5 important things to do with flower bulbs in preparation for wintering
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In order to decorate your garden with bulbous flowers in the next season, they need to be properly prepared for wintering. To do this, the bulbs dug out of the ground are sorted out, processed and stored in a room with suitable conditions.
First, sort the planting material into varieties. If this is not done, during planting next year, you can easily confuse crocus bulbs with lilies or gladioli. In this case, your flower beds will be a complete mess.
In addition, it is important to divide the planting material by size, as well as remove too old and diseased specimens.
If you put in a common container plants affected by diseases or parasites, this will lead to the death of all flowers. To prevent the spread of the infection, bad specimens must be burned outside the garden.
The bulbs that have just been dug out of the ground must be properly dried. If the weather is warm and sunny, spread the plants directly on the ground with a dense material such as burlap or spunbond underneath.
If the weather turns bad, place the bulbs in a warm and well-ventilated area, most importantly, do not place them close to heating appliances.
After 2-3 days, the bulbs will completely dry out, after which you can proceed to their disinfection. The drying phase must not be skipped, as this can lead to fungal infection of the plants.
To remove fungal spores and other harmful microbes from the surface of the bulbs, treat them with a solution of potassium permanganate. To do this, dilute 15 g of potassium permanganate in 5 liters of water, and then place all planting material in the finished solution for 30 minutes.
Bulbs can also be treated with a fungicide. To do this, choose universal options for funds, for example, Fundazol or Falcon, which can destroy any types of fungal infections.
At the same time, it is important to follow the instructions for using the drug, because the wrong dosage and time of use will weaken the plants, after which it will be more difficult for them to survive the winter.
When the bulbs have been processed and completely dried, arrange them in wooden boxes or cardboard boxes, in the walls of which there are small holes for proper ventilation. It is necessary to lay out the planting material in one layer, while the bulbs should not come into contact with each other.
At the bottom of the selected container, you can put sawdust or thick paper, which will absorb excess moisture.
To prevent the plants from rotting, sprinkle them with a thin layer of wood ash. Children do not need to be laid out in boxes, a small paper bag will be enough for them.
Provide storage conditions
To prevent planting material from beginning to rot, remove it in a cool and well-ventilated area. At the same time, it is desirable that the level of air humidity reaches 60-80%, and the temperature is within + 3-6 ° C. But even if you create ideal conditions, the bulbs still need to be checked once a month. If rotten or moldy plants are found during this inspection, discard them.
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5 steps to prepare flower bulbs for winter
Perennial flowers delight us with lush flowering and decorative greenery every summer. All garden perennials growing in our climate should have winter-hardy characteristics, some plants easily overwinter without shelter at all, but there are those that need to be carefully prepared and covered before the onset of cold weather.
In autumn, the growth of plants stops, in some herbaceous crops the entire ground part dies off. Dried leaves and stems of flowers in the fall must be cut off so that fungal diseases do not develop on them. There are rhizome perennials, in which the leaves remain green after frost, for example, in hellebore, bergenia, and irises. In these plants, the ground part cannot be cut off completely in autumn, since wintering greens in spring are necessary for plants to develop in spring, and it will also decorate flower beds while all other plants have not yet woken up from hibernation.
Preparing perennial flowers for winter consists of several stages. First, pruning of perennials is done as necessary, then treatment with fungicidal preparations, to prevent the appearance of fungal diseases, mold and rot, and at the end, the plants are warmed by mulching or installing a shelter. Read more about the most popular perennial flowers and their preparation for winter.
Photos and names of perennial garden flowers in alphabetical order:
Aquilegia or catchment delighted us with flowering in summer, and until autumn the plant retained its delicate greenery. After the first frost, the stems and leaves of the plant disappear, in October they are cut off almost to the base, leaving 5-7 cm above the ground.Aquilegia can winter without shelter, but you need to close the bare rhizome due to erosion of the soil after watering, for this the bushes are sprinkled with humus, peat or plain earth.
Astilba brilliant grows without problems in one place for 5-6 years. Young rooted plants can hibernate without shelter; in late autumn, the dried ground part of the plant is cut off and the rhizome is covered from above with peat or humus with a layer of 5 cm.With age, the rhizome of astilbe bulges more and more to the surface of the earth, while the buds of renewal can freeze out. Old plantings of astilba must be additionally covered with dry leaves and foam on top so that the leaves do not get blocked from precipitation.
Perennial asters bloom until late autumn, the bushes of September and October sometimes cover the first snow. These flowers can withstand a short-term cold snap and snow, with a thaw they will continue to bloom until real frosts. When perennial asters for the most part have faded, their stems are cut to the base, leaving hemp 5-10 cm. It is better to cover perennials in dry weather. The rhizome of the plant is covered from above with humus, dry leaves and covered with spruce branches. Perennial asters can overwinter without shelter, however, plants weakened by late flowering will give fewer shoots next year.
Badan decorates a flower garden or alpine slide with leaves all year round. The rhizome of this plant winters well without shelter under a layer of snow. So that the snow does not blow away on a hill with the wind, it is necessary to build barriers in the form of dry branches stuck in like a snow holding fence. For those who want to propagate badan, its seeds are sown before winter, then in the spring they will give amicable shoots.
Heuchera also famous for its beautiful leaves that go under the snow and last until spring. Heuchera leaves cannot be cut off in the fall, then the plant will safely overwinter and quickly grow in spring. Preparing geychera for winter consists in hilling the base of the bush, it is covered with peat, humus. From above, varietal and hybrid plants can be covered with spruce branches, but it is impossible to cover the heuchera with dense material, since without access to air the plant can vanish.
Gelenium blooms in late summer - early autumn and after the inflorescence wilting, the stems of the plant are cut at a height of 5-10 cm.To prepare for winter, the cut bushes are covered with peat or humus so that the renewal buds located close to the surface of the earth do not freeze. In winter, snow is shoveled onto the flower garden, the larger the layer, the less severe frosts are for wintering perennials.
Delphinium it is distinguished by high frost-resistant qualities, it can withstand even winters with temperatures up to -50 degrees, but only under a thick layer of snow. The tall stems of the delphinium are cut at a height of 15-20 cm. Since the stems of the plant are hollow, water can get inside and the base of the plant rots, so the cut is covered with garden pitch or plasticine. If there is no snow, and severe frosts are expected, then the place where delphiniums grow is covered with dry leaves and covered with spruce branches.
Dicenter or flower "broken heart" it completely fades by autumn in a sunny place, but in partial shade beautiful greenery can be preserved, then it is cut off at a height of 5 cm from the base. For the winter, the rhizome of the plant is covered with mulch on the surface of the earth around the bush, with a layer of 5 cm.
Iris flowers (irises) have a tuberous rhizome that spreads over the surface of the earth. The iris rhizome has exceptional cold-resistant qualities, but the spring thaw during the day and frost at night can destroy the plant. Before the first frost, the leaves of irises are cut at a height of 15-20 cm, dead and dry parts are removed so that putrefactive diseases do not appear. Bare rhizomes of irises for the winter are covered with sand, peat or plain earth to a height of 10 cm, leaving the leaves sticking out. It is impossible to cover irises with dry leaves or dry grass, as they will rot and the plants may vanish. To retain snow in an open place, dry branches are laid on the plants. In the spring, when the snow and the topsoil thaws, the shelter is removed and the poured layer is raked so that the iris tubers warm up in the spring sun.
Clematis gardeners love for their luxurious flowering, but not all perennial types of clematis have high winter-hardy qualities and require careful preparation for winter and shelter. Clematis is cut depending on the group. Large-flowered clematis, which bloom on the shoots of last year, are not cut to the ground, leaving stems 1-2 meters long. To prepare for winter, long stems are twisted into a ring, laid on a bed of dry leaves or sawdust, a frame is erected on top, for example, a box is placed and covered with insulating bulk material, for example, the same dry leaves or sawdust, and covered with roofing paper or film on top to protect it from moisture ... It is necessary to carefully mulch the base of the clematis bush with humus or cover it with sawdust.
Small-flowered clematis are usually cut to the ground, their numerous shoots die off after frost, but the rhizome is quite winter-hardy and in the spring gives many new shoots that grow quickly and bloom in early summer. Clematis called "princes" bloom on last year's shoots, but they can winter on a support without shelter.
Daylily - "flower of the intelligent" practically does not require leaving in the fall. You only need to cut off the faded peduncles, and the leaves are removed after they completely turn yellow. The zoned varieties of daylily hibernate without shelter, but exotic hybrids or plants that are not yet fully rooted in autumn are recommended to be covered for the winter, covering them with humus, peat, dry leaves or spruce branches on top. Shelter of perennials should be done when stable cool weather is established on the street, otherwise, during warming, the materials for the shelter and the plants themselves may begin to rot, mold will form, which will continue to develop in early spring.
Pion well preserved in winter under a thick layer of snow. After the first frosts in October - November, the peony stems are cut at a height of 5 cm, by which time the rhizome has already accumulated enough nutrients for growth in spring. After pruning, the peony bush is covered with humus or peat to a height of 10 cm, while there is no snow, this shelter will protect the renewal buds on the rhizome from the first frosts. In the spring, most of the mulch is raked away from the bush.
Roses not as sissy as many think. Roses can bloom even at freezing temperatures, you should not rush to cover them, since under the insulation the shoots can begin to become moldy. Roses are cut and covered for the winter not earlier than the second half of October. Roses from the hybrid tea group are pruned, leaving branches with 1-2 buds from the ground, floribunda and polyanthus roses are pruned above 4-6 buds, and the shoots of weaving roses must be completely preserved. Hybrid tea roses with short pruning are easier to cover, the base of the bushes is covered with earth, while the top layer of the soil should already be frozen so that the root collar does not rot. From above, the plant is covered with sawdust, shavings, and from above, close it with a bucket or box to protect it from moisture. Above roses with high pruning, you have to build a frame, bend the shoots as much as possible to the ground, and wrap them with roofing paper. Climbing roses are removed from the support, laid on a mat, covered with insulation and covered with acrylic in several layers.
Rudbeckia "golden flower" bright and unpretentious perennial. In the fall, before the very frosts, cut the stems of the plant under the root, cover it with compost or earth on top.
Perennial phlox require minimal preparation for winter, the stems of the paniculate phlox are cut to the ground, and a bucket of humus is poured onto the bush to protect the rhizome from frost while there is no snow.
Luxurious hosta leaves will wither after the first frost, they should be removed. To warm the rhizomes, the hosts mulch the bush around with humus, peat, and cover it with spruce branches on top.
Hardy enough varieties korean chrysanthemums, they can survive extreme cold with minimal shelter in the garden. Many garden chrysanthemums bloom until late autumn, but you do not need to wait for severe frosts, it is better to cut the flowers and put them in a vase, they will delight you in the house for a long time, and prepare the plants for winter. The stalks of chrysanthemums are cut at a height of 10 cm and mulched with peat or compost.
Caring for lilies in the fall and preparing for winter - the main steps
Pre-winter preparation of lilies begins long before the onset of the first frost.
When caring for lilies in the fall and preparing for winter, you need to perform several activities:
- Cutting flowers is a two-step process.
- Weeding a flower garden and cleaning up broken stems, fallen leaves and old mulching material from the flower bed.
- Preventive treatment of flower beds and soil from fungal infections.
- Feeding plants with complex mineral fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium.
- Covering beds or digging up lily bulbs and storing them properly until spring planting.
If necessary, it is during the pre-winter preparation that the lily bulbs can be divided, propagated or transplanted to another place.
After finishing flowering and cutting off the remaining flowers, you need to completely stop watering the lily. This protects the plant from pathogens of fungal diseases, helps the bulbs to "gain" strength and plunge into a state of dormancy.
At the same time, you need to feed the lilies. Depending on the region, this can be done in the last days of August or the first decade of September. First, the beds should be weeded and loosened, after which fertilizers should be applied - potassium sulfate, superphosphate, granular or complex mineral fertilizers for bulbous crops.
Top dressing should contain potassium and phosphorus. From organic matter, ash can be used. The last time the fertilizer is applied is before the flowers are covered. For this purpose, it is better to use compost, humus or dry organic fertilizing.
Autumn pruning of lilies
In preparation for winter, pruning of lilies is carried out in several stages. After the end of flowering, the seed boxes are cut. This contributes to better maturation of the bulbs and the strengthening of the plant.
Pre-winter pruning of lilies is carried out before the first frost, at the end of September or in the first days of October, when the stems and foliage will fade and wither. Drying of the green part of the plant indicates that the formation of the bulbs is over and they can be prepared for wintering.
How to prune a lily:
- a sharp knife or garden pruner is used to trim dry stems
- cut shoots at a height of 12-16 cm from the ground
- it is advisable to cut the stem at an angle of 45 °.
Withered and withered leaves and stems of lilies should not be left without pruning until spring, even if the plant hibernates in the open field.
Left foliage and shoots often become a source of fusarium and other dangerous diseases. In addition, uncut leaves and stems are an excellent wintering place for insect pests.
Loosening the flower bed and shelter
Flower beds should be cleaned of residues of plant debris, used mulch, fallen leaves and rinsed. It is advisable to weed the flower beds twice - immediately after cutting and immediately before the flowers are sheltered.
The use of shelters depends on the type of lily. It is enough to mulch Asian species with a dense layer of sawdust, pine needles or peat. Before this, the plants are fed with compost or rotted humus.
Varieties with low frost resistance are insulated with agrofibre or spruce branches. For reliable protection from frost, lilies are covered with a layer of pine or spruce branches, and on top they are insulated with spunbond or other non-woven material.
Do I need to dig lilies for the winter
Whether it is necessary to dig up lilies for the winter depends on their variety and the climatic characteristics of the region. Some types of flowers even tolerate frosts down to -20 ° C. But when growing a flower in the Urals, Siberia or the northwestern part of the country, you cannot do without digging out the bulbs.
You need to dig up lilies, which are characterized by low frost resistance and rare, exotic varieties. Also, this method of wintering is preferable for flowers grown in lowlands and often flooded areas. Their bulbs absorb excess moisture and the slightest frost leads to the death of the lily.
The dug out bulbs must be placed in boxes with a mixture of sawdust and peat. A cool room with an air temperature of +7 to + 10 ° C and a humidity of no higher than 70% is suitable for wintering lilies.
Taking care of your garden flowers before winter is very important. With proper care for lilies in the fall and preparation for winter, existing plants can be preserved and strengthened. At the same time, get a lot of new, healthy and blooming lilies for the next season.
During digging, all the material must be laid out by varieties in separate containers and supplied with tags, and the children must be immediately separated from the mother's tubers..
Bulbs are chosen for winter storage:
- healthy, without traces of damage from diseases or insect pests
- not older than four years
- rounded, in which the height approximately corresponds to the diameter
- the largest babies with intact covering scales.
At the same time, sick, old and flat with an excessively large bottom, as well as suspicious specimens, are rejected.
All plant residues (excess and discarded bulbs, leaves, etc.) I prefer to burn immediately.
Tips for florists
The following tips from experienced flower growers will help preserve material until spring planting without loss:
- Tubers will not lose much moisture and will not be damaged by diseases if they are dipped in warm paraffin and then cooled in water.
- For better preservation, each bulb can be wrapped in paper, and only then put into boxes.
- To prevent the bulbs from drying out and becoming moldy in winter, add a few cloves of garlic to the box with them, or sprinkle them with wood ash.
- You don't have to try to preserve all the bulbs. Poor-quality material will not germinate, moreover, it will infect healthy specimens with diseases.
- Be sure to label the boxes, indicating the type and color, as before spring all the bulbs will become similar, and it will be difficult to know where which variety is.
- If the tubers are too dry by spring, just soak them in water for a couple of hours before planting.
We hope that these recommendations will help you save valuable specimens of luxurious flowers, and when winter is over, you can plant them again in the flower bed.