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Autumn processing of grapes: we protect vines from diseases and pests

 Autumn processing of grapes: we protect vines from diseases and pests


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Grapes are deservedly considered a plant demanding agricultural technology and cultivation conditions. Even vines that are properly cared for can suffer from diseases and pests. To avoid such problems, preventive treatments are needed not only in spring, but also in autumn.

Why grapes in the fall need treatment from diseases and pests and when is it better to do it

In autumn, the activity of pests drops sharply. And this is the best time for preventive treatment of vines. The harvest has already been harvested, you can safely use the most "killer" chemistry for your own health and quality of berries. Autumn spraying will help destroy the spores of pathogenic fungi, eggs, larvae and adult pests that successfully overwinter in cracks in the bark, under kidney scales and in plant debris, if treatment is neglected.

Caring for grapes after harvesting does not end at all - the vines must be properly prepared for winter and provide them with protection from diseases, pests

If there are signs of disease and pest damage, spraying is carried out shortly after harvest and then repeated when the vines have shed their foliage. The exact time depends on the grape variety. Healthy vines are processed only after leaf fall. You must first trim.

The timing of spraying against diseases and pests depends on the ripening time of the grapes and the state of the vine in the current season.

Bordeaux liquid and copper sulfate (the most "concentrated" remedies) are used only on plants that have already fallen into hibernation and whose buds have closed. Otherwise, they can get burned and die.

If applied too early, unclosed grape buds can be severely damaged by the chemicals.

Video: why spray grapes with drugs for diseases and pests in the fall

The vineyard is processed according to the following scheme:

  1. 7-10 days after harvest, vines that have been infested with fungi or attacked by pests this year are sprayed with a fungicide, a suitable insecticide or acaricide. If the grapes need treatment against both diseases and pests, they are not combined, maintaining an interval of 10-12 days. The first processing is carried out in September. When choosing a drug, consider whether it will harm unclosed kidneys.
  2. The second treatment with fungicides is carried out after about 20-25 days, after the leaf fall. Healthy vines are sprayed at the same time to prevent the development of fungi. This is the only procedure for them. An uninfected plant has enough fungicides of biological origin or folk remedies; there is no need to use "heavy" chemicals. The interval between treatments for fungi and insects is the same - 10-12 days.

Preparations used for autumn spraying

The vineyard can be treated with chemicals, and preparations of biological origin, and folk remedies. The former are considered "heavy artillery" and give almost guaranteed results. But here you need to be especially careful when preparing the solution. Biologics are used if symptoms characteristic of a disease or pest attack are noticed at an early stage. In advanced cases, they will not give an effect. Folk remedies are used only for prophylaxis, and they are not able to fully guarantee the vineyard protection against the development of fungus or insect attacks.

Mildew or downy mildew is a "deadly" disease for grapes; each gardener chooses the method of dealing with it based on the degree of neglect of the problem and the preferred method of farming

Biochemicals and products

"Classic" fungicides for vineyard treatment - Bordeaux liquid and copper sulfate. Any copper-containing preparations are detrimental to pathogenic fungi, including those capable of quickly destroying vines with mildew and mildew. Copper sulfate further increases the cold resistance of plants. But leave ferrous sulfate for spring treatments, it gives the opposite effect, negatively affecting frost resistance.

Oidium or powdery mildew seems to be a harmless coating on the leaves that is easy to wipe off, but this is one of the most dangerous diseases for grapes.

A working solution of copper sulfate is prepared by pouring the powder into warm (35–40 ° C) water in a ratio of 100 g per 10 l and stirring thoroughly until the crystals dissolve. It turns out a 1% solution. Purchased Bordeaux liquid is also poured into water, but in a ratio of 300 ml per 10 liters (3% solution).

A working solution of copper sulfate is prepared by simply diluting the powder with water; concentration of more than 3% is dangerous for plants

You can cook it yourself:

  1. Pour 300 g of copper sulfate into 1.5–2 liters of boiling water. You cannot use a metal container for this.
  2. In another container, dissolve 400 g of lime in 2-3 liters of hot water. It is also poured into water, and not poured into it.
  3. Stir both solutions, bring the volume of each to 5 liters, adding cold water.
  4. Strain the lime "milk" through a thin nylon cloth or cheesecloth folded in 2-3 layers.
  5. Add a solution of copper sulfate to it in a thin stream, stirring continuously.
  6. Check the pH level of the resulting liquid. It should be neutral or slightly alkaline. A special litmus paper, lowered into the container, turns blue. If it turns red, pour in a little lime "milk" and repeat the test. A folk remedy is a rusty iron nail or wire. In contact with the Bordeaux liquid of the desired concentration, the metal should not turn red.

Preparing Bordeaux liquid on your own, you need to add a solution of copper sulfate to the lime "milk", and in no case vice versa

Other fungicides used to treat the vineyard are bred according to the manufacturer's instructions. The recommended number of sprays and the intervals between them can also be indicated there. Experienced gardeners advise to alternate preparations, using each maximum 2-3 times in a row, so that pathogens do not develop resistance to one or another remedy.

Any copper-containing preparations are used to process the vineyard, including:

  • Ordan;
  • Topaz;
  • Abiga Peak;
  • Strobe;
  • Horus;
  • Acrobat-MC;
  • Oxyhom;
  • Speed;
  • Profit-Gold;
  • Kuprozan;
  • HOM.

Copper preparations are detrimental to pathogenic fungi

Of drugs of biological origin, the following are used:

  • Alirin-B;
  • Maxim;
  • Previkur;
  • Bayleton;
  • Fitosporin.

Preparations of biological origin will not be particularly effective in advanced cases of the development of any disease, including gray rot

Separate processing is necessary to protect the grapes from pests. Against any insects attacking grapes, insecticides of a wide spectrum of action are used. Such preparations are distinguished by their versatility, helping to get rid of the grape aphid (phylloxera), caterpillars of the moth and leafworm, woodworm:

  • Inta-Vir;
  • Tiovit-Jet;
  • Phosbecid;
  • Aktara;
  • Actellik;
  • Cydial;
  • Etaphos;
  • Zolon.

Phyloxera is a pest, which is quite difficult to get rid of, modern drugs will help with this (Fastak, Decis, Alatar, Karate)

Ticks (grape spider and leaf, felt) are not insects. To combat them, special preparations are needed - acaricides:

  • Neoron;
  • Apollo;
  • Omite;
  • Sunmight;
  • Agravertine.

Grape felt mite is not susceptible to folk remedies and does not respond to insecticides

Of the preparations of biological origin against pests, Fitoverm is mainly used. It is an insectoacaricide that is effective against ticks and insects.

Fitoverm is one of the most popular biological preparations among gardeners, which is appreciated by gardeners for its wide spectrum of action.

Folk remedies with which gardeners process vines before winter

For processing the vineyard in the fall, they use:

  • Urea. Its solution "burns" the larvae of any pests, but it is safe for already closed buds and the vine itself. Spraying is carried out directly in front of the shelter. If in the current season damage characteristic of their attacks was observed, 300 g of urea (3% solution of medium strength) is diluted in 10 liters. For prevention, 100 g is enough for the same volume (1% weak solution).

    Urea helps to get rid of any pest larvae about to winter on the vine

  • Iodine. Helps prevent mold infestation. For 10 liters of water, half a teaspoon is enough.

    Gardeners widely use iodine to prevent the development of rot not only on grapes

  • Wood ash. Used for the prevention of mildew. Two liter cans of ash pour 10 liters of boiling water, leave for 3-4 hours. Strain before use.

    The infusion of wood ash is also a source of potassium, magnesium, calcium, which are necessary for vines to properly prepare for winter.

  • Baking soda. Used to prevent powdery mildew and gray mold, helps to get rid of caterpillars. The "bonus" is the improvement of the taste of the grapes. A tablespoon of soda is dissolved in 10 liters of water and the same amount of any vegetable oil is poured in.

    There are a lot of options for using baking soda for other purposes: preventing the appearance of diseases and pests on grapes is only one of them.

  • Potassium permanganate. It is used to protect against fungal infection. For 10 liters of water, take 5 g of powder. And if you add a bag of boric acid, you get a very good top dressing.

    The disinfecting properties of potassium permanganate are well known; gardeners have long adopted it.

Video: what and when to spray grapes in the fall

Description of grape processing technology

For spraying, choose a cloudy, cool day. They spend it early in the morning or in the late afternoon. Lack of sun will help prevent burns. The weather must be dry. After processing, you need at least 4-5 hours without precipitation, so that the solution used is "donkey" and absorbed.

In the process of preparing the solution and processing the vines, be sure to use personal protective equipment that minimizes the risk of chemicals getting on the skin and mucous membranes. Be sure to wear rubber gloves, goggles, a respirator, waterproof shoes, and a hat. Such protective measures seem unnecessary, especially if you choose a drug that is positioned by the manufacturer as safe for human health and the environment. But an allergic reaction can never be ruled out. You can just make a mistake with the dosage of the drug.

Personal protective equipment is essential when working with any chemical

There is nothing complicated in the vineyard processing procedure itself:

  1. Clean the tree-trunk circle of plant debris - discarded foliage, fallen berries, broken branches, weeds. Clean off dirt, moss, lichens from the trunk and shoots. Their presence dramatically reduces the efficiency of processing. Burn everything you collect. Gently loosen the soil in the trunk circle.
  2. Prepare working solution. It is necessary to use a fresh mixture. You cannot store it, even for a short time.
  3. Pour the solution into a special garden sprayer. An adult bush of grapes takes about 1-2 liters. During processing, periodically shake the container so that the used drug does not settle to the bottom. Try to spray the plant as evenly as possible so that the composition lays down in a thin layer, does not run off.
  4. Water the soil in the near-stem circle with the same solution, using up to 2–3 l / m², if such a possibility is provided for in the instructions for the preparation. The selected medium may be unsafe for the soil.
  5. When using "harsh" chemicals, do not touch the grapes for a week.

The technology for treating grapes from diseases and pests throughout the season is identical

After processing, the vines will need to be covered for the winter. Wait for the average daily temperature to reach 2–4 ° C. If you close the grapes too early, the plant “deceived” by the heat will wake up growth buds, which is absolutely unnecessary on the eve of cold weather. When a prolonged thaw sets in in the fall or early winter, open the shelter slightly, preventing the root collar from mating.

A winter shelter for grapes should not be built too early; specific terms are determined for each region individually, taking into account the characteristics of the local climate

Autumn spraying of grapes for the prevention of diseases and pest attacks is a necessary stage in preparing the vines for winter if you want to get a good harvest for next year. Fungicides are used to protect plants from fungal diseases, insecticides and acaricides are used against pests.


The processing of grape bushes to the shelter consists of several stages. The main activities include sanitary and preventive work and feeding.

Pruning

Autumn pruning of grapes is needed for the formation of a bush, the correct ratio of the ground and underground parts, and the removal of diseased shoots.

Pros of pruning in the fall:

  • reduction of the crown for easy shelter
  • stimulation of early bud opening
  • fast healing of wounds.

The main disadvantage of pruning is the high probability of freezing and brittleness of the top of the shortened shoot, but only if the procedure was carried out in late autumn on the eve of frost.

The best time to remove excess shoots on grapes is after the first frost, when the vine matures and the sap flow slows down. Active yellowing and falling foliage indicate the preparation of the plant for the rest period.

Important! Pruning too early will prevent young shoots from ripening, they will dry out or their buds will form late and give a meager harvest. They are also more prone to infections.

The bushes planted this year are not cut off, but only the leaves that have not fallen are removed.

Watering

If in the autumn after harvesting there is no rain or they are insignificant, then water-charging irrigation is carried out. He will provide the vines with water until the next summer and in times of drought. The soil saturated with water does not crack from frost, protects the roots from damage.

The irrigation period for mid-season varieties is mid-October-early November. Late varieties stop watering 30 days before harvest.

Sandy soils require less water but dry out faster. Clayey ones are irrigated less often, but more abundantly, taking into account the depth of groundwater.

Water the plants in the evening, in the pre-prepared basal holes, if there are no irrigation pipes. The water should flow out slowly, without falling on the foliage and stems. The depth of soaking is within 1-1.5 m. In the morning, the dry crust on the ground is loosened, the grooves are sprinkled with earth.

If the shelter of the bushes for the winter is not planned, irrigation is carried out after the foliage has fallen. In the opposite situation, already warmed plants are watered.

Top dressing

By the time the harvest ripens, grapes deplete their nutrient reserves. Autumn feeding with fertilizers based on potassium, phosphorus and trace elements will provide preparation for wintering. Adequate nutrient levels will restore strength for the future growing season and strengthen flower buds.

Treatment against diseases and pests

The autumn destruction of wintering species of pests and pathogens will preserve the health of the bush until spring and during the growing season. Treatment and prophylactic treatment is carried out before the shelter for the winter. Reducing the number of parasites and pathogens by digging the land around the vine bushes.

Shelter

Protecting the grapes from frost is a must. The most vulnerable is the root system, it is insulated especially carefully. If the soil under an unprotected bush freezes to -5 ° C, the risk of plant death will increase significantly. Frostbite on the ground parts of the bush will reduce the quality and quantity of future grapes.

However, the first autumn frosts must be transferred uncovered by the grapes - this will positively affect the frost resistance of the plant. Insulation is carried out at stable negative temperatures: 1-5 ° C frost in the daytime, up to 7 ° C at night.

The most popular grape shelters are:

  • pine or spruce spruce branches
  • straw
  • land
  • roofing material, film, non-woven material.


Pruning

Caring for grapes to prepare for winter begins with pruning. The preparatory stage takes place immediately after harvesting the fruits. The branches are cleaned of fruiting segments, weak shoots and tops that interfere with the development of fruits. Autumn processing of grapes begins in the period of leaf fall.

The first step is to remove young shoots on perennial segments. Choose those that formed at a height of 60 cm and below. The rest of the shoots are removed 2-4 cm from the top. All side stepsons are also cut off.

After a while, the main shoots are chosen, which are left for the winter. A replacement knot is formed in the lower part. To do this, cut off the eyes on the main lower branches, leaving 3-4 pieces.

opposite shoots, located above, are not pruned so much. They are used as a fruit arrow. They leave 6-10 eyes, depending on the diameter.

Only the strongest and most perennial trunks are left in the vineyard. Several buds are left on the sleeves for future fruiting. All branches are removed from the trellis and placed on the ground parallel to the growth of the vine.


When to cover the grapes. When and how to cover grapes for the winter?

Novice growers are hesitant about harboring grapes. These works must be carried out in those areas where frosts are 15 degrees and above. Often gardeners do not know how best to do this. Let's make a reservation right away that not all grape varieties require winter shelter. For example, the old varieties Isabella and Lydia do not need to be insulated. If possible, the vines should be bent to the ground, and they are not afraid of frosts up to 35 degrees.

Less frost-resistant varieties need to be covered. In order for the grape bush to winter well, it needs to prepare for frost. The vine must have time to ripen well. The bushes should not be overloaded with the harvest in the fall, they are introduced in time, watering stops.

The grape vines can withstand much higher frosts than the roots, which freeze out in snowless winters even at 7 degrees below zero. Therefore, it is very important to cover the roots of the vines. Moreover, the land should be taken not next to the bush, but at a distance of at least a meter. Young immature bushes tolerate frosts worse.

Another question that worries many gardeners: when to cover the grapes? Experienced growers advise to carry out these works after the onset of frost at 5-6 degrees, when the vines have time to harden and prepare well for winter. In addition, there is a possibility that small frosts, alternating with rain and thaws, will negatively affect vines that are wrapped too early, which can support them.

If frosts did not come in early November, in the middle of the month the grapes must be covered, since severe frosts are possible at any time. Many gardeners cannot decide how to cover grapes for the winter. It depends on the method you choose.

You can cover grapes in three main ways:

  • hilling
  • partial cover
  • full cover.

In any case, the vine must be treated with agents against diseases and parasites. Young plants are sprinkled. For adult bushes, hilling is done only in the southern regions. The bush is covered with an earthen rampart. There is an easy way to keep grapes out of the cold. How to properly cover? Young bushes are covered with plastic bottles without caps, and then sprinkled with earth on all sides.

Partial shelter does not protect from severe frosts, since only the upper, bent to the ground, part of the crown is covered with earth, the rest is covered with improvised materials. How to completely cover the grapes for the winter? In large agro-industrial farms, the vines are laid in prepared trenches and covered with earth from above. On small household plots, this method is rarely used.

How to properly cover it in suburban conditions? To begin with, we inspect the grape bush, leaving only well-ripened shoots. No more than 10 buds should remain on these shoots, the rest should be removed. We tie the grape bush lightly into a bunch, so it will be easier to lay it.

It is important to exclude contact of the vine with the ground, so we put planks, slate and other material under it. We lay the vine and lightly pin it to the ground. Now a very important point: how to cover the grapes for the winter, what material to choose?

For this purpose, you can use old things: blankets, bedspreads, burlap. Usually in the spring, after use, they are carefully folded and stored until autumn. You need to cover carefully so as not to damage the kidneys. From above, this structure is covered with a film. It is important to leave gaps at the ends of the film so that the grapes do not squeeze.

Then the film is pressed against the soil, bent around by several rods and sprinkled with earth. If it is not possible to bend the vine to the ground, you can simply wrap it up and attach it to the arch. But the roots of the grapes must be covered.

Another good way to solve the question of what to shelter grapes for the winter. Small bushes are covered with dry leaves, and a sheet of slate or boards is placed on top.

Much depends on how the grape bush wintered. If you cover your grapes correctly, they will reward you with a generous harvest in the summer.


Processing sequence

Spraying begins with early grape varieties. It is they who most of all suffer from diseases, weaken faster. And this, in turn, reduces the immunity of plants and there is a risk of plant destruction in winter.

During the autumn spraying of the bushes, keep in mind that only those parts of the plant will be protected that have received a sufficient amount of the chemical agent. Don't forget to spray the underside of leaves and trunks. If the drug gets on the ground, it's not scary. This has its own benefit: disease spores and pests will be destroyed in the ground.

The spraying procedure starts in September. Late ripening grape varieties are processed in early October. After processing, pruning, feeding and covering the vine for the winter are carried out.

Before the last treatment of the vine, the leaves are removed from under the plants, since they may contain insects that are prepared to winter in them.

How to properly spray grapes in front of shelter:


The use of copper sulfate

There is a wide selection of preparations for the treatment of plantings on sale, but copper sulfate is still in high demand. It has pronounced antifungal properties, contains iron in the form that is best absorbed by plants.

Spraying with vitriol is carried out when the bushes begin to turn white and the leaves fall off. If young leaves have just appeared, and the sun is bright enough, it is better not to spray the plant - such treatments will only harm it. The concentration of the solution is selected taking into account the time of year and the age of the bush. Find out about wine grape varieties here.

Copper sulfate is a comprehensive grape care product that protects against pests and nourishes the root system.


Top dressing of grapes after harvest

As the bunches mature, the grape bushes are deprived of nutrients and weaken in the immune plan. They are fed with organic matter with the addition of wood ash or mulch the soil around the trunk with rotten manure or compost. A similar processing of grapes for the winter is carried out every 3-4 years for adult bushes for abundant fruiting. Young seedlings, which immediately received fertilizers upon planting, do not need feeding in the first 3 - 4 years.

With the arrival of September, the grapes are fed. Around the middle of autumn, the following is introduced into the soil:

  • Potassium iodide.
  • Boric acid.
  • Zinc sulfate.
  • Ammonium molybdate.
  • Manganese sulfate.

Fertilizers are applied to a depth of 20 cm. In the second half of November, once every 2-3 years, the plantation is fed with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers. The working mixture for each square meter of the garden is prepared in the ratio of 25 g of superphosphate to 25 g of potassium sulfate.


Watch the video: 2016 V2W 8 Diseases of Wine Grapes


Comments:

  1. Paiton

    Bravo, what the correct words ... another idea

  2. Dogar

    What words necessary ... great, the excellent idea

  3. Tale

    I am sorry, that I interrupt you, would like to offer other decision.



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