When and how to properly plant turnip onions in spring
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One of the useful garden plants, unpretentious in terms of cultivation, is the turnip onion. Depending on the time of receipt, it is one-year and two-year. You can get a normal bulb from seeds in the year of sowing, or you can grow a set first. And the next year, get a harvest of large bulbs, subject to the rules of agricultural technology. What gardener hasn't grown onions in his garden? The correct method of planting seedlings is the key to a good harvest.
The correct way to plant a turnip onion from a set: soil preparation
It is easy to grow onions from sets, available for beginner gardeners of any region of Russia, be it Moscow, the Kirov region or the Far East and Siberia. Seed material can be purchased in specialized stores or you can try to grow it yourself. To do this, in early spring, chernushka seeds are embedded in the ground with two lines with a distance of ten centimeters between them.
Depending on the soil, the sowing depth ranges from one and a half to three centimeters. The seedlings that appear after ten to fifteen days do not thin out. For full-fledged growth, seedlings need loose soil, no weeds. Watering is often carried out before the end of the formation of a small bulb.
Harvesting is done manually, before laying it for the winter, it is well dried. The seed is stored at a temperature of plus 18 degrees.
Seeding preparation for sowing: temperature and planting pattern
Before sowing, it is necessary to prepare the sowing. The scheme by which you can plant sevok is simple. The bulbs are heated to a temperature of 25 degrees and above. For this, the seed boxes are placed near the heating devices.
Another way to plant a sevok is to place it in a container of hot water for twenty minutes. The water temperature should not exceed fifty degrees. Then it is poured over with cold water and laid out to dry at room temperature.
Reference.The temperature contrast will allow the bulbs to harden. The procedure will prevent the subsequent formation of arrows in the vegetable plant.
The place for planting the heads is chosen where there were beds with peas, potatoes, cabbage, pumpkin. The best neighbors for him will be carrots and garlic, the smell emitted by the greens of these vegetables will scare away pests.
The composition of the soil is also important. The acidity index should not be more than 7.8. At an elevated level, slaked lime is introduced into the soil. This must be done in advance: in the fall with spring sowing and vice versa. The site for planting is chosen in an open place without shading. The plant does not like wetlands.
Thorough preparation of the seed and soil is essential for a high quality onion crop.
Time, rules and dates for planting in spring
Planting dates depend on climatic and weather conditions.
Attention. The soil temperature for planting the vegetable should not be too low - there will be many arrows. The soil should warm up to ten degrees.
In the spring, they begin to plant sevok no later than the first decade of May. But many put small bulbs in the ground in the fall. In winter, it is better to plant the material at the end of October. Then the sevok is not soaked so that it does not die from a sharp drop in temperature. The advantage of this planting is the natural hardening of the seed.
It is better to sow onions to a depth of two or three centimeters. The bulbs are spaced eight centimeters apart. According to the rules of agricultural technology, eighty grams of seed is enough for one square meter.
In the spring, the beds are mulched with sawdust to maintain moisture. After planting in autumn, before winter, it is better to cover the beds with straw or pine needles.
Onions - competent planting care
It does not take much time and effort to care for onions. It consists of the following actions:
- The plant needs moderate watering. On hot days, one hydration every five days will suffice. At moderate temperatures, water once every ten days. Watering is stopped a month before harvesting the vegetable.
- Onions grown on scarce soils require additional feeding. Fertilizers are applied three times over the summer. The first time when the green feather reaches a height of seven centimeters. The rest of the dressing after three weeks. Diluted bird droppings, mullein in a ratio of 1: 15 are suitable as fertilizers. Urea and superphosphate are suitable minerals. Fertilizer in the amount of twenty to fifteen grams is also diluted in a bucket of water.
- The beds are loosened regularly to a depth of five centimeters.
- Onions grow poorly when the soil is clogged with grass. Weeds are harvested as needed.
With fertile soils in the garden, for planting a vegetable, you will only need watering, loosening, weeding.
Diseases and pests
In humid hot summers, onions are affected by pathogenic fungi. Peronosporosis is determined by the appearance of light spots on the feathers. The disease is transmitted by wind, humans, insects. The best drugs against the disease are one percent Bordeaux liquid, Podicarbacin suspension. Diseased plants are sprayed three times with a break of ten days. The last treatment is carried out twenty days before harvest.
The appearance on the stems of swollen orange spots of a round shape is a symptom of rust disease. The development of the pathological process can be prevented by regular weeding of the beds, rare plantings of sevka.
Important! During the massive growth of onions, they are sprayed with copper oxychloride. Thirty grams of the substance is dissolved in ten liters of water by adding liquid soap. Spraying is carried out in the afternoon, repeating the procedure a week later.
Fusarium rot of the bottom is determined by rotting of the feather and turnip. Prevention of the disease consists in processing the soil before planting with Iprodion. It is necessary not to plant onions in the same place every year and disinfect the seed with a solution of potassium permanganate.
Of the pests that are dangerous for the vegetable:
- onion fly;
- wire beetles;
- onion weevil.
Creolin is used to scare off flies.
Successful control of wireworms consists in carrying out the correct agricultural techniques.
The fight against the weevil, or the hidden proboscis, is carried out by spraying the crops in May with insecticides with nicotine sulfate. Thorough cleaning of the garden from debris after harvesting the vegetable will save you from the raids of the pest.
Compliance with the rules of planting, growing onions from sets guarantees a high yield of healthy juicy bulbs.
Growing some vegetables is not particularly thoughtful. Onions are among those plants that do not require special knowledge of their agricultural technology. And often this leads to the loss of the crop, to its complete spoilage and decay. It is necessary to pay attention to this vegetable crop, from planting to harvesting.
Preparing onions for planting in spring - the main stages
It seems that growing a decent onion is not difficult at all. However, getting a good harvest on time is not easy. In this article, we will consider one of the important points - how to process the onion before planting and how to properly prepare it for planting in the spring.
It is difficult to imagine a summer cottage without friendly onion beds. Thanks to the many varieties, each gardener plants his own collection of onions. There are several popular varieties: onions, batun, shallots, leeks, chives).
To dig up a high-quality onion, it is not enough to feed and water the beds on time. Only due to the correct and timely preparation of onions for planting, you can get planting material that will germinate well, be disease resistant and give an excellent harvest.
How to prepare a site for planting?
You need to plant onions in a well-lit place. This culture does not tolerate lowlands with heavy waterlogged soil. Ideally, plant onions in the soil in which cabbage, cucumbers, and nightshades grew. The thing is that these crops and onions do not have common pests and diseases, and due to the fact that they are grown using a huge amount of mineral and organic fertilizers, many nutrients remain in the soil for a long period.
You can also plant onions after zucchini and peas. But you should not define it in the place where carrots used to grow. This culture is not fertilized with fresh organic matter. Such soil is not suitable for onions, since it cannot be called fertile. Moreover, the site for it becomes free late, so you may not have time to prepare it for planting a new culture. But planting plants in the reverse order is quite acceptable. It is permissible to return the culture to its original place not earlier than after 3 years. If she was affected by diseases, such actions are possible after 5 years.
It is necessary to plant onions on the head in the spring in loose soil, with moderate humidity. In this regard, the site should be dug up in the fall, and with the arrival of spring, it should be fenced with a rake and leveled. In the autumn, you can also feed the soil with compost, humus and phosphorus-potassium fertilizer. To neutralize the solution, the acidic soil is treated with chalk or lime. Places that were fertilized with fresh manure need to be planted only in the second year.
If the site is dominated by heavy clay soil and it does not warm up enough, wide ridges are cut in the fall, on which the culture will be planted.
Ideal bed for turnip onions
Onions are an unassuming crop, but still, certain conditions that you are quite capable of creating for it will significantly increase the volume of your harvest. First of all, you should choose the right place on the site for planting sevka:
- onions like the beds after legumes, cabbage, tomatoes and cucumbers
- for normal development, the onion requires a sunny area
- good neighbors for onions are carrots and garlic, the peculiar smell of greenery of these crops scares away pests
- in the fall, evaluate the acidity of the soil using litmus tests, it should not exceed PH 7.8
- if deoxidation is necessary, slaked lime is added to the beds according to the instructions
- to ensure the looseness of the soil, which is necessary for the breathing of the roots, stuck sawdust can be added to the beds.
To eliminate the pathogenic flora, mustard is sown on the beds in the fall, and in the spring the earth is loosened with a pitchfork. In this fluffy soil, rich in organic matter, you can easily plant your seedlings at the right time.
Care after landing
Onions do not cause a lot of hassle and do not require much maintenance. However, there are mandatory points that must be followed.
Moistening the soil should be regular. The best option is once every 7 days, but each gardener should be guided by his site.
Watering can be combined with complementary foods. Chicken droppings or mullein are bred for 10 liters of water. The resulting composition is not poured onto the plants, it is only suitable for moistening the soil between the rows.
Mineral fertilizers are applied as needed.
The beds must be periodically fluffed so that the soil is saturated with air and the weeds die.
Winter onions before the onset of cold weather do not forget to insulate, cover with: leaves, spruce branches, sawdust.
Pay attention to the soil, the condition of the plants. When identifying signs of the life of garden pests, it is important to stop the process in a timely manner, cultivate the land and seedlings.
When to sow in 2020
Nigella onions are small onion grains used by vegetable crops. It is so interestingly named because of its color. Nigella ripens when the ball-inflorescence fades. Each seed is formed in a triangle-shaped mini-box in place of one flower.
Traditionally, the arrow is broken so that the vegetable crop will use all its energy to grow the head, and not to the flower. But, if you give the inflorescence to bloom, and then ripen the boxes, then grains are formed in them - nigella. If you sow them, then an ordinary seed will grow, which summer residents acquire for planting in the country.
Seedlings need approximately 75-90 days to be ready for open field planting
Therefore, in order to understand when to sow seed, it is initially necessary to decide when the gardener plans to plant seedlings. If on May days, then it is necessary to sow in February, if at the beginning of summer, then sow in March.
Auspicious days on the moon
Gardeners working on the moon have a principle: all plants growing upward must be planted on a growing moonlight, and all vegetables growing downward must be planted in decreasing order.
The onion-turnip grows down (the onion grows), therefore, a waning satellite of the Earth is considered a suitable period for planting the seed material of this plant.
In 2020, the decrease falls on certain favorable days:
- 01.20 – 11-24
- 02.20 – 10-22
- 03.20– 10-23
- 04.20 – 9-22
- 05.20 – 8-21
- 06.20 – 6-20
- 07.20 – 6-19
- 08.20 – 4-18
- 09.20 – 3-16
- 10.20 – 3-15
- 11.20 – 1-14
- 12.20 – 1-13, 31.
Any of these days is good for planting.
When can you plant depending on the region
Traditionally, annuals of turnip onions ripen in 120-130 days, as the sprouts hatch. Until the moment of transplantation into the garden, the seedlings should grow and become strong, it will take up to 60 days. Onion-turnip is an unpretentious plant, tolerates a slight drop in temperatures and unfavorable weather without any problems.
To harvest an early harvest of turnip onions, you can plant seedlings in the garden in the last April days or in the first May
Taking into account the recommendations, it is possible to calculate the ideal sowing dates for nigella - March 4-20. The earliest sowing is not recommended due to an excessively short light day and a lack of sunlight - this will provoke the stretching of the plants
But on average across the regions, the terms are as follows:
- southern territories - from the end of February (you can also grow by the non-seedling method)
- central regions, Chernozem region, south of the Volga region - the first days of March
- North-West, Volga region - after March 15
- Ural, Siberian, Far Eastern regions - March-April.
If you follow the recommendations, then the chances of getting a large harvest are greater.
The dates when the moon rises are neutral. Sowing in them is not correct, however, when there is no choice, planting is allowed. But landing on a new and full moon is not allowed.
In 2020, prohibited lunar days:
- 01.20 – 10, 25
- 02.20 – 9, 23
- 03. 20 – 9, 24
- 04.20 – 8, 23
- 05.20 – 7, 22
- 06.20 – 5, 21
- 07.20 – 5, 20
- 08.20 – 3, 19
- 09.20 – 2, 17
- 10.20 – 2, 16, 31
- 11.20 – 15, 30
- 12.20 – 14, 30.
Lack of moisture in spring is especially noticeable on leeks, the feather becomes bluish, white, and the tips dry out and bend. With excess moisture or lack of light, the feather becomes paler and thinner. Therefore, moderate watering is important for a good feather. After planting, in May-June, the beds are watered no more than 1-2 times a week, consuming 7-11 liters of water per 1 square meter.Then, watering is reduced to 1 time in 1.5-2.5 weeks, since the head is ripening bulbs. However, in severe drought, in order to prevent wilting, the number of irrigations is increased, while reducing water consumption. In order for the greens to develop well and the turnip to grow, the bed should always be moderately moist. Regular loosening of the beds, at least once every 2-2.5 weeks, will not only keep the planting clean, but also improve the air-humid regime, preventing the soil from overcompaction. With active growth of greenery, arrows may form - they must be removed immediately.
Onions are harvested from the second or third week of August to September, when the greens wither - the feather has died and the formation of new feathers has stopped, and the heads have acquired a characteristic color and formed. If you delay harvesting, the head will resume growth and the onion will become unusable for storage.
Video "Preparing onion sets for planting"
In the video, a brief overview of some of the onion varieties. The process of preparing onion sets for planting is shown - selection of bulbs, processing, disinfection.