Growing vegetable peas in the garden. Part 1
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Vegetable peas are a valuable and healthy vitamin product
- Features of culture and its agricultural technology
- Soil preparation
- Variety selection and seed preparation
On personal plots, gardeners usually sow vegetable peas... It provides an extremely valuable and nutritious product: fresh, canned green, frozen or dried peas.
Features of culture and its agricultural technology
Given the nutritional value and taste of green peas, they are often referred to as "vegetable meat". Freshly boiled or canned green peas contain a large amount of vitamins (PP, B1, B2, C, provitamin A), have a number of essential amino acids for humans (cystine, lysine, arginine, tryptophan, etc.).
Vegetable peas are more demanding on growing conditions than grain peas. And the soil for it needs to be loosened deeper, and it is sown later, because the seeds of brain varieties begin to germinate only at a temperature of 4-8 ° C. At the beginning of the growing season, it grows slowly, therefore, it becomes more overgrown with weeds, is affected by diseases and is damaged by pests. For peas in the garden, the best is a dry, open, sunny place with a low level of groundwater. On the newly cultivated area, the soil begins to be prepared in advance. If it is waterlogged, they begin to drain it using spillways around the perimeter of the site and various types of drainage using sand, brushwood, drainage pipes laid in the soil at a depth of 25-30 cm and deeper. To improve clay soils, loosening materials, organic fertilizers (compost or humus 4-6 kg per 1 m², ordinary sand, wood ash, crushed slag) are introduced. After that, the soil is prepared, as in a well-developed area.
Also on the personal plot, it is necessary to observe the alternation of crops. If one crop or crops belonging to the same botanical family is grown in one place for several years, then it can be seen that every year the harvest becomes less and less, and the plants grow weakened and are increasingly exposed to disease, damage by pests. This is due to the accumulation in the soil of pathogenic microbes and pests characteristic of this crop. After all, each botanical family has its own pathogens that do not affect or infect plants of other families.
In addition to the division according to botanical characteristics, there is a division of garden crops according to the degree of nutritional requirements. Thanks to crop rotation, nutrients and moisture are more fully utilized, since the root systems of different crops lie at different depths. In the simplest case, the vegetable garden can be divided into three parts and the crops alternate by year in the following order: 1 year - crops that are well fertilized with organic and mineral fertilizers and demanding soil fertility: vegetables from the pumpkin family, leaf crops, cabbage; 2 years - peas, which make good use of organic fertilizers applied for the previous crop, improve and enrich the soil with nitrogen for the following vegetables; 3 years old - root crops are placed with little nutritional requirements. However, based on the biological characteristics of peas, it should not be placed in the same place until after four years. Therefore, the household plot must be divided into four parts and the crop of early potatoes must be introduced into the crop rotation. Then the crop rotation looks like this:
- potatoes + good organic fertilizer;
- crops demanding fertility;
- peas and other legumes;
- low-demand vegetables.
They begin to cook it for sowing peas in the fall. The site is freed from plant debris. Non-seeded weeds and remnants of the previous crop without traces of disease infestation are used for composting. The rest of the weeds are burned. Then fertilizer is applied and dug up. NS Tsyganok (1995) proposes the following method of manually digging the soil to a depth of two shovel bayonets (35-40 cm). The first bayonet of the soil of the first furrow is laid on the side of the road, the second bayonet of the furrow (sub-arable) is shovel, ash (400-500 g / m²), humus (3-4 kg / m²), mineral fertilizers - superphosphate (20- 40 g / m²) and potassium chloride (10-20 g / m²). On the loosened and mixed with fertilizers, the bottom layer is placed the first bayonet from the second furrow, and so on. The top layer is also fertilized with mineral fertilizers in the same quantities.
If the soil is acidic (this is indicated by the podzol layer at a shallow depth and the presence of many plants such as horsetail, sorrel, sedge), then liming is required (200-400 g / m²) during the winter. Instead of limestone, you can use slaked lime, chalk, wood ash, dolomite flour, eggshells. The application rate for slaked lime is 1.35 times less than for limestone, and ash is 5-10 times more. Chalk and dolomite flour are equated with limestone. Most of the limestone materials should not be applied at the same time as fresh manure, so as not to lose nitrogen. Such soil cultivation provides access to moisture and air into deep layers, creates favorable conditions for the life of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and beneficial microorganisms that decompose organic matter, destroys pests and pathogens, and cleans the site of weeds.
Variety selection and seed preparation
In winter, you need to stock up on seeds if you will not sow those that are obtained on your site. Fifteen varieties of vegetable peas are currently zoned in the North-West region. Four of them are sugar varieties, that is, their beans are completely used for food, there is no parchment layer in their valves. And there are also 11 varieties of shelling - green seeds are used for food purposes, they are husked from beans, in which there is a parchment layer. The most interesting of them:
Inexhaustible 195 - mid-early variety, before the first collection of beans 50-60 days, before the seeds ripen 75-85 days. Dessert variety. The plant is semi-dwarf. Sugar beans, 7-10 cm long. Brain seeds, sweet with a delicate taste. The mass of 1000 seeds is 220-260 g. Productivity is 1.5-2 kg / m².
Sugar 2 - medium late variety. Pod straight, 7-9 cm long, pointed, without parchment layer. The number of seeds in a pod is 7-9. Purpose - sugar scoops are used fresh.
Zhegalova 112 - medium late variety, from germination to the first harvest 60-75 days, to ripening 90-110 days. Long-stemmed, requires a garter. The collection period is 12-16 days. Pods are sugar, xiphoid with a blunt end, 11-14 cm long. Seeds are cerebral, often angular, wrinkled, gray-green. The mass of 1000 seeds is 250-270 g. Productivity is 0.6-0.8 kg / m².
Alpha - early ripening variety, from germination to biological ripeness 65-75 days. Pods from slightly curved to saber, 7 cm long, peeling. Seeds are cerebral, square-compressed, yellow-green. The mass of 1000 seeds is 200-250 g. Maturing is amicable. Differs in high taste. Productivity 1-1.5 kg / m². Weakly affected by diseases.
Adagumsky - mid-early variety, from germination to biological ripeness 75-85 days. The plant is semi-dwarf, 75 cm high. Up to the first inflorescence there are 13-15 internodes. The beans are peeling, straight with a blunt tip, dark green. Brain seeds, 1000 seeds weight 200-220 g. Good quality peas. Productivity 2-2.5 kg / m².
Sunrise - mid-season pea variety, from germination to biological ripeness 85-95 days. The plant is medium-sized, 60-80 cm high. Hulling beans, slightly curved with a pointed tip, dark green, 7-8 cm long. Weight of 1000 seeds is 180-200 g. Brain seeds, compressed vertically. Productivity 1.5-2 kg / m². The use of these varieties guarantees the receipt of our own seeds for sowing in our region. All zoned varieties have cerebral seeds with increased sugar content and low starch content, which is very valuable for canning, since they leave the can solution clear.
Also, on personal plots in the region, non-zoned, but very good varieties can be used. Such as the Miracle of Kelvidon 1378, Little Miracle, Belladonna 136, Emerald, Karaganda 1053, Sugar Brovtsyna 28 and others. It should be noted peas Soup spatula 181. The variety is early ripening - only 45 days pass before the first bean harvest. The collection is stretched over a long period. Stem of medium length 70-110 cm. Seeds are yellowish-pink, medium-sized. Spatulas are delicious in soups and canned foods.
Vegetable pea variety Ambrosia... Stem height 60-70 cm. The color of the bean and seeds is green. A young sugar spatula with rudimentary peas is used for food. Gloriosa... The variety is fruitful, early maturing. Plants of medium height. The seeds are light green and have a pleasant sweet taste. The variety is intended for canning and freezing
candidate of agricultural sciences,
VIR named after N.I. Vavilov
Growing peas in the country - how and when to plant peas?
Arrangement of a vegetable garden in the country involves the cultivation of numerous vegetables, fresh herbs, berry crops.
Optimal use of its area is a skill that not everyone has. For example, planting peas will not only diversify the assortment, but due to their biological characteristics, peas will not take up much space.
Therefore, you should not deny yourself the opportunity to grow familiar green pods.
Fulfilling all the requirements for agricultural technology, you will get a wonderful vegetable plant from which you can prepare a lot of tasty and healthy dishes.
Pea diseases and treatments
Peas are not susceptible to bacterial or fungal diseases. Therefore, no spraying is needed. But pests can do great harm. The well-known leafworm and pea aphids are not averse to feasting on delicious peas and leaving the garden without a crop.
To combat these insects, you can use a folk remedy based on garlic. After all, many people eat peas right in the garden and the measures used must be environmentally friendly.
To prepare the tincture, pour 20 grams of garlic, passed through a garlic press, with 10 liters of water. Let it brew for 1 day. We filter and spray the pea plants.
When the time comes to remove the plants, proceed as follows: remove the aerial part, leaving the stems up to 10 cm. Dig this area with roots and stems. In the spring you will receive an ecologically clean and unique site in terms of nitrogen content.
The cultivation of peas began in the period of Kievan Rus. During this period, people have learned how to correctly and competently relate to this plant. Benefits for human health and soil content are not given to every plant. Therefore, if you have a small free bed, plant peas and enjoy their taste all summer long.
Vegetable peas in the garden and vegetable garden
Among garden crops peas will always come in handy. When other vegetables are just gaining strength, both young and old are already feasting on peas. Open up a tough-sided bean and there are soft, tasty seeds! A small bed occupied by this plant, and how much pleasure it will bring in the early summer. A green bean with underdeveloped grains - the shoulder blade - is consumed whole in meals and fresh.
Peas Is an extremely valuable food product. After all, it is rich in essential proteins. And he fell in love with people since ancient times. Peas provide a nutritious grain that competes with cereals - millet, buckwheat and rice. Its dried tops are good feed for livestock. And mown green, it is completely excellent in terms of fodder: it is not for nothing that it is ensiled together with corn and grasses - it enriches it with protein.
Sow vegetable peas early, as soon as the soil warms up to 4-8 °. Its seedlings are cold-resistant, even withstand cold matinees. A plot for peas is allocated fertile, sunny. Only in good conditions does the plant produce an abundance of beans. The seeding rate is approximately 80-120 seeds per 1 m 2. Low-growing varieties sow denser, vigorous and standard varieties less often. On the soils of light, non-floating seeds, they are planted deeper, on heavy and damp soils - smaller. Shoots appear 15 days after sowing. Large-seeded sugar peas grow slowly in the initial phases of the growing season and can easily become clogged with weeds. Therefore, weeding is necessary in clogged areas. In order for the technical ripeness of the beans to be simultaneous, sowing is carried out in a short time and the seeds are sealed in areas similar in terms of conditions to the same depth.
The best precursors for peas are pumpkin, cucumbers, cabbage, and potatoes. Fertilizers are applied under the predecessors or in the fall. In a freshly fertilized area, the peas will go to the tops. It is known that this culture does not deplete, but enriches the soil. Indeed, nodule bacteria settle on the roots of all legumes, assimilating nitrogen from the air. It has been calculated that a hectare of soil is enriched with 140 kg of nitrogen in the forms available to plants when peas are cultivated. To fertilize a hectare in this way, it would take 30 tons of manure.
Of course, it is necessary to apply fertilizers under the peas, but not nitrogen, but phosphorus and potash fertilizers. In a well-seasoned area, the plant bears better fruit, and the seeds are more tender and tasty. Pea care comes down to weeding and watering during drought. It is good to put brushwood stamens on the beds: tall bushes will support. Instead of supporting stamens, you can stretch a row of perches along the bed or gird the green thicket with a cord. The growing season for peas usually ranges from 65 to 125 days. The beans are harvested already on the 12th day after emergence. After harvesting the beans in the same area, you can still grow a radish or other early maturing vegetable. Depending on the variety, the beans can be small, medium and large. They are also diverse in shape, most often straight, curved, swollen and flat. Occasionally you will come across fruits like beads. Their seeds are easily counted through the valves.
According to their shape, pea seeds are divided into three types: round, cerebral, and transitional. Rounded seeds are usually small and smooth. Shell peas, grown for grain, most often just happen with rounded seeds. The cerebral seeds are angular, or, as they say, a drum. Their surface is wrinkled, because they shrink unevenly. Because of their delicate and sweet taste, cereal peas are called sugar peas. It is mainly cultivated for green peas. Seeds of the transitional type are somewhat compressed, but with a smooth, velvety surface. Gardeners prefer peas with large sugar seeds. A thousand large peas weigh about 350 g. Seeds remain viable for five years.
A clear sign is the height of the stem. Pea varieties they are called tall with a stem length of 115 to 250 cm. Medium-sized peas are from 70 to 115 cm. Smaller ones belong to undersized varieties. Pea stems can be ordinary and standard. The stem stem is thickened, with strong short internodes, its flowers are clustered closer to the apex.
Brain varieties on green peas harvested in the phase of milk ripeness of the grains. The mesh on the lower beans will begin to stand out - the technical ripeness of the vegetable, consider it, has come.
We have been engaged in harvesting green peas for future use for a long time. Yaroslavl gardeners have mastered the canning of peas in the last century. Not far from Rostov the Great, in the villages of Ugodichi and Sulost - vegetable growing nests of Russia, even then gardeners allotted significant areas for peas. The pods were picked and peeled by hand, then they filled a wicker basket with peas, immersed it in spring water - washed the grains, and then dipped it into a kettle of boiling water. The boiled peas were dried in ovens, then boiled in cans and sealed.“Peas are an enviable thing,” the peasants said, “borrows old and small ones and brings money.” Rostov green peas delighted not only gastronomes in the capital, but also overseas chefs. Along with the experience of cultivation, all sorts of beliefs and superstitions were transmitted. It was believed, for example, that it is better to sow peas in the first days of the new moon. And not with any wind: "If the peas are sown with the north wind, they will be liquid, with the west and south-west they will be chalky and wormy."
Yaroslavl gardeners have bred excellent local peas - Rostov tall white. They preferred to sow with old, four-year-old seeds.
Nowadays, peas are canned at home like this. Fresh young fruits are harvested, filled with delicate sugary grains. The beans are husked, spoiled grains are discarded. Then the peas are poured into a colander, washed in cold water, blanched, immersed in a colander for 3 minutes in boiling water seasoned with salt and sugar (for 1 liter of water, 1.5 tablespoons of salt and the same amount of sugar). Blanched peas are poured hot into jars, then poured with hot solution remaining after blanching. Add another 3 g of citric acid to 1 liter of the filling. The jars are filled 1 cm below the top of the neck, covered with lids, and then placed in a saucepan with salted water heated to 70 °. The product is sterilized at a low boil, half-liter cans are kept for 3.5 hours. After this process, the jars are removed from the pan, sealed and cooled. A half-liter jar contains 650 g of peas and 175 g of filling. If you use other methods, share your experience.
For canned food, the most valuable cereal varieties of peas, which have a high sugar content and a low starch content. With such seeds, the jar solution remains clear.
The domestic pea assortment is quite diverse - it includes over twenty varieties. Here is some of them.
Small miracle... Hulled cereal peas with small seeds. The variety is undersized, medium early, quite yielding, but not quite adapted to the conditions of vegetable production. He has his first bob attached too low. The flowers are white, beans with a parchment layer, cerebral seeds, gray-green, tasty. The beans are harvested for about two weeks, but simultaneous harvesting is also possible.
Miracle of Calvedon 1378... Variety of English origin, significantly improved by breeders near Moscow.
The stems are undersized, almost do not lodge, the flowers are white, one per peduncle. The beans are slightly curved, with a pointed tip, the seeds are small, cerebral, suitable for green peas. A variety of shelling type - the beans have a developed parchment layer. The miracle of Kelvedon 1378 is widespread up to the Arkhangelsk region.
Belladonna 136... This late-ripening variety of vegetable peas has also been improved in the Moscow region (based on an old variety of German selection). Belladonna is resistant to fungal and bacterial diseases and is not afraid of dry weather. Seedlings are not beaten by spring frosts. Seeds are brain, drum, gray-green color. There are 7-9 seeds in a bean. In the south, this is a shelling pea, you can sow peas before winter.
Sugar peas Zhegalova 112... Dessert variety - unripe beans are edible whole. It ripens late to the table, but the seeds are extremely large and sweet. Peas are well developed in private gardens. The stems are as tall as a man, they lie down without supports. The beans are tender, no parchment layer, palm-length.
Peas are original Soup spatula 181... The variety is early ripening, it takes only 45 days before the first harvest of the beans. The collection is extended for a month. One-time harvesting of beans fails. Compared with peas Zhegalova, the soup spatula is less demanding on the soil, it tolerates drought relatively easily. The stem of this plant is of medium height. The beans are bean-shaped, sugar-like, the parchment layer is not felt in them, and if it happens, it is only at the points of contact between the valves. Seeds are yellowish-pink, medium-sized. Spatulas are delicious in soups and canned foods.
Fresh from the bush, canned, dried, frozen green pea able to compete on the table with any vegetable. Peas are truly a protein treasure. And this treasure should be used as long as possible in the year.
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In the postwar years, vegetable peas were the main childish delicacy in our area. Having matured, I myself began to grow it. I try to follow the novelties of breeding and, taking into account the peculiarities of the culture, I try different agricultural techniques. Usually in the middle of summer, vegetable peas disappear for most gardeners. I treat my grandchildren with their favorite delicacy all summer long: I sow peas of different varieties in several periods.
From the early ones, Alpha, Vera, Gloriosa, Early Gribovsky grow, from the mid-season ones - Perfection-65, Alexandra, Emerald, Sugar, Suga Baby, from the later ones - Zhegalova 112, Troika. Early ripening varieties of vegetable peas take 45-60 days from the moment of emergence to technical ripeness, and 70 to biological. Mid-ripening ones are suitable, respectively, 10-20 days later, and late ones - another week and a half later. However, most varieties in the northern regions have a shorter growing season than in the south, and with a day length of less than 10 hours, peas may not bloom.
Peas are a very cold-resistant plant: varieties with brain seeds germinate at a temperature of +4 ° С, with smooth ones - +1 ° С, seedlings can withstand frosts down to -6 ° С. The optimum temperature for the growth of peas is 16-18 ° C. Therefore, without fear of cold weather, in the first five days of May, I sow a plot with an area of 1 sq. m with the Gloriosa variety, a week later I sow the same amount of Run, then Zhegalova 112, and the last, at the end of the month, Troika.
Peas (Pisum). © Forest & Kim Starr
I grow the second wave of peas in beds freed from spinach, radish and watercress.
I place peas after potatoes, cabbage, onions and cucumbers, that is, crops under which the soil was well filled with humus and ash. For autumn digging, I bring in rotted manure (half a bucket / sq. M.), Superphosphate and potassium sulfate (30 g each). I don’t bring in fresh manure, I also don’t let peas over the peas, beans and beans, and I return it to the previous garden no earlier than three years later. I take into account that sweet peas are photophilous, so I give them an open, sunny place.
Before sowing, I immerse the seeds in water overnight. The peas damaged by bruchus float up, and I remove them, and the rest swell overnight. I sow in furrows 4-6 cm deep, the bottom of which I level and compact with the edge of the board, I close the seeds according to the scheme 20-25 × 10 cm and mulch with humus. Although at the beginning of May there is enough moisture in the soil, I still water the garden: for seeds to germinate and plants grow quickly, the soil must be well moistened (although peas, keep in mind, do not grow well when groundwater is close).
Peas (Pisum). © Forest & Kim Starr
I spend the first abundant watering before flowering, the second when the shoulder blades are filled with peas. If the weather is dry and warm for a long time, I pour water "without a schedule": peas do not tolerate prolonged drought, which should also be taken into account during repeated summer crops. The rest of the care is simple - loosening row spacings, removing weeds. However, one has to take care of protecting plantings from pests (root weevils attack seedlings, aphids appear en masse during budding, pea weevils - when beans ripen) and diseases (ascochitis, powdery mildew).
If there are few insects, I spray the peas with broths of dandelion, horse sorrel, marigolds. With a large number of pests, before the formation of beans, I use Karate and give a phosphorus-potassium supplement. With the development of diseases, I treat the crops with a 1% suspension of colloidal sulfur twice with a weekly interval. I harvest the peas as they ripen. In the morning it tastes better and more tender.
- F. Khalilov. Republic of Tatarstan
Vegetable gardener work calendar
At the beginning of the month, you need to start preparing nutrient soil for seedlings, steam it and disinfect it. Soak the seeds (be sure to check them for germination) of eggplants, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers and sow them on seedlings. Celery also needs planting.
It's time to revise the bulbs of flowering plants, remove all diseased and dried ones.
The second decade is suitable for picking and feeding cabbage seedlings.
The beds with perennial plants should be sprinkled with ash or peat, and covered with some kind of insulation. This technique will help the plants start growing faster.
The third decade of the month is suitable for picking peppers and tomatoes. After transplanting, they should be fed.
You can start preparing greenhouses for the season, repair them and treat them with disinfectants, cut off raspberries that have been bent to the ground for the winter.
In the first decade, you need to put potatoes for germination, and in the last decade, you can plant roses for those who have these flowers wintered in the basement.
It's time to sow late varieties of cabbage: cauliflower, white cabbage and red cabbage.
If a winter sowing of vegetable seeds was carried out, now is the time to remove the shelters and loosen the soil in the aisles.
Plantings of rhubarb and sorrel are fed with nitrogen fertilizer, spreading 3 tbsp in a bucket of water. l. urea and adding the obtained between the rows. Spread compost around the rhubarb bush and cover with a bucket. The plant will become warm and it will start growing faster, and the petioles will taste softer.
An unpredictable month, the probability of frost return is quite high, so you should not rush to plant thermophilic crops in open ground, despite the warm daytime temperature.
At the beginning of the first decade of May, you can sow parsley, lettuce, onions - nigella, dill, radishes, spring garlic, carrots.
Tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers can be planted in a greenhouse or greenhouse. Perennials should be examined, if necessary, spray the plantings against pests, feed the plants and mulch the soil near them.
The middle of the month is good for planting potatoes.
When all the work is done, you should prepare the beds for cucumbers, pumpkins, beans, squash, basil and zucchini.
Soil for growing peas.
Soil for growing peas must have a neutral reaction (pH 6 - 7).
Peas at growing does not consume very many nutrients, therefore it is placed as the second or third crop in the crop rotation after the main filling of the soil with organic and mineral fertilizers. Medium fertilized garden soil is suitable for him. In autumn, humus or compost is introduced on marginal soils in the amount of 3 - 5 kg / m², 15 - 20 g of double superphosphate, 20 - 30 g of potassium chloride and dug up.
In the spring, before growing peas , the soil must be well loosened, but so that it has time to settle before sowing. Immediately before sowing, you can add an additional 15 - 20 g of urea or 20 - 30 g of ammonium nitrate per 1m².