qui avevano ciascuno il loro piccolo frigo”.

Anche la lavorazione ha subito negli anni importanti cambi di direzione. A metà anni ’90 le pesche e le nettarine erano lo “zoccolo duro” per la Sacoop, poi si sono aggiunte le mele e c’è stato il boom del kiwi, che ha permesso importanti investimenti in attrezzature per la lavorazione, fino all’ingresso del mirtillo nel 2008. Oggi la Sacoop, presieduta dal presidente Giancarlo Mellano, dà lavoro a 10 persone che diventano una ventina durante i periodi di punta e raggruppa oltre 150 aziende ubicate negli areali frutticoli più vocati del Piemonte e d’Italia. Lavora tutte le principali varietà di frutta presenti in zona: mirtilli, pesche e nettarine, pere, mele estive, mele rosse e kiwi. Prodotti che finiscono in tutto il mondo.

La scommessa, da due anni a questa parte, è il campo varietale. “Memori di quanto avvenuto con la batteriosi del kiwi, l’idea che ha animato questa avventura è voler testare come rispondono in campo 13 varietà di mirtilli diversi, così da saper consigliare i produttori nelle scelte, con indicazioni agronomiche e, in seconda battuta, commerciali – spiega il direttore Bricco –. Abbiamo messo a dimora 1300 piante in vaso per avere poi omogeneità nei confronti. E quest’anno con le prime raccolte abbiamo avuto anche primi segnali di come si comportano le diverse specie”. Un altro sentiero è dunque tracciato e la Sacoop è pronta a percorrerlo.

Il campo varietale della Sacoop con 1.300 piante di mirtilli di 13 varietà diverse


Miele friulano di ailanto

Prodotto Agroalimentare Tradizionale Italiano – P.A.T.

ELENCO PRODUTTORI

Zona di produzione: Il Miele friulano di Ailanto si produce per lo più in varie aree della Pianura Friulana nelle provincie di Pordenone e Udine, ma anche nel Goriziano e nel Triestino, ove sono diffusi i popolamenti naturali più fitti di Ailanto o Albero del Paradiso (Ailanthus altissima). Sono interessati alla produzione di Miele friulano di Ailanto gli apicoltori delle province di Pordenone, Udine, e in parte quelle di Gorizia e Trieste. In alcune aree il nettare di Ailanto va a costituire, assieme a quello di altre piante locali (arboree ed erbacee), mieli millefiori.

II Miele monoflorale di Ailanto, deriva dal nettare della pianta arborea nota come Ailanto o Albero del Paradiso (Ailanthus altissima, famiglia Simaroubaceae). Le caratteristiche del miele sono di seguito riportate. Stato Fisico. Il Miele friulano di Ailanto si presenta liquido, ma con il tempo (alcuni mesi dopo la raccolta) tende a cristallizzare. Colore. Il colore è ambra quando il miele è liquido, e ambra chiaro quando cristallizza. Odore/Aroma. L’aroma, di media intensità, ricorda i funghi secchi e i frutti freschi. Sapore. Il sapore, relativamente marcato, talora persistente, ricorda l’uva moscata e il thè alla pesca. In bocca il miele è mediamente dolce.
Dal punto di vista melissopalinologico nel Miele friulano di Ailanto sono presenti pollini di piante entomogame, quali Trifolium repens, Rubus, Amorpha, Robinia, Clematis, Parthenocissus, nonché pollini di piante anemogame, quali Papaver, Filipendula, Plantago, Actinidia. Non infrequente è la presenza di polline di Castanea sativa. Il Miele friulano di Ailanto viene confezionato in vasetti di vetro con tappo di latta a vite per lo più da 250 g e da 500 g.

Descrizione delle metodiche di lavorazione, conservazione e stagionatura: Le famiglie di api vengono allevate in arnie razionali di legno, soprattutto del tipo Dadant-Blatt a 10 telaini. In vista della raccolta del Miele friulano di Ailanto gli apicoltori mettono in atto una serie di tecniche (es. controllo della sciamatura, nutrizione stimolante) per mantenere le famiglie numerose e attuano anche il nomadismo, spostando le famiglie in determinate aree di pianura, in particolare in quelle con abbondanza di popolamenti di Ailanto. La raccolta della Miele friulano di Ailanto per la produzione di questo miele si svolge di solito in giugno, dopo la fioritura dell’acacia (Robina pseudoacacia L.) e quasi contemporaneamente a quella dell’amorfa (Amorpha fruticosa L.) del tiglio (Tilia spp.). L’andamento meteorologico stagionale (es. estate piovosa, oppure eccessivamente calda e secca) può incidere fortemente sulle produzioni. Dopo la fine del raccolto, quando i favi sono stati opercolati, i melari vengono prelevati dagli alveari e trasportati nel laboratorio (sala di smelatura). Successivamente, si procede alla disopercolatura dei favi e alla smelatura tramite centrifugazione. Il miele viene quindi filtrato, posto in maturatori di acciaio inox e lasciato decantare per almeno due settimane. La schiuma e le impurità che affiorano vengono eliminate. Nel corso dell’anno, pertanto, per ottenere il Miele friulano di Ailanto si effettua una smelatura in epoca appropriata a seconda delle località (es. ai primi di luglio).

Materiali, attrezzature specifiche utilizzati per la preparazione e il condizionamento: Si utilizzano: arnie, melari e telaini prevalentemente di legno attrezzi per la disopercolatura dei favi da melario smelatore centrifugo filtri e contenitori di acciaio inox per la decantazione (maturatori) vasetti per lo più di vetro con tappo di latta a vite per il confezionamento.

Descrizione dei locali di lavorazione, conservazione e stagionatura: L’estrazione del miele si svolge nella sala di smelatura, i cui locali presentano caratteristiche che rispettano la normativa vigente. Il prodotto finale, confezionato in vasetti di vetro, viene generalmente conservato in un magazzino fresco in assenza di luce diretta.


Video: How To Harvest Pears? - Pears Harvesting u0026 Pears Farming - Pears Agriculture Technology


Comments:

  1. Tygojora

    The magnificent idea and the time frame

  2. Sajar

    no variants ...



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