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Plant cardiocrinum - care and description: planting, reproduction, watering. Types of cardiocrinum

Plant cardiocrinum - care and description: planting, reproduction, watering. Types of cardiocrinum


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Liliaceae

Cardiocrinum (Cardiocrinum) Is a genus of bulbous plants of the lily family. It translates from Greek as "heart-shaped lily", since the shape of the leaves of the plant resembles a heart. It grows in the Far East, Japan, China, Sakhalin. The plant has been cultivated since the late nineteenth century, but is still a rare attraction in our gardens. Outwardly, the cardiocrinum resembles a giant lily.

Plant cardiocrinum - description

Cardiocrinum - perennial bulbous plant. Its white conical bulb, on average up to 8 cm in diameter, consists of open scales. The succulent hollow leafy stem is up to 5cm in diameter and reaches 2.2m in height. Basal leaves are large (up to 35 cm in diameter), cordate, alternate, glabrous, with reticular veins on long petioles. White with green flowers, funnel-shaped up to 10 cm in diameter, drooping, horizontally deflected, collected in brushes of 6-30 pieces. The fruit of the cardiocrinum is a cylindrical capsule filled with numerous flat seeds. The peculiarity of the plant is that after flowering and ripening of the fruit, the bulb dies.

Types of cardiocrinum

There are only four types of cardiocrinum in nature. Cardiocrinum Chinese - Cardiocrinum cathayanum - reaches a height of 1.5 m. Leaves, located only on the upper part of the stem, elongated, up to 20cm long and 10cm wide, on long petioles. Flowers greenish-white, perianth tips with purple spots. Cardiocrinum giant - Cardiocrinum giganteum Makino grows up to 3m in height, has a very large bulb - up to 15cm in diameter. The leaves are cordate, the flowers are tubular, white, with purple strokes on the inside and green on the outside. Cardiocrinum giant Yunnan - Cardiocrinum giganteum var. Yunnanense opened recently. Glossy, heart-shaped leaves of this species are especially beautiful in spring, when, when they open, they are cast in burgundy color. And finally cardiocrinum cordate, or Glen, about which we will tell you in detail.

Caring for the cardiocrinum cordate

This species reaches a height of two meters. It got its name in honor of Pyotr Petrovich Glen, a participant in the East Siberian expedition in the 60s of the nineteenth century. Even a non-flowering plant looks very impressive due to a leafy rosette that resembles a hosta. Bright bronze in color during opening, they then turn olive green, and only the veins retain their reddish hue. By summer, the leaves turn dark green, but the peculiar texture of the leaves makes them iridescent. A giant leafy rosette flaunts on a high, powerful stem, and fragrant large greenish-white flowers bloom by mid-summer.

Needs this kind of high humidity, loves partial shade and does not tolerate drafts. During the growing season, it needs abundant wateringespecially if the summer is dry. The soil should be well-drained, nutritious, and loam, dug up with leaf and sod humus, is best suited. Before planting, the bulbs are stored in moist peat or sphagnum.

The pit should be 50x50cm in size, broken brick should be poured on the bottom and covered with a layer of coarse sand. Landing into the ground at the beginning of autumn so that the top of the bulb is flush with the soil surface. The distance between flowers should be about a meter. For the winter, the planted bulbs need to be covered with leaves and spruce branches, in winter it is advisable to throw snow on them. Sun protection will be required in the spring.

Cardiocrinum multiplies seeds that, when stored in low positive temperatures, do not lose their germination for 7-10 years, but it is still better to sow freshly harvested seeds that are not yet dry. Seeds need multi-stage stratification, and this can only be done by experienced professional growers, therefore it is better to use a vegetative propagation method, namely, daughter bulbs formed on the drying out mother bulb. Glen's cardiocrinum has up to 8 of them. At the beginning of autumn, a dried plant is dug up, the children are planted at a distance of 1 m from each other. If the baby is too young, let her winter in wet peat, and in the spring you drop her off.

Literature

  1. Information about Garden Plants
  2. Information about Herbaceous plants

Categories: Garden Plants Herbaceous Blooming Bulbous Flowers Liliaceae


Plant cardiocrinum - care and description: planting, reproduction, watering. Types of cardiocrinum - garden and vegetable garden

Name: comes from the Greek words "cardio" - "heart" and "kryon" - "lily", ie "Heart-shaped lily", which is due to the shape of its leaves.

Description: only 4 species of this amazing plant are found in nature. They are widespread in the Asian region - the Himalayas, China, the islands of the Japanese archipelago, Sakhalin and the Kuriles.

Glen's cardiocrinum
Photo of Tatiana Rozantseva

Perennial monocarpic bulbous plants. The bulb is conical, white, composed of open juicy scales. The stem is leafy, juicy, hollow, at the base up to 5 cm in diameter. Leaves are alternate, cordate, wide, glabrous, with reticulate venation on long petioles. Flowers in a raceme, white or greenish-white, funnel-shaped, long-tubular, horizontally deviated or slightly drooping, on short, thick pedicels. Tepals with a long marigold. The stamens are attached to the base of the tepals. The fruit is a dry cylindrical, sticking up capsule of seeds, numerous, flat, brown, with a wide scarious light edge.

Fortunately for gardeners, after the dying off of the main bulb, the plant forms around it replacing baby bulbs, which allows Cardiocrinums to propagate vegetatively.

Although these plants are rare in foreign floriculture, they have been known for a long time. Two species are listed in the Russian plant index by P.P. Zolotareva "Flora of greenhouses, greenhouses, orchards and vegetable gardens" 1894 edition, as already introduced into the culture of gardening in Russia. However, we still know more about cardiocrinums by hearsay, and few can boast of owning these very effective and resistant plants in culture, since the characteristics of reproduction make them unsuitable for mass breeding.

Grows in dense forests, along the banks of mountain streams in East and Central China.

Plants up to 100-150 cm tall. Bulb up to 5 cm in diameter. The stem is green. The leaves are located in the upper half of the stem, alternate, only in the middle part are brought together, form a kind of whorl. Leaves are oblong-cordate, 20 cm long and 10-12 cm wide, on petioles up to 15 cm long. In the inflorescence 1-5 flowers. The flowers are horizontally deviated, greenish-white, slightly zygomorphic, 8-10 cm long, the apex of the tepals with purple spots.

It grows in damp, shady forests, among bushes, along the slopes of gorges in the Himalayas, Assam Mountains (India), Southwest China and Burma.

Height - 1.5 - 3 m. It blooms in August. The bulb is large, with a diameter of 8 - 15 cm, making, with open large scales. Basal leaves are wide, cordate, on long petioles, stem leaves are smaller. A racemose inflorescence up to 60 cm in length, has 20 or more flowers. The flowers are tubular, with bent ends of the tepals, white, 12-15 cm long. Inside the flower there are purple strokes, and outside they are greenish, with a pleasant smell. It has been known in culture since 1852.

When grown in the north, careful shelter is required during the winter.

Grows in western China and northwestern Burma.

This cardiocrinum was opened quite recently and has just appeared in the catalogs of the most advanced Western companies, some of which distinguish it in a separate form: C. yunnanense... In Russia, plants acquired from the Heronswood company took root, which they collected in 1998 on the eastern slopes of Cangshan (Yunnan).

Plants have glossy, heart-shaped leaves, especially decorative in spring, when they open with an amazing burgundy-purple hue in the middle of summer turning into dark green. This is a very promising trait for breeding varieties with red or purple foliage. In the middle of summer, the plant throws out a powerful peduncle 1-1.2 meters in height with 10-12 large (20-25 cm in length) white flowers with a dark red smear inside (along the edge and in the middle of the petals). Unlike drooping flowers of C. giganteum, this cardiocrinum has flowers looking to the side or slightly downward and the bulb is not as large as in C. giganteum after flowering, the mother bulb dies leaving 3-5 bulbs that bloom for 3-4 years. We do not recommend planting a plant under an apple tree from which the leaves become infected with rust (scab), which does not happen under a cherry. The plant loves partial shade with well-rotted leafy soil. This cardiocrinum survived the mild winters of 1999-2001 without shelter, and the cold winter of 2002-03 killed some of the plants, and therefore it is advisable to shelter this species in the Moscow region.

The area is very narrow, of the East Asian island type: Russia (Sakhalin - the southern part, the Kuriles - Kunashir, Iturup), Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu). Sakhalin-North Japanese endem. It grows in mixed and deciduous forests in lightened places, in tall grasses, along the banks of streams and rivers, on loose fertile, well-moistened soils (forest sod-humus and brown forest soils). Mesophyte. In the south of Kunashir, in a mixed forest, cardiocrinum is found en masse, and huge rosettes of leaves almost close together.

Previously, the northern representatives, common from Sakhalin to northern Japan, were called Glen's cardiocrinum, or Glen's lily (C. glechnii, L. glechnii), and only plants from southern Japan were attributed to the heart-shaped cardiocrinum itself. But then they considered that such differences of northern plants as wider leaves, large sizes and more flowers in a brush are too insignificant to distinguish them into a separate species and united all under the name that was published first, namely "cardiocrinum cordate".

An extremely showy plant, reaching a height of 200 cm. The stem is green, thick, hollow, leafy. Leaves on long tails, cordate, about 25-35 cm in length and width. The bulb is conical, white, up to 10 cm in diameter. It blooms in the height of summer with large (up to 15 cm long) funnel-shaped creamy white flowers. Flowers are arranged horizontally and collected in vertical racemose inflorescences of 10-25 pcs. After flowering, the plant dies off, leaving 1-6 (8) replacement bulbs, which by this time already have from one to three leaves.

It can be recommended for the southern and middle regions of the country. Often suffers from spring frosts. The most stable in the culture of central Russia.

In SahKNII since 1961, it grows at the foot of the hill. Blooms in July, seeds ripen in September. It is inferior in size to natural samples. In GBS since 1954 (from Sakhalin). Blooms in late June - July, seeds ripen in August. Grows in fertile soil, but without additional watering. It has a lower height than in nature - about 100 cm, smaller leaves (24 cm long, 21 cm wide), a shorter raceme with a small number of flowers (up to 9). The length of the perianth lobes does not change (10 cm). Propagated by seed and vegetative means. When sown with freshly harvested seeds, shoots appear in the second year.

In addition to decorative qualities, it has medicinal and nutritional properties. The Hokkaido Ainu consider this plant a good remedy for burns (Miyabe, Mitake, 1907) and, in addition, eat bulbs: they pound and make cakes from them or make high-quality starch (Miyabe, Mitake 1907 Sugawara, 1937). A decoction of the stems dried in the shade is used as an antipyretic (Sagawara, 1937).

The monocarpic developmental cycle prevents the spread of cardiocrinum in culture. Needs loose fertile soil and regular moisture, can grow in partial shade and in an open place. Known in culture (Zolotarev, 1896 Ra-geu, 1957).

Location: The planting site should be warm, but not sunny.

The soil: fertile ones are needed, on the basis of slightly clayey meadow (sod) land and a rotted leaf of soil. Possible additions of compost or manure humus. The site must be deeply dug up and have drainage. They are moisture-loving, but do not tolerate ground and surface waters in the autumn-winter period.

Cardiocrinum cordatum var.glehnii
Photo by M. Barbuhatti

Landing: the bulbs are best planted in holes up to 60 cm in size, filled with soil and sand. The bulbs are planted in October, shallow, and their tops should be visible above the soil surface. The distance between plants when planting is 1 m.

Care: the plant is weakly resistant. They overwinter with rosettes of leaves, therefore, an air dry shelter or cover with spruce branches is necessary. In snowless cold winters freeze out. They winter well under the snow, but they require shades of rosettes from the spring sun. Spring frosts can kill early growing shoots, but do not cause much harm to plants.

Reproduction: daughter bulbs, seeds. Vegetatively propagated by planting baby bulbs. "Babies" are formed in the last year of the plant's life. When the reserves of nutrients accumulated in the scales are spent on the creation of a grandiose peduncle, two or three small "babies" will be born at the same time (the heart-shaped one has up to 8). In autumn, when the above-ground part of the plant dries up, it is dug up, and the "kids" are seated at a distance of 90 cm (giant cardiocrinum) or 50 cm (heart-shaped). It is advisable to deposit the plant no later than the beginning of autumn. Not planted bulbs form a "bundle" of small rosettes at the base of the dying stem and overwinter poorly. When planting, minimal trauma to the roots is desirable. Young bulbs that are not going to bloom can be replanted in early spring. The bulbs are planted not according to the "general rule" (to a depth 2 times the height of the bulb), but according to a special one, separate for cardiocrinums: the bulb is buried so that its top is at ground level or even slightly raised above the surface.

Seed propagation is essential for obtaining a large amount of planting material. Flat seeds with a wide filmy edge ripen in cylindrical capsules sticking upwards. If the seeds did not have time to ripen due to the onset of cold weather, then the stems can be cut and kept warm for ripening. The seeds are not juicy, do not have dense covers and, with normal warm storage, lose their germination after 2-3 years (at low positive temperatures in 7-10 years), therefore, it is advisable to sow only freshly harvested seeds, which are best not yet dried out. The easiest way is soil podzimny. When sowing in greenhouses, the seeds will need multi-stage stratification i.e. the action of either low (0 + 5 ° C), then elevated (about 20 ° C) temperatures for certain periods of time. Three stages may be enough: low temperatures affect in winter after sowing, high temperatures in summer and again low temperatures in the next winter. Then in the spring of the second year, mass germination usually begins. But multiple studies have shown that this does not always happen so quickly. Mass germination can begin only in the third spring, and individual seeds will sprout both at 4 and 5 years in both spring and autumn. Stratification of seeds planted in pots or bolls can shorten the growing time. In this case, the seeds are obtained at low temperatures in the refrigerator, and high temperatures in the room. It takes at least 3 months to complete each stage. It must be remembered that the effect of temperatures affects only moistened seeds, therefore the soil in pots (usually a mixture of peat and sand in a ratio of 3: 1) should be watered, and the pots should be wrapped in plastic bags. This method also has many negative aspects. Pots require constant attention: they dry up, then they become moldy.If the seeds do not sprout after three stages (and this is already 9 months!), The process continues, dragging the pots from the room to the refrigerator, then back. In addition, it is advisable to plant seedlings in open ground as soon as possible, and it is better to do this in a warm period - late spring or summer, so the moment of germination must be pre-determined by this time. The successful development of seedlings requires moderate heat, sufficient, but not sunshine, moderate but sufficient watering and fertile loose soil. In mid-summer and early autumn, young rosettes, almost without deepening, must be planted in a permanent growing place. Seedlings will bloom only after 6-8 years.

Comments (1)

It was wrong to not complete my report! This year, 10 plants bloomed at once: 6 Glen's plants, 2 giganteum and 2 similar to Yunnan giganteum. I think that I didn't have a katayanum. The sight was very beautiful. Flowering lasted from June 14 to July 10, each plant bloomed for 14-20 days. The height of the Yunnan rose reached 2.4 m. There were from 10 to 26 flowers in the inflorescences. The leader in their number was K. Glen. Now K. Glen's seed pods are already bursting, there are a lot of seeds, I collect them. I don’t know how many children have formed yet, but they are already visible above the soil surface. Soon it will be necessary to seat. So over time, there will be a whole plantation of these magnificent plants. The long wait and the work is worth it!

Dear fellow florists and specialists!
I have long wanted to have these original and amazingly beautiful plants. And in 2008 he made an order for several plants of the giant cardiocrinum.
All this was before visiting this page. And now I THOUGHT !! Will this plant be stable in the conditions of the northwestern region of Russia? Namely, in the SOUTH of the Pskov region, in the area of ​​the junction of the borders of Russia, Latvia and Belarus (the so-called KURGAN OF FRIENDSHIP).
Our winters are often snowless, humid, with prolonged thaws and temperature drops, up to -30 degrees Celsius.


General characteristics

All krinums have characteristics in common. They are distinguished by long ribbon-like leaves in aquatic species and lanceolate leaves in terrestrial species, which, when damaged, emit a lot of mucus enriched with alkaloids. The flowers of these plants are large, can be white, yellow, pink and purple, the inflorescence is an umbrella, the length of the stem is 1 meter. The bulbs have a lot of scales. Terrestrial species are distinguished by compaction at the bottom of the stem; in aquatic species it is not very pronounced. The root system is powerful: the roots branch weakly, have a brown or white color, which depends on the soil and conditions of maintenance.

They can multiply in the walls of the aquarium in a vegetative way, but at a water level of 50 cm they easily bloom. Adult bushes of the plant produce daughter shoots inside or near the mother bulb. Daughter shoots grow slowly, they can be separated from the mother plant after the appearance of 5 or 7 leaves and 2-3 roots. If you separate them earlier, they will die, or their development will be slow.

Admire the wavy crinum aquarium.

Due to the powerful roots, krinums can grow in the soil layer of at least 8 cm, the permissible level is 10 cm, otherwise the plants will heavily silt in the lower layers. It is impossible to silt the soil, it is advisable to add a little activated carbon under the roots, which will save them from decay and death. As a top dressing, you can apply specially prepared fertilizers for aquarium species of krinums.

Wavy Crinum, or Crinum Calamistratum

Crinum wavy is an aquarium species of the Crinum plant, which was brought to our latitudes from the African country of Cameroon. The bulb is weakly expressed, its diameter is 3 cm. The wavy Krinum is characterized by leaves of a dark green color, which have a rigid and at the same time fragile structure, like a corrugated one. The leaf plates have a powerful central vein, the sides of the leaves are wavy, up to 2 cm and 0.5-0.7 cm wide. Adult bushes have about 30-40 leaves.

This appearance of the plant does not simplify its maintenance. The fact is that the leaf plates of such a structure quickly become overgrown with algal bloom, attract the remnants of dirt and turbidity to their wavy sides. The development of the process becomes the cause of the appearance of aquarium parasites, which will later have to be removed. In order for the algae not to “stick” to the leaves of the krinum, it is necessary to keep in the tank fish or snails that like to collect algal fouling. For example, coil snails, Siamese algae eaters, ancistrus, labeos, palziorings, gerinoheilus.

See how wavy crinum blooms.

Strong filtration, regular replacement of fresh water will reduce the growth of algae. You need to renew 25-30% of the water weekly. You also need to properly feed the fish. It is not recommended to keep in the aquarium fish that strongly muddy the water and dig the soil. Neocardine shrimp will also help remove fouling from the leaves. The composition of the water also matters: the temperature of the water for the content of Crinum Calamistratum is between 20 and 25 degrees Celsius. Crinum Calamistratum is an unpretentious plant that gets along well with other species of underwater flora, does not interfere with the development of neighboring plants.

Among the krinums, it is considered the most prolific species. In good keeping conditions, the bush can produce more than 20 daughter plants. Reproduction takes place in adulthood. Daughter shoots appear on the main bulb, which can later be detached after growing roots on small bulbs. Planting Crinum Calamistratum is advisable in a spacious tank where the water level is high, since the leaves can grow up to 1 meter in length. In terms of aquascape design, this plant looks great against the side wall, it can be transplanted 5-7 cm from the front glass.


Lily bulbous

These are real highlights, each of which is interesting in its own way.

Albuca low

A rare small exotic bulbous plant for southern dachas.


The albuca is low. Photo from viridis.nu

Albuca humilis originally from South Africa. It is quite compact: up to 10 cm high and 5 cm wide. The flowers are white, with green backs and yellow tips, bloom in late spring - early summer. The winter temperature minimum is 0 ° С, therefore, on the southern coast of Crimea (SCC) and the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar Territory, it is not left to winter in open ground, even with shelter. It is better to plant the bulbs in containers, which are to be dug into the ground in the spring, and in the winter to bring the containers into a frost-free basement (watering is reduced).

Giant cardiocrinum

A very large plant and very rare: the search for bulbs on our website allowed me to include it in the final fashion show.


The cardiocrinum is giant. Photo from thompson-morgan.com. Impressive appearance. Photo from the site rhodygarden.org

Giant cardiocrinum (Cardiocrinum giganteum) it can reach a height of 1.5-4 m and a width of 45 cm. It comes from the Himalayas, North-West Burma. Flowers are tubular-funnel-shaped, white, 15-20 cm long, bloom in summer.

Slightly lower (1.2-2 m high and 30 cm wide) his relative is because heart-shaped (C. cordatum, syn. Lilium cordatum) from Japan, Sakhalin. Its flowers are creamy white, up to 15 cm long. Both can withstand -15 ° C, so in the south it can be grown with a winter shelter, and on the South Coast and the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar Territory - without it, you can even try to grow it in central Russia.

These plants are monocarpics (that is, they die off after flowering). Propagated by seeds and daughter bulbs.

There are also beautiful rare species among the bows.


Aflatun onion blooms, photo of the author

It:

  • Aflatun onion (Allium aflatunense)
  • l. giant (A. giganteum)
  • l. karatavian (A. karataviense)
  • l. moths (A. moly)
  • l. city-loving or l. Ostrovsky (A. oreophilum, syn. A. ostrowskianum)
  • l. Christophe (A. cristophii, syn. A. albopilosum)
  • l. strange (A. paradoxum) and others.

Strange bowphoto of the author

All onions are drought-tolerant plants that love open, sunny places with drained soils.


Karatav onion, photo Natasha777

Low views (L. Christoph, L. Karatavsky, etc.) look luxurious in rocky gardens.


Aflatun onion at home, photo of the author

Some species (L. Aflatunsky, L. Giant and others) bloom not only in the sun, but also in semi-shady areas of summer cottages.


Yunnan giant cardiocrinum

Cardiocrinum giant Yunnan - Cardiocrinum giganteum var. yunnanense (Elwes) Stearn. Grows in western China and northwestern Burma.

This cardiocrinum was discovered quite recently and has just appeared in the catalogs of the most advanced Western firms, some of which distinguish it as a separate species: C. yunnanense. In Russia, plants acquired from the Heronswood company took root, which they collected in 1998 on the eastern slopes of Cangshan (Yunnan).

Plants have glossy, heart-shaped leaves, especially decorative in spring, when they open with an amazing burgundy-purple hue in the middle of summer turning into dark green. This is a very promising trait for breeding varieties with red or purple foliage. In the middle of summer, the plant throws out a powerful peduncle 1-1.2 meters in height with 10-12 large (20-25 cm in length) white flowers with a dark red smear inside (along the edge and in the middle of the petals). Unlike drooping flowers of C. giganteum, this cardiocrinum has flowers looking to the side or slightly downward and the bulb is not as large as in C. giganteum after flowering, the mother bulb dies leaving 3-5 bulbs that bloom for 3-4 years. We do not recommend planting a plant under an apple tree from which the leaves become infected with rust (scab), which does not happen under a cherry. The plant loves partial shade with well-rotted leafy soil. This cardiocrinum survived the mild winters of 1999-2001 without shelter, and the cold winter of 2002-03 killed some of the plants, and therefore it is advisable to shelter this species in the Moscow region.


Reproduction of krinum at home

Reproduction by seeds is rare; division by onion babies is much more convenient. Daughter bulbs activate the flowering of the parent, they are not in a hurry with their separation. Babies bloom 2-4 years after separation, depending on size.

  • First, the children are seated in pots with a diameter of 9-12 cm, after a year, larger containers will be needed, after another year, 16-17 cm pots are needed.
  • Regular feeding, abundant watering is necessary during the growth of young krinums.
  • Large deep pots up to 28 cm in diameter create favorable conditions for crinums in the 3-4th year of life. Spacious containers stimulate the formation of children, lush flowering, and vigorous growth.


Watch the video: Football Lily Grow. Care. Plantation. Propagation


Comments:

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