Cucumbers are affected by diseases or pests, what should I do?
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Have you noticed that cucumber leaves turn yellow, shrivel, wither one by one? Most likely, the plants were attacked by pests or were affected by some kind of disease. Various pests, bacterial, viral and fungal diseases of cucumbers in a greenhouse or outdoors are most often the result of improper plant care.
For example, from excessive moisture on the leaves, stems and fruits of cucumbers, powdery mildew, anthracnose, white rot may appear, and root rot will develop on the roots. At low humidity, spider mites multiply rapidly. From weeds to cucumbers, melon aphids are transferred. And if you do not change the soil before sowing seeds, various fungi and viruses will overwinter in plant remains and then the fight against diseases of cucumbers will not give any result.
Most problems can be avoided by following basic rules for growing cucumbers:
- carry out disinfecting treatment of seeds before sowing;
- observe crop rotation with other vegetables and change the soil;
- maintain an optimal humidity level (in the greenhouse about 80%), from time to time airing the room with plants;
- avoid sudden changes in daily temperatures;
- pour warm water;
- weed weeds as they appear;
- feed the cucumbers with fertilizers.
The most common pests of cucumbers
When growing cucumbers in greenhouses and greenhouses, you can often observe how white or light yellow dots appear on the leaves, and then the leaves are completely covered with spots and, turning yellow, dry out. There is no doubt - he settled on your plants spider mite... A tick on cucumbers is quite common, it braids the leaves from below with a barely noticeable cobweb, pierces the skin of the leaf and drinks the sap of the plants. It is difficult to notice him with the naked eye, since his body is only half a millimeter in size.
When growing cucumbers in greenhouses and greenhouses, you can often observe how white or light yellow dots appear on the leaves.
To combat spider mites, collect the affected leaves in a bucket and burn them or bury them deeper in the ground. During the growing season, it is necessary to carry out several treatments of plants with different insecticides ("Phosbecid", "Agravertin", "Fitoferm", etc.). You can spray plants with "Karbofos", especially pay attention to the lower part of the leaves. To prevent spider mites from appearing on cucumbers, it is recommended to plant seedlings early and constantly destroy the weeds around the cucumbers.
Video about diseases and pests of cucumbers
Cucumbers, along with pumpkins and zucchini, amazes melon aphid - a small insect (up to 2 mm), with a color ranging from yellow to dark green. Aphids, like ticks, settle on the lower part of the leaves, as well as on flowers, ovaries and shoots, causing twisting and drying of parts of the plant. Since aphids and their larvae overwinter in plant debris, switching from weeds to vegetable crops, first of all, it is necessary to ensure timely weed control. You can also collect ladybugs hibernating under rotten foliage and put them in a greenhouse.
Cucumbers, along with pumpkins and zucchini, are affected by melon aphids
Also found on cucumbers and tomatoes greenhouse whitefly, sucking juice from the leaves, thereby damaging them. On the sugary secretions left by the whitefly, sooty fungi are formed, as a result, the leaves turn black and dry. Regular weed control and covering the vents and doors with gauze in one layer will help prevent the appearance of whitefly. Spray the affected plants with clean water, washing additionally the lower part of the leaves, where a large number of whiteflies most often accumulates. After flushing the pests, loosen the soil a couple of centimeters.
Diseases of cucumbers, their manifestation and methods of struggle
Cucumbers are most often subject to fungal diseases, which can persist from year to year in plant debris and quickly spread to plants when the air humidity rises. Therefore, for the prevention of diseases, it is especially important to observe all the above rules for caring for cucumbers.
Video about protection against diseases and pests of cucumbers
The most common diseases of cucumbers:
- Gray rot... Large gray or brown spots form in the axils of the leaves and in the places of branching on the stem, and on the fruits - a gray fluffy bloom. Many male flowers appear, barren flowers rot, thus affecting healthy stems. The affected areas are sprinkled with ash, the plants are ventilated, watering is temporarily suspended. If the disease progresses, the damaged areas are removed and burned. It is recommended to grow self-pollinated cucumber varieties and avoid thickened sowing.
- Powdery mildew... Appears on leaves and stems in the form of whitish or reddish spots. The affected parts of the plant are powdered with wood ash or removed altogether. You can spray the cucumbers on all sides with a solution of mullein or colloidal sulfur.
- White rot... Roots, leaves, petioles, stems and fruits are covered with white mycelium, become slimy, and rot. Remove damaged parts or sprinkle with fluffy lime. The spread of the disease is facilitated by excessive moisture in the soil and air, poor ventilation, and thickening of the plantings.
- Root rot... At the beginning of fruiting, separate brown spots are formed near the roots of cucumbers, which subsequently merge into one large spot. As a result, the stem rots, the roots die off. The disease develops intensively with temperature extremes and high humidity. Sore spots should be dried, powdered with ash or chalk, water only the soil around the plant. The dead plants must be dug up together with a lump of earth and burned, and the hole must be treated with copper sulfate. To prevent root rot, it is necessary to disinfect the soil.
- Ordinary mosaic... Light green and dark green spots that appear on the leaves, making it corrugated. Mosaic discolouration and bumps can also appear on the fruit. The infection spreads through weeds and infected seeds, so only treated seeds should be used for sowing, preferably purchased ones, and not your own. Remove diseased plants, and disinfect the inventory in a solution of bleach or potassium permanganate.
- Olive spot of cucumbers... Brown ulcers appear on the fruits, from which liquid is released. Disease occurs as a result of watering the plant with completely cold water, from drafts and due to high humidity. The causative agents of the disease persist in affected fruits and plant waste. If olive spot is found, stop watering cucumbers for 5 days, spray the plants and fruits with Oxyhom or Bordeaux liquid (1% solution). It is recommended to choose the varieties that are most resistant to this disease.
Olive spot of cucumbers
You can see what the most common diseases of cucumbers look like in pictures by opening the tab with photos. Identifying symptoms in a timely manner will help prevent disease or pests from spreading to healthy plants and preserve your harvest.
Diseases of cucumbers and their pests in the greenhouse
Many people think that a greenhouse is a “shelter” for plants that can protect them from diseases and pests, but this is not entirely true. Plants get sick in greenhouses too. Today we will talk about cucumbers. Most often, cucumbers are affected by the following diseases: powdery mildew, peronosporosis, white or gray rot. Insects that also prevent cucumbers from growing calmly are aphids or the same spider mite. So how do you deal with all these diseases and pests?
Pests and the fight against them
There are a large number of insects that mercilessly damage the berries and bushes of the garden strawberry. Prevention from them must be carried out during the growing season - before the plant blooms and after the last harvest. We advise all gardeners to familiarize themselves with our material Proven folk recipes for harmful insects.
Small worms 0.5-1 mm long. The signs of the appearance of this pest are twisted young leaves and deformed, shortened cuttings. The plant itself becomes fragile and brittle. It can also be manifested by thickening and proliferation of stems, internodes ("cauliflower").
Plants affected by a nematode practically do not bear fruit, and if there are berries, then they are deformed and small. This is an extremely dangerous pest, as it multiplies very quickly.
Garden strawberries affected by a nematode. Photo from the site pizzburg-city.ru
It is necessary to fight the strawberry nematode first of all prophylactically: select only healthy seedlings for planting, immediately before planting it must be abundantly moistened with hot (about + 46 ° C) water for 10 minutes, and then immediately with the coldest water possible - 15 minutes.
To plant garden strawberries in the old place where they have already grown, you should not earlier than after 7 years, since pests live in the ground for a long time. The bushes are surrounded by grooves filled with lime.
Plants, even with the first signs of damage, must be immediately dug up and burned.
One of the most dangerous pests. In winter, ticks live at the base of leaf petioles, and from early spring, females begin to lay eggs on leaves that have not yet unfolded, simultaneously sucking out cell sap from them. The leaves become wrinkled and oily, and the berries become very small.
Defeat of strawberries with a garden mite. Photo from the site plodovie.ru
If you do not fight the strawberry mite, it will spread throughout the plantation and completely destroy the plants. To combat the pest, plants must be disinfected before planting by warming up in hot (about + 46 ° C) water for 15 minutes and rinsing for the next 15 minutes in cold water. Dry for several hours in a dark room.
Already infected bushes in the spring, after the appearance of green leaves, are treated with colloidal sulfur or "Karbofos". Approximately 10 days before the strawberries bloom, a second treatment is carried out using the "Neoron" preparation. If strawberries are severely affected by a tick, the plants must be removed from the site.
This pest entangles the leaves of strawberries with a garden web, from which they begin to turn yellow and dry out. The most effective method of dealing with spider mites is spraying strawberry bushes with Karbofos solution.
Spider mite on strawberries. Photo from the site fotootcheti.blogspot.ru
Spraying should be carried out after the last collection of berries. After spraying, the plantation is tightly covered with a film, which can be removed after 3 hours. Using the same method, you can successfully control whiteflies, weevils and strawberry beetles.
If more than 80% of the plant is damaged by a spider mite, after the last collection of berries they must be mowed. This must be done until about mid-August, so that the bushes have time to form a rosette of leaves before the onset of cold weather.
Garlic is useful to combat aphids: peel a few heads and, pouring 3 liters of water into them (as cold as possible), leave for about a week. With a prepared garlic solution, using a spray bottle, you need to treat bushes with aphids.
Aphids on garden strawberries. Photo from profermu.com
On our site you can learn about other folk methods of dealing with aphids.
To prevent wasps from feasting on your strawberry, place jars of sweet compote around the garden bed, this will distract insects. In general, there are many ways to scare or destroy wasps: see our publication How to get rid of wasps in the country.
It is harmless birds that can rob you of your strawberry harvest. To prevent this, even before the berries ripen, lay glass red balls around the bushes, which are used in interior design. The balls will reflect light well, so the birds will try to peck them first - it is unlikely that the balls will be to the taste of the birds.
Cineraria planting and care in the open field watering reproduction
The genus Cineraria belongs to the Astrov family and includes about fifty species. It is widely used in horticulture, where it is divided into two groups - deciduous, usually grown in the garden, and flowering, more often grown indoors. Although these plants are perennials, in our climate they are cultivated as annuals.
Cineraria species and varieties
Cineraria seaside also there are names sea, silver or silvery... Ornamental-deciduous plant, forming a bush of green foliage of a pronounced silvery shade.
There are several varieties that differ in the size of the bush or the shape of the foliage:
Cineraria hybrid or bloody... A bushy species prized primarily for flowers. It has long foliage that emphasizes flowers well. More often than other species, it is grown indoors.
Cineraria graceful shoots of this species have a high degree of branching and reach a height of 50-60 cm. Flowers, collected in inflorescences, can be either simple or double. Blooms in autumn until the coldest days. Also has a dwarf variety 30 cm in height.
Cineraria growing from seeds
Often, flower growers, wanting to grow cineraria, acquire exactly seed material. And this is a completely justified step, because the seeds of this plant have a high germination capacity. Sowing is carried out in the middle of spring in seedlings.
The seeds are scattered on the surface of the sand mixed with peat in a one-to-one ratio, and pressed a little into the substrate. After that, the soil is sprayed with a spray bottle and the pot is covered with glass or foil.
The sowing container is kept under diffused lighting, from time to time airing and spraying the soil.
Seedlings appear within 7-10 days after sowing. When this happens, the glass is removed. With the formation of a pair of true leaves, the sprouts dive into the peat pots, the transplant should be carried out together with an earthen lump.
Cineraria planting and care in the open field
Young plants are planted in open ground at the end of spring, when the threat of night frosts disappears. For planting, you should select well-lit places, but it is desirable that the plants are protected from the midday sun. The soil must be drainable, neutral to slightly alkaline, and nutritious.
Planting in open soil does not differ from that of other plants. The holes are placed about 20 cm one from one, the transplant is carried out together with an earthen lump, which is why it was advised to dive into peat pots. After planting, the site is slightly crushed and watering is carried out.
Caring for cineraria requires almost no effort. As a rule, natural precipitation is enough for it, in addition, this plant normally tolerates droughts.
If there is a lot of heat outside and there has been no rain for a long time, then in the evening after sunset or in the morning, you should still carry out infrequent watering, and then (or after rain) loosen the soil and get rid of weeds.
Fertilizer for cineraria
Once every 15 days, top dressing should be applied in the form of a complete mineral fertilizer. Decorative flowering species during the development of buds are fertilized once every 7 days, alternating organic matter and mineral fertilizing.
Flowers that begin to wilt are immediately cut off so that the total flowering period is longer.In species grown for decorative foliage, the buds are pruned as soon as they appear.
Since in our climatic zone this plant is cultivated as an annual, then with the end of flowering, the bushes are destroyed, and the site is dug up.
Cineraria in winter
Ornamental deciduous species can be tried to be preserved by covering them with dry foliage for the winter. But this does not guarantee that the flower will survive - it all depends on the severity of winter.
In the spring, the shelter is removed and the parts affected by frost are cut off. Also, in the fall, plants can be dug up and planted in pots, leaving them in a bright place with a cool temperature for the winter, and replanting the bushes in the garden again in the spring. In general, these are all wishes for the care of cineraria.
Cineraria propagation by cuttings
Seed propagation is the only way to obtain new plants for decorative flowering forms. Ornamental deciduous species can be propagated vegetatively by cuttings.
Cuttings 10 cm long are cut in the summer. To plant them, you need to take a container with drainage holes, fill it 10 cm with garden soil mixed with sand, and then another 5 cm with coarse river sand. After that, the soil is spilled with a solution of potassium permanganate.
The cuttings are treated with a rooting enhancer and their substrate is stuck in, and then covered with a plastic bottle to create a greenhouse effect. Watering is carried out every couple of days if the soil dries up.
When the material takes root, you will need to start removing the bottle for a couple of hours every day so that the young plants adapt to the new conditions. It will be possible to completely remove the bottles when you see fit, observing your plants, but it is preferable to do this on a gloomy day.
It will be possible to plant cineraria in the garden only next year in the spring, and in winter it should be kept in good lighting and cool temperatures.
Diseases and pests
Among the diseases, cineraria is most often affected by fungi - rust and powdery mildew... This most often occurs in high heat and high humidity.
Rust manifests itself red spots on foliage and shoots, and powdery mildew forms white bloom on the leaves.
Fighting diseases is difficult because of the villi on the foliage, so it is better to avoid high humidity and stagnant water in the area than to try to get rid of diseases later. If the fungus does appear, then the diseased parts need to be cut off and the plants treated with fungicides, for example, Bordeaux liquid.
Pests that are highly likely to attack cineraria are spider mite and aphid... They appear most often in hot weather and feed on plant juices.
It is inconvenient to wash the cineraria bushes with warm water, therefore they often simply resort to insecticides - actellik or phytoverm. Please note that actellic is very toxic and you need to be careful when treating plants with it.
In addition to chemicals against pests, infusions of tobacco, onion peels or garlic can be used.
Most often, a lack of moisture appears as a result of improper watering. Watering should be done regularly, not occasionally. Watering tomatoes during the day is also unacceptable. They need to be watered either early in the morning or in the evening. The water for irrigation should be slightly warmer than the ambient temperature.
What to do with plant diseases: remedies
Physical measures in the fight against bacteria, viruses and pests are based primarily on the use of high and low temperatures, high frequency currents and changes in environmental humidity. To combat numerous pests, exposure to low temperatures (from -10 to -15 ° C) is often carried out. Unfavorable conditions for pests can be created by changing the humidity regime.
The principle of mechanical methods of insect control is the use of traps, the creation of various barriers, glue and rag rings, which are attached to the tree trunk to protect the crown from the spread of insects from the lower parts of the trunk. To combat the codling moth, trapping belts made of thick paper and burlap are often applied to tree trunks. Mechanical methods include shaking off, manually collecting and killing insects, collecting larvae, pupae, and winter nests.
Mechanical measures are laborious, but with their timely and correct application, it is possible to completely abandon the use of chemical plant protection products.
Pests and diseases
How to deal with the enemies of our plants
Comprehensive garden protection from spring to harvest
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Experienced summer residents know that the real struggle for the harvest does not start when you throw the seed into the ground. When the weeds "lift their heads", the first signs of plant diseases and "pranks" of pests appear, the gardening season begins in earnest. And how hurtful it is that flowers or vegetables planted with such love suffer from aphids or die from the subversive actions of a mole. Our heading on pests and diseases of the garden and garden will help you arm yourself with theoretical knowledge about all the enemies of plants that can be found in the beds or in the garden. You will also receive practical advice on how to deal with them.
Today, organic farming methods are gaining popularity in pest control. Against weeds - mulch and high beds, against insect pests - the correct neighborhood of plants, against diseases - crop rotation. You will find a lot of materials on how to deal with pests and diseases using organic farming methods in this section. But no one has yet canceled the traditional agrotechnical methods to get rid of the enemies of plants, and they are successfully used both in private farms and on an industrial scale. We will tell you which chemicals can be safely used in the fight against diseases and pests, and which ones are better to refuse. And most importantly, our section contains articles on the prevention of plant diseases. Indeed, as in the case of humans, plant diseases are easier to prevent than to cure. It is very important for us to learn about your experience of fighting enemies in the garden and vegetable garden. Tell us on our Forum what methods you use for this. Perhaps this information will help someone a lot.