Zamia: home care, reproduction and transplantation, types and photos
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Houseplants Published: 08 November 2011 Reprinted: Last edits:
Genus zamia (lat.Zamia) belongs to the Zamiev family and has 26 species. The name of this kind comes from the word in Latin, which means loss, damage. It grows on the shores of subtropical and tropical rivers - from Para in Brazil to Florida in the United States and Cuba.
The genus is represented by evergreen low plants. The trunk is smooth and low, located underground, usually elongated tuberous. Leaves grow thin one after another, feathery. There are several thorns on the petiole, but it is often smooth. The leaves are lanceolate or oval, at the base they are divided into two lobes, dense and hard, with smooth or jagged edges; sometimes the veins on the underside of the leaflet stand out strongly on the leaves.
Zamia is a very popular genus in indoor floriculture. Most often you can find zamia furfuracea, outwardly similar to a palm tree.
Briefly about growing
- Bloom: grown as an evergreen ornamental deciduous plant.
- Lighting: bright light with shading at midday.
- Temperature: from spring to autumn - 25-28 ºC, in winter - no higher than 17 ºC.
- Watering: in spring and summer - regular, as the upper layer of the substrate dries. At the end of autumn, watering is gradually reduced.
- Air humidity: usual for living quarters, but in the heat the leaves are sprayed with water or washed with a damp sponge.
- Top dressing: in spring and summer - once a month with a complex mineral fertilizer for decorative deciduous plants. Stop feeding in the fall.
- Rest period: from late autumn to early spring.
- Transfer: at the beginning of active growth, when the plant becomes cramped in the pot.
- Substrate: equal parts of leaf and sod land, peat, humus and sand are mixed with small pebbles or expanded clay.
- Reproduction: seeds.
- Pests: spider mites and scale insects.
- Diseases: leaf rot and discoloration.
Read more about growing zamia below.
Zamia needs a bright light, but despite the fact that the plant can be in direct sunlight, it is better to shade it at noon. It grows well on windows with east and west orientation, but the south side will be the optimal place. On the north side, zamia can grow more slowly at home. So that the plant does not get sunburn, it must be accustomed to the sun gradually. It is best to rotate a pot with a zamia plant around its axis so that the leaves in the rosette grow evenly.
From spring to autumn, the air temperature should be between 25 and 28 ° C - the best temperature for good growth. In winter, the temperature should be twice as low - up to a maximum of 17 ° C. Stagnant air can adversely affect the development of this plant - the room needs to be ventilated.
It is necessary to water the zamia after the topsoil dries up - this is in spring, summer and autumn. Since the end of autumn, watering is reduced, and in winter it is watered so as not to flood the plant, but also to prevent the earthen coma from drying out.
There is no need to spray zamia in room conditions, as well as to increase the air humidity in other ways. But it will not be superfluous to spray the zamia with settled water in summer and spring.
They feed home zamia in the summer and spring with complex fertilizers for indoor plants every month. They stop feeding in the fall and begin already in the spring.
It is possible to transplant zamia, if necessary, both in spring and in summer, but it is better to do this before the plant begins to actively grow. The density of the substrate should be medium, and the substrate itself should be nutritious. The soil mixture is prepared from leaf and sod land, peat, humus and sand mixed with small pebbles. Good drainage must be at the bottom of the pot.
Growing from seeds
For reproduction at room level, seeds are used, which are planted only on half of the seed in a light substrate. The seed container should be kept warm and humid. As soon as the seeds take root, you need to carefully, trying not to damage the roots, plant the seeds in individual pots.
Diseases and pests of zamia
Zamia leaves turn pale. The leaves can lose color if the sun's rays fall on the leaves of the zamia at noon for a long time.
Zamia is not growing. Zamia may not give new shoots for several years - this is normal, because Zamia grows rather slowly.
Zamia is rotting. From excess moisture in the soil, the plant can get sick - watering should be done carefully.
Zamia pests. Pests that most often damage the plant: spider mites and scale insects.
Zamia pseudoparasitic / Zamia pseudoparasitica
Or Zamia roezli. It lives in forests in the tropical zones of Ecuador, Panama, Colombia and Peru, where it grows on tree trunks or in soil. The trunk grows up to 3 m in height, and the leaves up to 2 m in length. The leaf petiole is covered with rare thorns. The leaflets are serrated along the edges, a longitudinal vein is distinguished on the underside of the leaflet. The length of the leaves is up to 40 cm, and the width is up to three and a half.
Powdered Zamia / Zamia furfuracea
This species lives in Mexico. The trunk of this species is almost completely underground - only in very old plants the trunk can peep out of the ground, but a maximum of 20 cm.The leaves are beautiful, gray-blue in color, in length from 0.5 to 1.5 m. The leaves are pinnate, oblong or ovate-oblong, there are up to 13 pairs; leathery to the touch and very dense, with prominent veins on the underside of the leaflet. Young leaves are densely covered with whitish scales on both sides of the leaf, and old ones - from the bottom.
Zamia broadleaf / Zamia latifolia
The homeland is the forests of Honduras. The plant is short, tuberous thick trunk grows up to 10 cm, but usually it is underground. Leaves from 0.5 to 1 m long grow at the top in 2-4 pieces. Leaves on a sheet from 15 to 40 pairs. The length of the leaves is 15-20 cm, and the width is up to 5 cm; shape - elongated oval.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Zamiaceae
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Indoor Plants Information
Sections: Houseplants Ornamental-deciduous Plants on Zamievye
The appearance of Gastria is quite decorative: fleshy, hard leaves, pointed or roundish, arranged in several rows on a very short stem, have a deep green color and beautiful patterns on them in the form of stripes and spots.
The plant becomes especially decorative during flowering. Peduncles, usually up to 40-70 cm in height, grow after each circle of leaves.
Flowers create an inflorescence in the form of brushes, have bright transitions between orange, yellow and green.
Types of Zamia
Zamia has about 26 species. This flower is great for any room, sometimes it is planted outdoors. The most popular are:
Has beautiful bright greenery. A fully developed plant can have leaves 1 to 2 meters long. Their petioles are occasionally covered with small spines. The leaves are serrated and elongated, their length reaches 40 centimeters, and their width is 3.5 centimeters.
It has a large turnip-shaped stem that appears above the surface of the substrate, in which it grows only when the plant ages. The leaves are long, their size varies from 0.5 meters to 1.5 meters. Feathers consist of leaves covered with small whitish scales. Below they have clear veins. The color of the crown is rather unusual: grayish with a blue tint.
This species looks very attractive due to its miniature size: a thin underground trunk reaches 25 centimeters in diameter, and the leaves grow no more than 0.5 meters in length.
The flower looks like a palm tree. Its stem-trunk rises above the ground, and the leaves stretch up to 100 centimeters in length. Their parts are oval plates 20 centimeters long and up to 5 centimeters wide.
Reproduction of zamia
At home, zamia propagates with seeds sown in a light substrate to a depth of half the diameter of the seeds. Next, the seeds are covered with glass to maintain the necessary moisture.
Also, zamia can be propagated using a cuttings. When propagated by cuttings, they are first put in water for rooting, and then planted in prepared soil.
The genus has about 20 species. Many types of Kalanchoe are grown at home.
Kalanchoe Blossfeld (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana)
This species is famous for its numerous flowers, collected in an umbrella-shaped inflorescence. Flowers are located on long peduncles and differ in a variety of colors. The plant to care for is very unpretentious.
Kalanchoe manginii (Kalanchoe manginii)
Ampel view. The flower is miniature (up to 15 cm) and is distinguished by exotic inflorescences that resemble small bells. Flowering usually occurs in spring.
This species blooms quite rarely, exclusively in winter. Plant height reaches 50 cm. It has a straight stem and long (up to 10 cm) green triangular leaves. The leaves are strewn with many purple spots.
Kalanchoe pinnata (Kalanchoe pinnata)
It is considered the most hardy species. It is distinguished by its height, reaching 1 m. The color of the flowers is unusual: white tones, smoothly turning into green. The juice of this type of Kalanchoe is sold at the pharmacy.
The species is represented by dwarf shrubs, reaching a height of 1 m. Leafy platinum is up to 50 cm long, rather thick and weighty. White flowers are collected in umbrella inflorescences. Flowering occurs in mid to late spring. It tolerates cultivation in cool rooms.
Kalanchoe Beharskoe (Kalanchoe beharensis)
The species is represented mainly by shrubs. The leaves are serrated and covered with small hairs.
Kalanchoe felt (Kalanchoe tomentosa)
Representatives of this species are semi-shrubs. Stem erect, leaves with small hairs. Miniature flowers are collected in umbrella inflorescences.
Kalanchoe grandiflora (Kalanchoe grandiflora)
The species is also known as Kalanchoe marmorata. These are mainly semi-shrubs, reaching a height of 50 cm. The leaf plates are green. In direct sunlight, the leaves may turn pale red. Yellow flowers are collected in an umbrella-shaped inflorescence, have a pleasant aroma. Flowering begins in late spring.
Kalanchoe paniculata (Kalanchoe thyrsiflora)
Plants of this species reach a height of 50-60 cm. At the base, the leaves are densely packed, closer to the top - the leaves become smaller and less frequent. Flowers are yellow. Flowering occurs in late spring.
Flaming Kalanchoe (Kalanchoe flammea)
The species is known as the glaucous Kalanchoe (Kalanchoe glaucescens). Plant height reaches 40 cm. The leaf plates become wider and larger closer to the top of the plant. The leaves are round green with a white tint around the edges. Orange flowers are collected in umbrella inflorescences.
Kalanchoe tubular (Kalanchoe tubiflora)
The species is represented by semi-shrubs, reaching a height of 70 cm. Leaf plates of gray-green color, narrow, elongated. The leaves of the plant are strewn with brown spots.
Kalanchoe dissected (Kalanchoe laciniata)
The species is also known as lobular Kalanchoe. The stems of the plant eventually sink down under their own weight, shedding leaves at the base. Green leaves have a dissected shape. Flowers are yellow or orange.
The species was obtained by selection. Differs in modest size and six-month flowering period.
The Kalanchoe plant is easy to care for at home, even beginners can do it. Subject to certain rules, the flower will constantly delight with its appearance and beauty.
Reproduction of clivia by children and side shoots
Babies or side shoots are formed on the stem of the plant near its root. Usually, young clivia do not give children up to 5 years of age. Lateral processes can be seen only in sufficiently overgrown adult plants, which have already bloomed more than once.
Not all formed babies can be separated!
For successful rooting, it is necessary that the children have at least 4 leaves. Therefore, the newly grown little offspring should not be separated.
Reproduction of clivia by side shoots
The shoots are removed from the adult plant during transplantation after flowering ends. They are cut from the stem with a sharp knife, and the cuts are rubbed with activated carbon.
After the children are separated, they are planted in small pots with a diameter of no more than 7 cm. Coarse washed wet sand serves as the substrate for rooting. At the same time, the temperature is maintained within the range of 18-20 ° C. Water the shoots so that the sand remains slightly damp. Excess moisture leads to rotting of children.
Indoor flower clivia photo
Rooted children are transplanted into separate pots with soil, which includes leaf and turf soil, humus and sand in equal parts. They bloom already in the 2nd year of life.
Reproduction can be done in different ways.
Cut the top of the plant (about 6-7 cm) and root in a container with sand. Cover the pot with a glass jar and create a mini greenhouse. Provide a temperature of 25-28 degrees. Maintain moisture at all times. In a month or a month and a half, the sprout will take root and can be transplanted.
If the flower receives optimal care, then it grows abundantly.
Fittonia also propagates by layering. Remove the leaves from the stem and cover with earth. After the dusted area takes root, separate it and transfer it to another container.
The seeds of the plant are sown in light soil (half earth with sand) and covered with sand. The container is covered with glass and the temperature is maintained at about 25 degrees. Care consists in moistening the soil surface by spraying it. After the seedlings grow up, they should be planted.