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Annonovs

Annonovs


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Azimina (lat. Asimina), or pau-pau, is a genus of flowering plants of the Annonovye family, which includes 8 species that are common, for the most part, in the nature of the United States. Azimina is also called a banana tree or American papaya (pau-pau), since the fruits of all three plants have some similarities with each other. For the sake of these edible fruits, the species of triloba azimine (Asimina triloba), introduced into cultivation in 1736, is grown in the gardens. It is grown in regions with warm climates, such as Italy, France, Japan and Spain.


Rodent feeding

A vegetable garden is an ideal habitat for an animal. Here the mole rat won't stay hungry. The animals eat monotonously. The daily menu includes: roots, tubers, bulbs of vegetables and flowers. The stems of succulent root crops are eaten. Compositae and legumes are preferred. Grasping the root, the mole rats drag the plant into the hole and start dinner.

In summer, the rodent eats at least 0.7 kg of food daily. Prepares carefully for winter: the weight of the stock is more than 0.1 centners. The roots are gnawed into fragments, stacked in stacks, the bulbs are stored intact. In the pantry, the mole rat hides up to 15 kg of potatoes, 12 - 14 kg of other vegetables. By making supplies, a family of rodents causes great damage to gardeners.


The dynamics of the flora of the city [edit | edit code]

The city is a highly dynamic system over time, the change of which is associated with various economic and social factors. The vegetation cover, as an element of the urban environment, is directly or indirectly influenced by all these factors and phenomena. There is a decrease in the number and disappearance of some species, the appearance, an increase in the occurrence of others.

Extinct species of flora. For about 150 years of observation, 104 plant species disappeared from the city [16]. Some species that have disappeared from natural habitats are currently cultivated or found as accidentally introduced in anthropogenic habitats.

Comparison of the spectrum of flora and the spectrum of extinct species shows that among the extinct species there is a noticeable excess of the share of spore plants (mainly due to representatives Ophioglossopsida and Lycopodiopsida) and a slight excess of the share Liliopsida, that is, there is a steady downward trend in the species of these particular taxonomic groups. Among the extinct species, there are no representatives of conifers.

Extinct plant species (IR) belong to 39 families. Among them, species of families prevail Ranunculaceae, Orchidaceae, Cyperaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Poaceae... According to the ratio of the number of IRs to the number of species in a given family, more than a third of species have lost their families Ericaceae, Orchidaceae, Gentianaceae, Botrychiaceae, Lycopodiaceae other. Some single-species families from the modern flora of the city have completely disappeared (Orobanchaceae, Ophioglossaceae, Elatinaceae).

Among the extinct plants, perennial herbaceous plants prevail (65%) and woody plants are completely absent.

About 70% of the extinct species are native plants. Among them, the largest share of species confined to habitats with excessive moisture - marsh, marsh-forest, meadow-marsh, aquatic and coastal (more than a third of species). Among the extinct forest forests, forest-edged and coniferous forest species prevail. Depletion of native flora occurs, first of all, due to ecologically specialized species and plants of “borderline”, successionally unstable communities. The share of adventive plants is 30% of the number of extinct species.

Some of the extinct plants are among the declining or very rare in the Moscow region and other regions (Coeloglossum viride, Cypripedium guttatum, Diplazium sibiricum, Gladiolus imbricatus, Hottonia palustris, Liparis loeselii, Orchis militaris, Pulsatilla patens other). Most of the extinct adventive species are known from single finds. Later, they were not found in Moscow oblast. (Anagallis foemina, Avena strigosa, Centaurea trichocephala, Chaerophyllum hirsutum, Meniocus linifolius, Onosma tinctoria, Sherardia arvensis, Stipagrostis plumosa).

Increase in the number of flora species. Along with the process of extinction of species, an opposite process is taking place - its enrichment due to adventive plant species. This process is most pronounced precisely in highly urbanized areas. Within Moscow, the adventive component of the flora has been insufficiently studied in the past. For these reasons, its quantitative growth can only be estimated approximately. In about 70 years, about 200- (250) species of xenophytes and about 150- (190) ergasiophytes appeared.

Among the plants that appeared at about the beginning of the 20th century or at a later time, the number of adventive species that increased their occurrence, the abundance is about 40 (50) species. Among them, xenophytes (Artemisia umbrosa, Atriplex oblongifolia, Bidens frondosa, Diplotaxis muralis, Geum macrophyllum, Lactuca tatarica, Lepidium densiflorum, Oenothera rubricaulis and etc.). The proportion of ergasiophytes is slightly lower (Echinocystis lobata, Festuca arundinacea, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Helianthus subcanescens, Solidago serotinoides, Symphytum caucasicum, Veronica filiformis and etc.). However, the diversity of habitats in which species are found, on the contrary, is, on average, higher in ergasiophytes.



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