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Repairing raspberries: planting and care, growing from seedlings, pruning, reproduction, photo

Repairing raspberries: planting and care, growing from seedlings, pruning, reproduction, photo


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Fruit and berry plants

Repair raspberry - a group of crop varieties that differ in their ability to bear fruit on both annual and biennial shoots. Repaired varieties have been known in horticulture for about 200 years. With such raspberries, you can harvest one harvest per year, or two, but the quality of the berries of the second harvest will be less high.
Breeding work on the cultivation of the remontant raspberry adapted to the climate of the middle zone began in the 70s of the last century, and since then many reliable varieties have appeared, which have already become popular. Among them, a special place is occupied by the varieties of the so-called standard raspberries, which are distinguished by the special strength of the stems, which do not bend under the weight of the berries.

Planting and caring for remontant raspberries

  • Landing: early spring or late September (early October).
  • Lighting: bright sunlight.
  • The soil: light, well-fertilized, nutritious, loamy, with a pH of 5.8-6.7. It is desirable that the site is after black steam, and the groundwater lies on it no higher than 1 m from the surface.
  • Watering: plentiful and regular, on average once a week, but more often in drought: the ground in the raspberry tree should be slightly damp all the time. When watering, the soil is impregnated to a depth of 30-40 cm. Watering is especially important before flowering and during the growth and ripening of fruits. In October, abundant sub-winter watering is carried out. It is best to use the drip method for moisturizing.
  • Top dressing: when planting in fertilized soil, raspberries are not fed for 2 years, then annual feeding is necessary, preferably organic: a solution of fermented mullein (1:10) or chicken droppings (1:20). But if compost or humus is used as mulch, then organic matter can be omitted. It is enough to add superphosphate only during planting, and potassium (without chlorine) is constantly needed for raspberries.
  • Cropping: for sanitary purposes - in the spring, during the period of swelling of the kidneys. Root shoots are also removed. And after the end of fruiting, all the stalks of the raspberry are cut off: in the spring it will give new, healthy fruiting shoots.
  • Reproduction: root shoots of four to five-year-old bushes (if the variety forms it) and green cuttings.
  • Pests: raspberry bugs, aphids, spider and raspberry mites and caterpillars.
  • Diseases: didimella (purple spot), anthracnose, septoria, verticilliasis (wilt), root cancer (goiter of roots), curliness, bushy dwarfism, mosaic and infectious chlorosis.

Read more about growing remontant raspberries below.

Botanical description

Raspberry is a perennial shrub. The main roots of raspberries are located at a depth of 15-30 cm, and the adventitious roots can spread 2-3 m to the sides of the bush. Repaired raspberries are not much different from common raspberries, although some of its varieties almost do not form root shoots, while others generally have a low reproductive rate. In the spring of each year, the raspberries of the remontant varieties grow new shoots on which berries are formed. By the beginning of winter, the upper part of the shoot bearing fruit during the growing season dries up, on the rest of the next year, fruit branches are formed, as happens in ordinary varieties, and on the other hand, the extended fruiting period allows you to get berries from the bushes throughout the season.

The remontant raspberry, in comparison with the common raspberry, has other advantages: it is more resistant to diseases and pests, therefore it has almost no wormy berries; it is much easier to look after her; almost all remontant varieties are large-fruited. In the modern garden, remontant raspberry bushes have become as commonplace as black currants, gooseberries, red currants, strawberries and other commonly grown berry crops.

We offer you carefully selected material on how to grow remontant raspberries from seeds, planting and caring for remontant raspberries in the open field, how to determine which remontant raspberries are, how to cut remontant raspberries, how to care for remontant raspberries after harvesting, what diseases and the pests of the remontant raspberry are really dangerous. In addition, we will give a description of the varieties of remontant raspberries, dividing them into groups according to ripening times and adaptability to a particular region.

Planting remontant raspberries

When to plant

Raspberries love light but well-fertilized and moist soil. Groundwater should lie in an area with raspberries at a depth of no more than 1 m. Repaired raspberries are even more demanding in terms of lighting, soil fertility, moisture supply and heat. The plot should be sheltered from the wind and very well lit, because in the shade, the timing of fruiting is postponed, and the harvest may not turn out as plentiful as you expect.

The optimal soil for raspberry remontant varieties is nutritious loam with a pH of 5.8-6.7. Acidic soils will have to be limed by adding dolomite, marl or ground limestone to them. It is advisable that the site before planting raspberries was under black fallow or under green manure crops such as mustard, rye, lupine, which must be plowed into the ground a month and a half before planting.

Do not plant remontant raspberries in the place where peppers, potatoes, tomatoes or raspberries grew before them, as these crops can cause soil fatigue - depletion of the soil with trace elements and minerals.

Remontant raspberries are planted both in early spring and in autumn, but the best time for planting in open ground is the end of September or the beginning of October.

Planting in spring

If you decide to plant remontant raspberries in the spring, you will have to prepare a site for it in the fall: clean the weeds and dig up the soil to the depth of a shovel bayonet while simultaneously adding 2-3 buckets of high peat or humus to each m² and a glass of superphosphate and potassium sulfate, or 200-400 g of complex mineral fertilizers.

In the spring, dig holes measuring 40x40x40 at a distance of 70 cm from each other, leaving row spacing at least 1.5 m wide.The seedling planted in the ground should have a well-developed root system, the diameter of the shoot at the base should be at least 5 mm, and its length is about 20 cm.

To make sure that the seedling is suitable for growing, cut off one bud from it before buying and pry the bark on the shoot: the bark on the side adjacent to the wood should be green, and the bud should not be dry. If the root system of the seedling is somewhat dry, hold it for swelling before planting for a day or two in water with a root formation stimulator.

Seedlings of remontant raspberries are lowered into a pit and covered with fertile soil so that the root collar is strictly flush with the surface of the site. On sandy soils, it is permissible to immerse the neck in the ground by 4 cm. After planting, the seedling is watered, and when the water is absorbed, the land around the bush is mulched.

Autumn planting

Autumn, as we already wrote, is the best time for planting remontant raspberries. A plot for raspberries has been prepared since spring - it is dug up with fertilizers applied to the soil. Otherwise, the principle and order of planting is the same as in spring.

Growing remontant raspberries

Spring raspberry care

Caring for remontant raspberries begins in early spring, in early March - on the still frozen ground, they are fed with full mineral fertilizer.

In April, sanitary pruning of raspberries is carried out - the shoots that have frozen or dried up over the winter are shortened to the first healthy bud. If last year you suspected that fungi had settled in the raspberry bushes, treat the bushes in mid-April with a 1% solution of ferrous sulfate or Nitrafen. If you did not find any signs of fungus, the first preventive treatment of remontant raspberries with fungicides, for example, Topaz or Ridomil, is carried out in the first week of May.

Repaired raspberries in the spring need foliar feeding with full mineral fertilizer with the addition of a growth stimulator. At the end of May, remontant raspberries are treated from pests with some biological insecticide - Aktofit or Lepidocide, for example.

Do not forget to water the area every week, loosen the soil on it and weed out weeds - raspberries do not tolerate weeds and soil compaction. The first loosening of the site is carried out in early spring, before the buds begin to bloom: the aisles are loosened to a depth of 10-15 cm, and the soil around the bushes - by 5-8 cm.If for some reason you did not mulch the soil in the raspberry tree, then during the season you you will have to carry out from 4 to 6 loosening.

How to care for the summer

Care and cultivation of remontant raspberries in the summer involve regular watering and loosening of the soil. Tall varieties of raspberries must be attached to supports or tied up. To do this, strong high fasteners are driven in along the row every three meters, between which a wire or rope is pulled at 2-3 levels - at a height of 50 cm, 1 m and 1.5 m from the surface of the site.

Repaired raspberries are already beginning to ripen in the summer, so it is not advisable to use pesticides to protect them from pests and diseases.

To prevent the berries from burning during a period of too active sun, remontant raspberries should be protected from the harmful effects of direct sunlight with nets or thin spunbond, which is thrown over the bushes.

Autumn care

Repaired raspberries sometimes bear fruit until the very cold in the fall. The shoots that have served are cut off before winter, only a part of the stems 20 cm high are left in the newly planted bushes, and the complete pruning is carried out the next year. After pruning, the raspberry tree is cleaned of plant residues and old mulch, which it is advisable to burn, since they may contain pests or pathogens.

After that, water-charging podzimny watering of remontant raspberries is carried out, after which - the last loosening of the soil with a turnover of the layer, and then the soil surface is mulched for the winter with a layer of half-rotted manure or humus 10 cm thick.

Watering

Growing remontant raspberries requires regular and sufficient watering. On average, you need to moisten the soil in a raspberry plant once a week, but during dry times, you may need to do this much more often. The soil in the raspberry tree should be slightly damp all the time.

Water the raspberries abundantly so that the soil is soaked to a depth of 30-40 cm. It is most important to ensure the moisture content of the soil before flowering, as well as during the growth and ripening of fruits. Before wintering, abundant water-charging watering of raspberries is carried out.

However, care should be taken to prevent stagnation of water, since it can cause even more damage than insufficient watering - in wet soil, air stops flowing to the roots, the soil becomes cold, and this can slow down development, especially in spring.

The most effective way of watering remontant raspberries is drip. It saves water and the soil is moistened evenly. But you can simply moisten the soil with a hose or use irrigation ditches. To do this, around the rows, rollers are scooped out of the ground 10-15 cm high, and water is poured into a shallow ditch formed under the roller. Do not use cold water for irrigation, let it warm up first. If you mulched the area in the spring, then the frequency of watering is noticeably reduced.

Top dressing

If you dug up the soil on the site before planting with the specified amount of fertilizer, your remontant raspberry in the open field will not need feeding for two years. From the third year, it is necessary to apply fertilizers annually. Raspberries react very well to organic matter, which contains almost all the elements necessary for the nutrition of this crop and improves the structure of the soil.

The best organic additives to the soil are a solution of fermented mullein in a ratio of 1:10 and a solution of chicken manure in a ratio of 1:20. Organic matter is applied 2-3 times from the beginning of the growing season at the rate of 3-5 liters per one m² of the plot. But if you have a good habit of regularly mulching the raspberry with humus or compost, then you don't need to add organic matter specially.

In addition to organic fertilizers, remontant raspberries also need mineral fertilizing, and in some cases it is enough to add superphosphate only when planting, but without potassium, the leaves of raspberries become small, their edges turn brown, and the tissue between the veins dies off. Only those potash fertilizers that do not contain chlorine can be applied to the soil - potassium magnesium or potassium sulfate, for example.

The best of the complete mineral fertilizers for remontant raspberries is Nitroammofoska or its analogs, which are enough to apply in early spring at 50-100 g per m², or distribute 50-80 g of superphosphate, 20-40 g of potassium sulfate and 20-40 g of urea for each m² ...

Transplant of remontant raspberries

It is advisable to grow remontant raspberries in one place for 10-15 years, after which, as soon as the harvests begin to fall or the berries become smaller, the bush is dug up, divided into parts, the cuts are treated with crushed charcoal, after which parts of the bush are planted in a new place. Sometimes raspberries are transplanted due to the fact that they initially chose the wrong place for them.

The transplant is performed at the same time and in the same order as the initial landing.

Pruning remontant raspberries

Spring pruning

After wintering on those raspberry bushes, the shoots of which have not been cut off at the root, frostbite, dry areas or cracks may appear. In this case, sanitary pruning of remontant raspberries is carried out with the removal of the affected shoots to the first healthy bud. Do not cut the tops of healthy stems - this will delay fruiting and can negatively affect the yield. Cut off remontant raspberries when the buds begin to swell on it - at this time it is easy to determine which kidneys are healthy and which ones are affected.

If you are growing a variety of remontant raspberries, which gives many root shoots, remove them mercilessly, leaving no more than 10-15 stems per square meter of land, half of which are annual replacement shoots, and the second part is two-year fruiting.

Autumn pruning

We advise you, after fruiting, to cut all the stems of the remontant raspberry under the root. Next year, in the spring, new shoots will grow, which during the growing season will have time to grow, ripen, bloom and give a good harvest. Since pathogens and pests have nowhere to wait out the winter, new shoots will grow healthy. In addition, the development cycle of the main pests of raspberries coincides with the ripening times of ordinary raspberries, and by the time remontant raspberries yield their harvest, fears that the berries will infect harmful insects will become irrelevant.

Reproduction of remontant raspberries

Reproduction by root suckers

Despite the fact that most of the remontant varieties almost do not form root shoots, there are those in which offspring appear. The largest number of root shoots is formed in four-five-year-old bushes - from 2-3 to 10-15 per m² of the plot. When the growth reaches a height of 5-10 cm, it is dug up in cloudy weather, transplanted to a school garden, watered, mulch the soil around it and shade it from the sun.

In the future, care consists in regular watering, and when the shoots take root, which usually happens after two weeks, the protection from the sun's rays can be removed. By the fall, you will have excellent seedlings that can be planted in a permanent place.

Propagation by root cuttings

During the autumn loosening of the site, dig a raspberry root with a diameter of at least 2 cm, divide it into segments 8-12 cm long, plant them in a continuous row in a furrow 6-8 cm deep, bury, water and mulch the surface. For the next season, water and loosen the soil on the site, remove weeds, feed young plants, treat them from pests and diseases, and at the end of the season, transplant the seedlings to a permanent place.

Propagation by green cuttings

Cuttings of remontant raspberries are harvested at the end of spring from annual shoots no more than 3-4 cm high, some of which are underground. The cutting should have a rosette of leaves. Cuttings are cut at a depth of 5-6 cm and taken out together with a lump of earth. The cuts are treated with crushed coal, and the cuttings are immediately planted in a garden bed in a greenhouse according to a 5x10 cm scheme to the same depth in which they grew, and watered.

The soil for rooting cuttings is a mixture of river sand and peat. Water the cuttings, protect them from overheating, and when they take root, ventilate the greenhouse to harden the cuttings. When they can spend a day in the fresh air, they are transplanted into open ground to a permanent place.

We told you about the reproduction of remontant raspberries by dividing the bush in the section on transplanting.

Repairing raspberries in winter

Since remontant raspberries are quite winter-hardy, it is not necessary to additionally cover the site for the winter - a thick layer of mulch will be enough, but if severe frosts are coming, and even without snow, put a layer of hay on the site and put up a fence so that it is not blown away by the wind. If you did not cut the stems of raspberries for the winter, bend them to the ground, press them down with a board or wooden shield and cover them with dry foliage or sketch spruce branches on top.

Pests and diseases of remontant raspberries

Diseases and their treatment

Repaired raspberry varieties have increased resistance compared to ordinary ones, but sometimes they can also suffer from insects or diseases. Among the diseases, fungal diseases such as didimella or purple spot, anthracnose, septoria, verticillosis, or wilt are most often affected by remontant raspberries. Treatment of raspberries with fungicides is effective against fungi - Bordeaux liquid, Topaz, Oskiom, Fundazol, Fitosporin, Switch, Amistar, Skor and others.

In addition to fungal diseases, remontant raspberries are affected by bacterial diseases - root cancer or goiter of roots. Bacterial diseases can only be fought with preventive measures - carefully examine the seedlings before buying, strengthen the immunity of plants, strictly follow the agrotechnical measures and care recommendations developed for this crop, and regularly carry out preventive treatments.

The most serious problem for any plant is represented by viral diseases - curliness, bushy dwarfism, mosaic and infectious chlorosis. They are scary in that there is no cure for them yet, and if you find signs of the disease, the only way out is to destroy the diseased plant.

Sometimes raspberries can be disfigured by a mycoplosis disease - overgrowth, or a witch's broom, which also cannot be cured. How to deal with incurable diseases? Only by preventive measures. First, conduct a regular inspection of the plantings of raspberries and, if sick specimens are found, immediately and ruthlessly remove and burn them. In the place where the diseased plant grew, new ones cannot be planted for several years.

Maintain a high level of agricultural technology, feed raspberries to increase their resistance to pathogens, wage a merciless fight against weeds and pests that carry diseases, plant only healthy seedlings and keep remontant raspberries far from common raspberries, which are more easily and quickly affected by diseases and pests, therefore serves as a source of infection for remontant raspberries.

Pests and the fight against them

From the large list of raspberry pests, remontant varieties are most often affected by raspberry bugs, aphids, spider and raspberry mites and caterpillars. After the raspberries bloom, it is undesirable to process them with chemicals.

In the fight against pests, it is recommended to use herbal preparations, for example, infusions of onion peels or garlic that are effective against mites. In 10 liters of water for 2-3 days, insist 100 g of onion husks or crushed garlic, then filter the infusion and add 50 g of laundry soap dissolved in warm water to it. Concentrated dishwashing liquid can be used instead of soap.

Against leaf-gnawing and sucking insects, an infusion made according to the following recipe is successfully used: a liter can of wood ash is diluted in 5 liters of water, 50 g of green laundry soap grated on a grater is separately dissolved in a liter of water. A small bottle with a capacity of 30-50 ml is half filled with cold water, a teaspoon or dessert spoon of kerosene is poured into it, the bottle is sealed and it is shaken vigorously for several minutes so that the gasoline does not tighten the water surface with a film, but mixes evenly with it. Then the first two solutions are filtered, mixed, kerosene water is added to the resulting mixture, water is added to make 10 liters, and immediately used to process remontant raspberries.

If you notice pests on raspberries before flowering, you can resort to treating it with biological insecticides such as Bitoxibacillin, Aktofit or Lipidocid.

If you want to get more detailed information about the pests and diseases of remontant raspberries, find the article "Diseases and pests of raspberries" on the site, which describes in detail all the problems of this culture and how to get rid of them.

Remaining raspberry varieties

Early remontant raspberry

The early ripening varieties of remontant raspberries are those that ripen at the end of July and in the first decade of August. For example:

  • Hercules - large-fruited, consistently productive and resistant to diseases and pests, an early variety with upright shoots that do not require support and tying. The fruiting zone takes up half the length of the shoots. The variety is distinguished by thin, tough and prickly thorns, dense, very large berries weighing up to 10 g of truncated-conical shape and thick ruby ​​color with a sweet and sour refreshing taste. The bush of this variety bears fruit from the beginning of August until the first frosts;
  • Brilliant - plentifully fruiting variety, ripening in the first decade of August. The height of the bush is up to 1.5 m, soft thorns are located at the base of the stem, the fruiting zone is half the length of the stems. The berries are conical, large (some weighing up to 7 g), intense ruby ​​color with a bright gloss. Dessert berry taste, sweet and sour;
  • Bryansk jubilee - medium-sized, compact high-yielding variety, ripening in the third decade of July. Berries of large and medium size, weighing up to 6 g, elongated, bright red and sweet and sour taste;
  • Apricot - one of the most exotic varieties of remontant raspberries, which, moreover, is almost not affected by diseases and pests. The thorns are located at the bottom of the shoot, making harvesting easier. The berries of this variety, weighing only 3-4 g, ripen in early August, have the shape of a blunt-pointed cone, amber-golden color and an apricot flavor. Raspberries of the Apricot variety bear fruit until the very frost;
  • Eurasia - a high-yielding, disease- and pest-resistant, early-maturing and large-fruited variety with stem-type shoots and sparse thorns located along the entire length of the stem. The berries of this variety of raspberries are conical, dense, dark raspberry in color and can weigh more than 6 g. The taste of the fruit is sweet and sour.

Mid-season varieties

The medium-ripening varieties of remontant raspberries include those that are ready to be harvested in the second half of August:

  • Orange miracle - a large-fruited, fruitful variety of raspberries, resistant to diseases, elongated-blunt-conical berries of which can reach 12 g in weight, and 4 cm in length. The taste of bright orange fruits is dessert, sweet and sour. Raspberries of this variety bear fruit until frost;
  • Ruby necklace - a productive variety with dense large berries of a bright ruby ​​color, weighing more than 8 g. The taste of fruits is sweet and sour, refreshing. The thorns located at the bottom of the shoots do not interfere with the harvest;
  • Mulatto - plentifully fruiting, disease and pest resistant variety with round, shiny dark cherry medium and large berries weighing up to 5 g. Fruit taste is sweet and sour;
  • Golden autumn - large-fruited fruitful variety with short, soft thorns located in the lower part of the shoots, and dense golden-yellow berries of an elongated-conical shape weighing up to 7 g. Dessert fruit taste, with a delicate raspberry aroma;
  • Firebird - a productive large-fruited variety, on the shoots of which soft and thin thorns are located in the lower and middle parts of the shoots. The conical shape of the berries can reach 6 g in weight. The taste of the fruit is sweet and sour, the pulp is tender and juicy.

Late varieties

There are not so many late-ripening varieties of remontant raspberries, ripening at the end of August or even in September, as there are early and mid-season ones. Among the most famous are the following:

  • Heritage - winter-hardy and disease-resistant variety of American selection, obtained by crossing the varieties Darkham, Cuthberg and Milton. The red, round, aromatic berries begin to ripen in late August or early September;
  • Morning dew - large-fruited variety of Polish selection ripening at the end of summer with yellow fruits weighing up to 8 g of excellent sweet and sour taste;
  • Mark Treasure - ripening in late August or early September, resistant to diseases and pests, raspberries with dense, juicy light red berries of good taste, elongated-conical shape and weighing up to 5 g.
  • Zyugana (Shugana) - drought-resistant medium-late Swiss variety with medium-sized tasty berries, which, with good care of the bush, can reach 10 g in weight;
  • Erika - one of the best fruitful varieties of Western European selection. The berries are of excellent taste, dark red, dense, large and shiny.

Varieties for the Moscow region

Among the varieties of remontant raspberries, many are adapted to the conditions of the middle lane, and you just have to choose the most productive and winter-hardy ones. Such raspberries grow well in the suburbs:

  • Bryansk miracle - a promising high-yielding variety with strong stems that do not require support, and red elongated-conical berries, sometimes reaching a weight of 20 g. Fruits begin to ripen in the second half of July, and fruiting lasts until the end of September;
  • Polka - a hybrid of Polish selection, characterized by increased shoot formation, between the Otm Bliss varieties and an experimental sample of the P89141 line. Fruiting of this variety begins in August and lasts until the very frost. Very large, dense, shiny, elongated and dense purple Polka berries can reach 12 g in weight;
  • Atlant - resistant to diseases and pests, large-fruited and highly productive variety with short and sparse thorns located in the lower part of the shoots. Berries are elongated-conical, dense, large, weighing up to 9 g. The taste of the fruit is sweet and sour, the pulp is juicy and tender;
  • Penguin - resistant to diseases and pests, early ripening fruitful raspberry variety with a standard bush, medium-sized dark thorns, concentrated in the lower part of the shoots and medium-sized dense, rounded-conical berries of dark raspberry color;
  • Indian summer - a high-yielding early ripe variety that is not affected by diseases and raspberry mites, with ruby-colored juicy berries of excellent taste.

Varieties of remontant raspberries for Siberia. When choosing varieties of remontant raspberries for growing in Siberia, keep in mind that the most important secret of success is to wake up raspberries in the spring as early as possible. The best remontant varieties for cultivation in conditions of short summers and harsh winters are:

  • Monomakh's hat - a fruitful, practically thornless bush in the form of a small tree with beautiful large blunt-conical berries of a rich red color, sometimes reaching 20 g in weight;
  • Unattainable - an early ripe high-yielding variety with a bush height of up to 160 cm, which begins fruiting at the end of July and ends in October. Bright red, tender, sour-sweet berries of this variety reach 7 g in weight. The variety justifies its name in all its characteristics;
  • Augustine - a productive variety with short thorns and shirokotupokonicheskie berries weighing up to 4.5 g of dark raspberry color with dense, tender, sweet pulp;
  • Reliable - one of the most stable varieties in terms of yield, resistant to unfavorable climatic conditions, for which it got its name. Blunt-conical shape red glossy berries weighing up to 5 g have a pronounced aroma and excellent taste.

The best varieties

There are many varieties of remontant raspberries, and it is not an easy task to name the best of them, because each gardener has his own requirements and his own evaluation criteria. But according to the totality of indisputable advantages, the best varieties of remontant raspberries include Hercules, Yellow Giant, Indian Summer, Atlas, Penguin and Apricot.

New varieties of remontant raspberries

Repaired raspberries are becoming more and more popular among amateur gardeners, and this is not surprising, since its advantages over common raspberries are indisputable. That is why experiments on the development of new remontant varieties are becoming more and more intensive. This process was especially active at the beginning of the XXI century, when the varieties Hercules, Brilliantovaya, Hat Monomakh, Inaccessible and Penguin, which we have already described, appeared. Among the most recently bred varieties, the Golden Domes, Autumn Beauty and the August miracle are of interest.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the family Pink
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online
  5. Information about Fruit Crops
  6. Information about Berry Crops

Sections: Fruit and berry plants Pink (Rosaceae) Berry bushes Plants on M Plants on P


Norwegian raspberries: reviews, planting and care

Norwegian raspberry is one of the trade names for a crop that has been obtained in Norway through years of selection of the best seedlings. According to the creators, the harsh climate of this country contributed to the development of a frost-resistant variety of culture that can fully grow and bear fruit in adverse conditions. The description and reviews about Norwegian raspberries are very contradictory, so it is worth figuring out what kind of plant it is, what are its advantages and disadvantages.


Description of the plant

The Latin name for white turf is Cornus alba, where alba means "white" and Cornus is the genus Dogwood. The plant got the second part of the name thanks to its white flowers and unusual spherical fruits. This is one of the most popular representatives of the dogwood family in our country.

The plant has several names: white svidina, snake, white dogwood, white svida, povoinik.

The turf shrub is a not too large ornamental deciduous plant with a height of 2-3 meters. The bushes are quite sprawling due to the large branches that grow widely and take up a lot of space in the garden, so the plant is not suitable for the balcony.

  • Escapes unusual color - red, which makes the bushes decorative all year round.
  • Leaves - rounded in shape, elliptical at the base, opposite. The foliage covers the shoots densely. Usually the upper part of the leaf plate is yellow or yellow-green, the lower part then turns blue. In autumn, the leaves take on a carmine color, then fall off, exposing the burgundy branches.
  • Flowers white turf is not particularly attractive - small, gather in small decorative panicles. Deren blossom period: May-June. The shrub can bloom again in the fall.
  • Fruit - small white balls - drupes growing on reddish stems. The fruits are inedible, although birds readily eat them.

Cornus alba is not the only turf found in our climates. White dogwood is very decorative, so it is often planted, but it is much more common to find common dogwood. These are unique ornamental bushes, the fruits of which are a source of valuable ingredients. The edible fruits of dogwood have a sour taste, so they are not eaten raw, they are used to make jams, liqueurs. Dogwood fruits are also used to make useful infusions that improve blood pressure and are used against anemia.

This is a fairly frost-hardy shrub, so you can cultivate turf in the Urals, Siberia and other cold regions.


Site selection and soil preparation for raspberries

The site for planting raspberries should be well-lit and protected from the wind. The most successful planting of seedlings along the fence or wall of the house on the south side. In this case, the bushes will receive enough light in the summer, the fences will protect the bushes from the wind, and in the winter they will trap the snow.

Choosing the perfect place to grow raspberries

If the site is located on a slope, it is worth taking the middle part of it under the raspberries, since in the lowland the bushes can freeze out in winter, or you will have to deal with waterlogging of the soil in spring, during melt water.

Crop rotation rules for raspberries

  • Precursors such as tomatoes, potatoes, and strawberries are undesirable for raspberries. It is also better to avoid the proximity of these crops with raspberries.
  • The root secretions of raspberries help protect apple trees and pears from a fungal disease - scab, and an apple tree can save raspberries - from gray rot.
  • You can avoid the growth of raspberries by limiting the planting to sorrel. Two to three rows of casing along the contour will increase the acidity of the soil, and the roots will not grow in that direction.
  • Berry bushes with proper soil preparation can grow for 10-15 years in one place.

Soil preparation

Raspberries love fertile, light and well-drained soils. To grow it on sandy and peaty soils, it is necessary to annually apply humus and compost to stimulate the activity of microorganisms.

Heavy clay soils are not suitable for growing raspberries as the roots will rot. The acidity of the soil under the raspberry tree should be neutral or slightly acidic.

Preparing the soil for the raspberry tree

The soil for the raspberry tree is prepared in advance, digging deeply and applying organic and mineral fertilizers. For autumn planting - not less than a month, for spring planting - from autumn. From fertilizers, manure or humus is introduced, urea or ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium salt are added.


How to grow raspberries

Summer bearing

These varieties carry one berry harvest on wintering reeds during the summer months. Plants begin to bear fruit in early summer and the season lasts approximately 4-5 weeks. Fruiting for a full 5 weeks will require more than one type of summer fertilization (early season, mid season, late season, etc.) Etc.). Plants can start bearing fruit in June or July, depending on the zone and the seasonal weather.

Everbearing (rolling bearing)

These varieties produce two yields: the largest of them grows in late summer / early fall on the tips of the reeds that have been growing all summer, then the second harvest is transferred to the same reeds in the beginning of the next summer. To get two harvests, the planting must be pruned as spring flowering.

Most evergreens will yield better yields if NOT allowed to fructify in early summer. We recommend this approach.

Distance between plants of red and yellow raspberries

Dig a narrow trench in the center of the two-foot row with the roots along the trench.

Plants should be spaced 18-24 inches apart.
Rows should be 8-12 feet apart.

After 6-8 weeks, new shoots will grow from the roots.

When the planting is mature, cut or mow any stems that grow outside the original two-foot row.

Preparing the area for planting red and yellow raspberries

Raspberries grow best in well-drained loam or sandy loam soil rich in organic matter. If organic matter is required, add some aged compost or manure a few weeks before planting or in the fall before planting.

Build beds if your soil is slowly draining after rain
, or if you have heavier or clayey soil.

Check soil pH. Optimal pH: 6.5 - 6.8

Don't fertilize too close to the planting date.
Mix ½ lb - 10-10-10 lb. per 100 sq. Feet at least
2-3 weeks before planting or in the fall before planting.


A trellis is recommended for all weeds!

Access to water is important. Plants need watering
when planting and throughout the growing season.

WATERING
  • Rainfall 1-2 inches or equivalent per week during the growing season.
FERTILIZER
  • Add row (s) to row (s) from ¾ lb - 1 lb 10-10-10 per 100 sq. Feet in Spring Commercial growers must use 500 pounds per acre or fertilize according to a soil test.
  • Check the pH level from time to time and make adjustments to keep the soil pH in the range of 6.0-6.5.
  • Do not fertilize in the fall.
FIGHT AGAINST SORES
  • Regular cultivation is essential during the growing season.
  • Shallow roots - no more than an inch deep.
  • Contact your local office for chemical recommendations.
  • We do not recommend mulching your raspberry plants after planting.
TRELLIS
CUTTING
  • For one high-yielding fall crop, mow or cut all stems to the ground in early winter or early spring when the plants are dormant. Always leave as few plugs as possible.
  • For an earlier harvest as well as a fall harvest, prune like a summer variety.
  • After harvesting, cut off the fruit that has yielded at the base of the plant, leaving as few plugs as possible.
  • Trim weak damaged or diseased canes at the base.
  • If necessary, cut off more reeds so that 6-8 reeds remain at each step of the row.

Click to Print PDF Raspberry Steps to Success

  • 18 "–24" for red and yellow 20 "–24" for black
  • Recommended 8-12 inches between rows depending on technique
Irrigation
  • Soak in water using Agri-gel ™ for 1-2 hours before planting, excluding TC plugs
  • Water thoroughly after planting
  • Rainfall 1-2 inches or equivalent per week
Fertilizer
  • Add ½ - ¾ lb 10-10-10 per 100 sq. Feet
  • Commercial growers must use 500 pounds per acre
  • Additional 1 lb. 10-10-10 per 100 sq. Feet can be applied in July or August and early spring in subsequent years.
  • pH: 6.0-6.5
Weed control
  • Regular cultivation is necessary during the growing season
  • Shallow roots, no more than an inch deep
  • On-farm mulching helps control weeds
  • Contact your local office for chemical recommendations
Lattice

Our videos are written and produced by Nate Nourse and are geared towards your success. You will find all of our video tutorials in our video library.

How to plant blackberry and black raspberry plants

Digging and packaging of ripe baby plants

Growing seedlings seedlings

Healthy berry plants require the following important elements:

  • Early landing! Plant as early as possible in the spring. Snow or occasional frost will not damage most new plants (with the exception of green tissue cultures), and spring rains will encourage their growth. Planting in the fall is not recommended in the Northeast and Midwest.
  • Sunny, weed-free place with at least half a day of sunshine.
  • Clean beds that weed frequently.
  • The soil is well drained. If drainage conditions are poor, use raised beds.
  • Correct soil pH. Matching soil pH to plant requirements can be a huge factor in your success. Before planting a soil sample, contact your local cooperative expansion office for assistance.
  • Crop rotation. Avoid planting strawberries or raspberries in soils where previous crops included strawberries, raspberries, potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant, or peppers. These crops may contain soil pathogens Verticillium, Phytophthora and nematodes and may affect your new plants.
  • Irrigation. Maintain proper moisture levels throughout the season and most importantly during the rooting period. When planting in raised beds, drip irrigation is mandatory.

Avoid common mistakes

  • Read the free planting guide 1-3 months before planting.
  • Plants will not develop if the roots are too deep or too shallow.
  • Tamp the soil tightly around the roots.
  • Do not plant near wild plants or plants of unknown origin.
  • Water the well one to three times a week, not every day.
  • Avoid fertilizer burns by applying fertilizer only after the plants have rooted.
  • Do not soak plants in water for more than 1 hour!

Landing features

By creating comfortable conditions for Polka, taking into account its characteristics, you can significantly increase the yield.

The best place for a raspberry

Repaired raspberries should be placed in well-lit areas. Lack of light can significantly delay the ripening period, reduce productivity and impair the taste of the fruit.

The raspberry tree should be located in an area that is illuminated by the sun most of the day.

In the central and northern regions, shrubs are planted on the southern side of the site, protected from the cold wind by a fence, hedge or outbuildings. In such places, snow lingers in winter, reliably covering the rhizomes of raspberries, and with the arrival of spring it melts faster and the soil warms up earlier.

Knowing the susceptibility of Polka to diseases of the root system, you should avoid swampy lowlands or areas where groundwater is close. The optimum depth of the water layers is 1.5 m. The planting of the berry is also undesirable on the hills: in the winter cold snow is blown off there and the earth is bare, and in the summertime the plants suffer from drought.

Raspberries are planted in a place protected from the wind: along the fence or near sheds

Raspberries can grow on any land, but prefers loam or sandy loam soil with a low level of acidity. The bushes will take root on clay soil, but there will be much less berries. To make the soil looser and lighter, it is enough to add sand (10 kg / m2). To increase the fertility of sandy soil, you will have to apply increased doses of fertilizers and carry out abundant watering. It is possible to reduce the acidity with the help of lime (500 g / m2), which is brought in for digging in advance.

There will be much more berries if you grow Polka on fertile loose soil.

The author of these lines must follow the crop rotation and try not to plant raspberries after potatoes, tomatoes and strawberries. I usually place the berry on the site where last season I grew cereals, peas, beans or pumpkin with zucchini. I return the raspberry to its original place not earlier than in 4–5 years.

Raspberries develop well next to red currant bushes, blackberries, fruit trees (cherries, apple trees), vegetables (carrots, cucumbers) and does not tolerate the proximity to sea buckthorn and grapes, which depress it.

Raspberries and blackberries get along well on the site

Landing dates

Bushes with an open root system take root well in early spring, until the buds have blossomed. But at the same time, the harvest will not be so generous, because all the forces of the plant are spent on building up the root system and shoots. Therefore, an autumn planting is still preferable. But it should be carried out 2-3 weeks before the soil freezes so that the seedlings have time to take root, get used to the new habitat and harden before wintering.

Container plants, planted by the transshipment method with a large clod of earth, adapt much easier and faster in a new place, so they can be planted in spring, summer, and autumn.

Raspberry container seedlings can be planted all season

Selection of planting material

It is advisable to purchase seedlings from reputable nurseries or garden centers. Each plant has a tag with the name of the variety, age and a brief reminder of the rules of planting and care. When choosing seedlings, you should pay attention to their appearance. Shoots should be flexible, about 1 cm thick, with smooth, spotless bark. The fibrous root system should be moist, well developed and consist of 2-3 roots about 10 cm long. Plants with dry or broken roots should not be taken - they are unlikely to take root.

Raspberry seedlings should have a developed fibrous root system with whitish roots

The best option is to buy two-year container seedlings. They have a well-formed powerful root system and they will tolerate transplantation painlessly.

Usually there is a large selection of seedlings at the end of the season, when frosts are about to come. It is too late to plant the plants and, in order to preserve them until spring, they are placed in a trench. A trench 15 cm deep is dug in the garden, making one side sloping. Seedlings are placed on it, sprinkled with earth and compacted so that the cold air does not penetrate to the roots. Cover with spruce branches from above to protect against rodents.

Plants will survive well until spring in a trench

Landing nuances

2-3 weeks before planting, prepare a site for a raspberry tree. The earth is dug up, weeds are selected and, to increase fertility, they are filled with humus (2 buckets / m2) with the addition of Kemira universal fertilizer (70 g / m2) or superphosphate (50 g) and potassium salt (30 g / m2), which can be replaced with ash (300 g). Lime (500 g / m2) must be added to acidic soil.

The soil is fertilized with humus before planting, sand is added to the heavy soil for looseness

Usually, linear or bush types of raspberry planting are used. With the linear method, 50x45 cm trenches are dug and plants are planted in them at a distance of 70 cm from each other, leaving 1.5–2 m between rows. This planting contributes to good lighting and airing of raspberries, it is easier to care for and harvest. Forming a berry from individual bushes, they dig holes 60 cm wide to a depth of 45 cm and plant 2 seedlings in each. At least 70 cm is left between the pits, because over time the bushes will grow significantly.

With the linear method of growing raspberries, a trench 45 cm deep is dug on the site

Before planting, the roots of the seedlings are dipped in a biostimulant solution (Kornevin, Heteroauxin) for 2 hours. You can add the fungicide Fundazol (1 g 1 l) to the liquid to prevent root rot. Plants with a closed root system are kept in solution until the earthen coma softens.

  1. At the bottom of a trench or hole, a part of fertile land is poured in the form of a mound.
  2. A seedling is placed on it, evenly distributing the roots in different directions. The container plant is transferred along with the soil clod.

Fathoms are lowered into the planting hole and the roots are spread

Cover with soil, leaving the root collar open.

The planted seedling is sprinkled with earth, leaving the root collar open

  • They are compacted so that the earth adheres well to the roots.
  • A groove is formed around the bush and half a bucket of water is brought into it.

    After planting, 5 liters of water are added to the hole made around the seedling

  • Cover the root zone with straw or other mulching material.
  • Shoots are cut at a height of 40 cm from the ground.
  • In early spring, when the snow is still on the site, I cover the raspberry tree with black plastic wrap.The black color attracts the sun's rays, under such a shelter the snow melts quickly, the earth warms up well and the process of plant vegetation begins much earlier.

    Video: autumn planting of raspberries


    Planting remontant raspberries

    For raspberry remontant varieties, sunny and well protected from the wind areas with nutritious loamy soil are chosen. 2-3 weeks before planting the seedling while digging the soil, 2-3 buckets of humus or high-moor peat and 1 glass of superphosphate and potassium sulfate are added to the site.

    Repaired raspberries can be planted in spring (before bud break) and fall. But the most preferable is the autumn planting (in late September - early October).

    Raspberries have a fairly shallow root system, so you don't need to dig a hole too deep for the seedling, but good drainage is important. As a rule, the size of the hole is 50 × 50 × 50 cm.

    The plant is planted so that its root collar is located at the level of the soil surface. In this case, it is important to spread the roots well so that they do not come to the surface. After that, the seedling is covered with soil and the soil is slightly compacted, trying not to deepen the plant. Then the raspberries are watered, spending about 5 liters of water per bush, and mulched with peat, sawdust or humus.

    Most often, raspberries are planted in rows: a distance of 0.5-1 m is maintained between the bushes, and 1.5-2 m between the rows


    Repaired raspberry - planting.

    When to plant remontant raspberries? How to plant remontant raspberries?

    Scheme planting remontant raspberries should provide good illumination of the plants and in no case allow thickening of the plantings, in which individual shoots will lack sunlight.

    For most varieties remontant raspberry with an average soil fertility, it is possible to recommend the distance between rows - 1.5 - 2.0 m (sometimes up to 2.5 m), and between plants in a row 0.7 - 0.9 m.

    On a personal plot, you can create planting remontant raspberries in the form of small well-lit groups formed by 1 - 3 plants. Moreover, if 2 or 3 plants are used for a group, the distance between them can be reduced to 50 - 70 cm.

    There is a positive experience growing remontant raspberries nesting method, when all plants on the plantation are located at a distance of 1 - 1.5 m (sometimes up to 2 m) from one another.

    Usually remontant raspberries are planted in autumn or early spring before the start of the growing season of seedlings. When planting raspberries in spring, the buds should not be allowed to grow before planting. For most regions of Russia, the autumn planting period is considered the most suitable, since at the end of September and in October there are favorable temperature and water regimes that allow plants to prepare for winter and start the spring growing season in a timely manner.

    Hurry up with planting remontant raspberries and it should not be transferred to the beginning - mid-September, since by this time the seedlings have not yet sufficiently formed the root system, which leads to their poor survival rate and unsatisfactory overwintering.

    If a planting remontant raspberries failed to be carried out at the optimal time in the fall, this is done as early as possible in the spring. In this case, seedlings for the winter are buried in an inclined position and must be watered. Standard seedlings should have a well-developed root system and a shortened aerial part 25-30 cm long.

    Technics planting remontant raspberries does not differ from planting common raspberries. Plants are planted at the same depth at which they grew in the nursery, or buried by 2 - 5 cm so that the root system does not appear on the surface after soil settling. Plants planted both too high and too deep take root much worse, and sometimes do not take root at all.

    Repaired raspberries - growing and care.

    REPAIR RASPBERRY - GROWING AND CARE

    Watch the video: Pruning Raspberries - Why? How? When? 2020


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