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Planting and caring for columnar pears

Planting and caring for columnar pears


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All summer residents want to see a variety of fruit trees in their garden area. But what to do when the territory is small and you need to distribute it as rationally as possible? In this case, columnar trees are an excellent solution.

Description and history of selection of columnar pears

Breeder Kachalkin bred columnar pears. The main differences from other types are:

  • small size;
  • great fertility.

By the way, despite the fact that in all the descriptions it is a dwarf tree, its height in individual cases can reach 2 meters.

Columnar pears are of two types:

  • natural (from seedlings);
  • vaccinated.

The ideal base for grafting is quince, you can also experiment with irga. Basically, with proper care, these pears bloom around the second year after planting or grafting.

The trunk of a columnar pear is larger than that of the fruit trees we are used to. And branches with fruits are along the entire length of the trunk. Excess twigs are removed without difficulty.

Columnar pear varieties

Sapphire... The first fruit bears in 3 years. Fruit can be harvested in September. The fruit is considered elongated and has a greenish-pink hue. Pears, as a rule, are large, the weight of one reaches 250 g. Sapphire does not like frost, so storage in the basement will not suit her. Cultivation in the suburbs is possible.

Carmen... The fruits ripen very quickly and are ready for harvesting in the summer. Ripe pears of bright burgundy color and very large, about 300 g. Sweet.

Tenderness... This variety belongs to the autumn. Fruit weight in the middle, up to 150g. Features: egg-shaped, deep green color. The pulp is juicy and tender, sourish on the palate.

G-2... The fruits ripen at the end of November. Fruits are of a standard pear-like shape and lumpy. The color is green-pink. Pears smell good and are sweet enough.

Decor... Fruiting in late summer, early autumn. The first pears can be obtained in the 2nd year after planting. The fruits are yellow, oval in shape.

D-4. The harvest is brought in 3 years. Autumn grade. Pears are deep yellow; in the sun they can get a pink tint.

Honey. The fruits ripen in summer, by mid-August. The fruits are yellow-green in color. One of the largest, the weight of one pear reaches 400 g. The taste is very sweet and juicy, the pulp with a pleasant light aroma.

The tree is easy to tolerate frost and unpretentious in the place of planting, it grows from almost any soil.

G-3... The variety can be harvested in September-October. Fruits are of normal pear shape, but wide and lumpy. The skin is bright yellow, very juicy. Like honey, large - 400 g. The variety easily survives frosts.

Knight Werth. The first fruits can be obtained 2 years after planting. The pears are large and pink. It survives normally in frosts down to -20 degrees.

Pavlovskaya. Fruits appear in the 2nd year, in October. The fruits are large, sweet and juicy. The peel is thin, yellow-pink in color.

D-5. I ripen in August - September. Outwardly yellow, the weight reaches 250 g, the pulp is sweet and sour and juicy. Disease resistant and frost tolerant.

Sunremy. Fruiting in October-November. The main feature is the delicate and sweet taste of the fruit. They are fragrant and large, weighing more than 400 g. They do not require special care and survive the winters without difficulties.

Advantages and disadvantages

First, consider the advantages of planting columnar pears on the site.

  • Small size. The trees are very compact and do not take up much space, even in the smallest garden.
  • Early maturity... In the second year, after planting, you can get a full-fledged harvest, and not wait 4-5 years as in the case of an ordinary pear.
  • Variety... There are many varieties. Their variety makes it possible to choose exactly the one that will take root and will bear fruit in each, separate region.
  • Transportability of fruits. Due to its small size, all the fruits can be reached with your hands and harvest the entire crop, and not leave the crowns to be eaten by birds.
  • Fertility.

Despite the list of pluses, columnar pears have their own minuses.

  • Short lifespan... With normal care, such a tree can live up to 10 years.
  • Care... It requires more care than a regular pear. You need to be careful about fertilizers and other organic matter.

Landing

Initially, before planting, it is necessary to properly prepare the soil. A large pit is pulled out, up to 80 cm deep and 0.5 m wide. 20 liters of water are poured into it. You have to wait until the liquid is completely absorbed. After that, we add a composition of: potassium sulfate, sand, superphosphate and humus.

We fill half of the hole with this mixture. We put a seedling and cover it with soil. Seal the tree well.

Trees can be planted at a distance of at least 50 cm.

Disembarkation takes place either in April-May, or in September-October. The seedlings require a lot of water immediately after planting. Therefore, you need to water 3-4 times a week. The first fertilization must be carried out even before the leaves appear, each other at an interval of 3 weeks.

The roots of columnar pears are, as a rule, close to the surface, do not forget about this when you work the soil around the tree.

Also, in addition to a seedling, a columnar pear can be obtained by grafting. This method also gives excellent results. The fruits become many times larger and much faster, but the vitality of the tree is spent twice as fast. If you take good care of the grafted tree, then flowering will be in a year, and the first fruits can be obtained in two.

Below we offer you to watch a short video, which says how to plant a columnar pear correctly:

Grooming and pruning

Unfortunately, proper care of seedlings requires both material and time costs. But in 2-3 years all expenses will be compensated by a good harvest.

Do not neglect pruning a columnar pear. If the trees are cut correctly, then in a year they grow by 10-12 cm. And in addition to growing upward, 3-4 new branches grow.

During the first year of pear growth, all the flowers that appear must be plucked out. This is what will enable the tree to take root well.

If in the second year you notice that the tree is well rooted and grows normally, then leave 4-5 fruits on it. Further, increase the number of fruits every year. Keep track of the size and number of fruits annually, because the fruit load for each variety and each individual tree is individual. For example, if last year there were more pears, then the tree is overloaded and the number of fruits must be normalized.

To obtain the expected yield, the trees must be fertilized regularly. It's important to do it at the right time. According to the rule, feeding takes place throughout the spring and summer. It is best to use chicken manure and slurry as fertilizer, urea or saltpeter is also suitable. The first feeding takes place in the spring, after the appearance of the first leaves, the second after a two-week pause, and the third, after 4 weeks, after the first.

Proper preparation for winter is a serious step. Of course, columnar pears are frost-resistant, but young seedlings require additional care. It is necessary to build a protection from scrap materials, make sure that it is dry and that a mouse or any other rodent does not get inside. You can leave needles inside or cover with straw.

Susceptibility to diseases and pests

The main problem for the columnar pear is the fruit gall midge. When it appears, the shoots gradually darken, the ovary dries up and falls off. Umbrella and greenish aphids can also damage the tree. As a result of the appearance of a white scab, a white sediment begins to appear on the leaves. Then they dry up and fall off.

To protect the tree from pests and fungi, special chemical solutions are used, and tobacco, marigolds or ordinary dill are planted near the tree.

Reproduction

The best and easiest option to propagate a columnar pear is to plant ready-made seedlings. Also, it can be grown from seeds or by cuttings. Seeds are rarely used, since the method is time-consuming.

Green cuttings are required for grafting.

  1. Initially, cuttings are cut. They must have more than five sheets.
  2. For a couple of days, the cuttings are impregnated with a root-forming solution.
  3. Sprinkle the stalk with soil.
  4. If it has taken root, it will grow rapidly.

A very popular and easy method for propagating pears is grafting. Gardeners comment that the tree grows much better in this way than in other options. An ordinary pear can act as a stock.

All fruits of columnar pears are distinguished by their special taste and delicate aroma.... They can be stored for a long time, and the tree itself is not afraid of frost. Providing pears with the care they need will result in a good harvest. In addition to their practical properties, columnar pears can be an excellent addition to the design, for example, serve as a hedge or an original decoration.


Pear: planting and care

Many of us from childhood are familiar with the riddle: "Hanging pear - you can't eat." But the pears, which will be discussed in this article, can and should be eaten.


Hanging pear - you need to eat

Pears are not only tasty, but also healthy, and they are also hypoallergenic. Even babies can eat them. Juice, compote, jam, dried fruits are made from pears, harvested for the winter. Therefore, for a long time, she took a worthy place in every third personal plot.


Pear fruit

Let's talk in this article about how to plant and grow a pear and how to care for it.


What are columnar pears?

These are small trees, the height of which reaches 1.5-2 m (sometimes up to 3 m). Column-shaped pears are similar to the same apple trees. In the first years of life, the trees look like small twig trunks on which pears hang. Over time, branching occurs with the formation of a skeleton, which, unlike ordinary trees, is located almost parallel to the trunk.

In a mature state, columnar pears look like columns or poplars known to all. Their lifespan can be quite long (30-50 years). But such trees yield a maximum of 15 years. Moreover, from the 9th year of life, a drop in yield begins, which in industrial gardens becomes the basis for replacing the garden (mature columnar pears are uprooted and young trees are planted). Thus, the maximum lifespan of such gardens is limited to a maximum of 10 years.


Pear columnar - planting and care

The climatic conditions of Moscow and the Moscow region are not very suitable for a columnar pear, but with proper planting and care, it is capable of producing good yields. You should buy seedlings in the nursery, and not from the hands of unknown sellers.

Planting a columnar pear is best done in the spring, but you should not rush it. A protracted spring, if it comes out, should be used to harden the seedlings. During the day they are taken out in the sun, they are hidden in the room at night. Once a week, you need to water the roots of the tree with warm water. When the frost is over, you can begin work on planting a columnar pear in pre-prepared pits. The dimensions of the pit should be as follows: depth - eighty centimeters, diameter of the pit - sixty centimeters. If several trees are to be planted, then the holes should be located at a distance of about 50 centimeters from each other.

A bucket of warm water is poured into the pit, it should be completely absorbed. After that, you can lay a bucket of humus and unsifted sand - two buckets. Separately prepare the soil for backfill. For this, 100 grams of potassium sulfate and 200 grams of superphosphate are poured into the soil taken out of the planting pit. Then everything is thoroughly mixed, and one third of the prepared soil is poured into the pit. In this state, the pit is left for five days. When they run out, the earth must be loosened and a bucket of water must be poured into the hole again.

When the water is absorbed, you need to install a wooden stake, carefully spread the roots of the seedling and place it next to the stake. The remaining soil with fertilizers must be filled up in two stages, trampling down each layer of it. Grooming is best done together. This will make it easier to make sure that the seedling is perpendicular to the ground. On this, the landing of a columnar pear can be considered complete. But you can not do this troublesome business yourself, but contact the Sovereign company. We carry out such work in Moscow and the Moscow region at a professional level. At the same time, the prices for our services are quite affordable.

After planting for a columnar pear, care must be taken. To do this, the roots are insulated for the winter, and the trees themselves are sheltered from the cold with any insulating material, for example, a nylon stocking stuffed with sawdust. This is done so that the flower buds do not freeze through. In the spring, caring for columnar pears is as follows: they are sprayed so that pests do not start, they do pruning, and fertilize is carried out.

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Planting columnar apple trees

When to plant

Columnar apple trees are best planted in early spring, before buds begin to bloom on the trees, but planting is also permissible in warm weather in late September or early October. Colonial apple seedlings are best purchased for annuals - they take root much easier than two-year-olds, grow faster and begin to bear fruit, however, when choosing planting material, make sure that the roots of the seedlings are not dry or rotted. Give preference to planting material in a container - it can be planted in the ground even in summer.

The site for columnar apple trees is chosen open, with free access to sunlight and heat, but protected from strong winds. The soil on the site should be moisture-permeable, fertile, and the occurrence of groundwater should not be higher than 2 meters.

Planting in autumn

If you decide to plant not one or two trees, but a full-fledged apple orchard, place the seedlings in a row at a distance of half a meter from each other, leaving row spacings 1 m wide.Pits for seedlings at least 90x90x90 cm in size must be prepared at least two weeks before planting. otherwise, if you plant trees without preliminary preparation, the root collar may end up underground after precipitation, but this should not be allowed.

When digging holes, discard the fertile soil layer in one direction, and the lower one in the other, so that they do not mix. If you are planting apple trees in heavy soil, be sure to place a drainage layer of sand and gravel at the bottom of the pit. Then add 3-4 buckets of compost or humus, 50-100 g of potassium fertilizer and 100 g of superphosphate to the fertile soil, and if the soil in the area is acidic, also add 100-200 g of dolomite flour, mix well, put the soil mixture in a hole, level and leave for two weeks for the soil to settle and compact.

After half a month, pour the rest of the soil mixture into the hole with a slide, place a seedling on it so that its root collar is just above the surface of the site, straighten its roots, fill the hole with infertile soil from the lower layer, compact the soil and, at a distance of 30 cm from the stem, form around each trees are a circular hole with a roller 10-15 cm high. After planting, pour 1-2 buckets of water into each hole, and when it is absorbed, mulch the near-trunk circle with peat, sawdust or chopped grass.

If you are worried that a gust of wind could break the apple tree, drive a peg near it and tie a tree to it.

How to plant in spring

If you are going to plant columnar apple trees in the spring, it is better to prepare holes for them in the fall - during the winter the soil will settle in them, cakes, fertilizers will dissolve, and the roots of your seedlings will be in fertile nutritious soil, which will allow them to grow quickly and, perhaps, even bloom.Otherwise, the procedure for spring planting of columnar apple trees is no different from the autumn one.


Popular varieties

Among the varieties of columnar fruit trees, the following can be distinguished:

  • "Carmen" is a pear variety with large burgundy fruits. Ripening occurs in the summer.
  • "Sapphire" - refers to the autumn varieties of pears. The fruits are medium-sized and yellow-green in color.
  • Decora is a variety of pears that ripen by the beginning of autumn. Small-sized sandy fruits.
  • "Maluha" is an apple tree with small yellow fruits. Their taste is very sweet.
  • "Currency" - this apple variety has medium-sized fruits, ripens late and has a slight sour taste.
  • Medoc is an apple variety with medium-sized fruits with a characteristic sweet taste. Ripening occurs by mid-summer. The variety perfectly tolerates winter cold.
  • “President” is one of the earliest varieties of apples. Possesses good winter hardiness. Fruits are green in color, reaching medium size.
  • "Blue Sweet" is a plum tree up to two meters high with large purple fruits weighing up to 70 grams.
  • Mirabelle is a rare variety of plums with yellow late-ripening fruits.

Thus, columnar trees are an excellent solution for small garden plots whose owners want a varied and rich fruit harvest.

Columnar fruit trees get their name from the shape of the crown. The crown represents the shape of the aboveground part of the tree, the location of the branches in relation to the trunk. The columnar shape of the tree represents very short skeletal branches, on which there are many shortened shoots - ringlets with a fruit bud. From a distance, flowers and fruits appear to be located on the trunks. Abnormal branch development of a fruit tree has been seen in Canada, the mutation has led to the creation of ornamental and fruit trees in a columnar shape.


Columnar trees. Planting and leaving

Columnar trees are a fairly new trend in amateur gardening, especially relevant for owners of small plots. The columns were created to save space - they grow in height, practically have no crown. Thus, a lot of plants of various breeds can be planted on a plot of modest size.

Now you can easily purchase a columnar apple, pear, sweet cherry, peach and apricot. I advise you to purchase and plant columnar trees if the harvest is not as important to you as the convenience of harvesting it, if you strive for an abundance and variety of crops, you appreciate the aesthetics of the appearance of the site.

It is elementary to distinguish an ordinary tree from a columnar tree by its crown - at the column it looks like a cylinder adjoining the trunk at an equal distance along the entire length of the trunk. Fruit stems on the trunk move away from the main stem and are short twigs that do not have branches.

Planting dates for fruit trees

The apple tree and pear can be planted both in spring and autumn, but cherries, peaches and apricots only in spring - stone fruit crops are more demanding for heat.

Preparing a landing site

When planting seedlings of columnar trees, it is necessary to select a site without depressions, dig it up on a full bayonet of a shovel, properly align and remove all weeds. If you plan to plant seedlings in the spring, then under the autumn digging, you can add rotted manure (3-4 kg per 1 sq. M) or scatter over the surface of wood ash (500-600 g per 1 sq. M).

The place needs to be chosen well warmed up by the sun, so that protection from the north is desirable, for example, a house wall or a fence. It is necessary to retreat from neighboring trees at least 3 m. Leave the distance between the columns no more than 1.5 m.

Planting columnar trees

Planting, as usual, is carried out in the planting holes, their dimensions must be made such that the roots fit freely into the hole. At the bottom, it is advisable to put a drainage from broken brick or expanded clay, then lay out nutrient soil (2-3 kg of a mixture of peat, river sand and humus), then pour a bucket of water, and place a seedling in this slurry, straightening the roots. Next, it remains to install a support peg, tie a seedling to it and you can drop in the roots, compacting the soil well so that there are no voids.

A peg is necessary, since seedlings often break at the root collar. I would not recommend removing it at all. You can make a peg 35-40 cm high, it will not spoil the appearance and will strengthen the seedling well.

When planting, try so that the root collar is not buried and is at the level of the soil. This is especially true for stone fruits - the tree may even die from deepening the root collar. In a pear, the deepening of the root collar is fraught with a strong delay in the onset of fruiting, sometimes the tree does not even bloom - this is one of the main signs that the root collar is deepened.

After planting, it is advisable to carefully compact the soil one more time, then pour a bucket of water and mulch the topsoil with peat or humus. It is especially important to mulch the soil when planting apple and pear trees in the fall, because their roots are located quite close to the soil surface and can freeze if frost hits the soil that is not yet covered with snow.

Columnar tree care

Further care for columnar trees is not difficult and includes standard procedures: feeding, watering, removing weeds, loosening the soil, pruning. But first, I want to give a little advice - do not rush to let your trees bear fruit, let their root system grow well and strengthen in the soil. At the first flowering, leave a few flowers on the plant: 3-4 flowers on an apple tree and a pear, about 10 on stone fruit crops. In the second year of fruiting, double this amount, and only from the third year all flowers can be left.

Fertilizing fruit trees

In the spring, a standard nitroammfoska is used as a top dressing, preferably diluted in water. Consumption - 1 tbsp. l. under the plant. In summer, give 1/2 tbsp. l. superphosphate under the plant, in the fall add 1/2 tbsp. l. potassium salt under the plant.

Watering is needed for fruit columnar trees only in dry periods, when there is no rain for four days. In this case, water the plants in the evening by sprinkling, pouring about 1.5 buckets of water onto the trees.

Removing weeds and loosening the soil - I advise you to combine these two processes. Weeds in the first 3-4 years after planting, try to remove everything, not allowing them to compete with the plant. Remember that when the near-stem strip is well-groomed and the soil on it is loose, then the yields are higher.

Pruning columnar trees

When pruning columnar trees, the medical rule is do no harm. If the plant looks good, bears fruit regularly, does not have broken shoots, then you should not climb to it with a pruner and a saw. In the same case, if a trouble happened, for example, the tops froze, which often happens with stone fruits, and began to branch, trying to turn one trunk into two, or even three, then measures must be taken.

To begin with, at the very end of spring, you need to choose the strongest shoot located as vertically as possible, this will be the continuation of the trunk, all the rest should be cut out, leaving each one with a couple of buds or leaves. Do not forget to remove the upper part of the shoot, on which the kidney is frozen - this part must be cut off before the shoot that you have chosen as the vertical trunk.

In an apple tree and a pear, it happens that lateral shoots begin to grow, they must be pinched at the very beginning of summer, literally 1 cm each.

Columnar trees in winter

In the first year after planting, I strongly recommend covering the columnar fruit trees. Any nonwoven fabric will do. For example, I stuffed old stockings with sawdust and tied them around the trunks - very carefully so as not to damage the kidneys. It is advisable to tie the base with spruce paws - they will accumulate snow and protect from rodents.

As for rodents, by the way, be very careful - they are extremely eager for such trees, they gnaw the bark with ease and quickly.


Watch the video: Growing Apples on Espalier Tree


Comments:

  1. Tad

    Not bad, but we've seen better. ... ...

  2. Doire

    I mean you are wrong. Write to me in PM, we will discuss.

  3. Akinomi

    And how to reformulate?

  4. Torben

    Well, so-so......



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