Columnar apple tree in the Moscow region: the best varieties with descriptions and photos
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Columnar apple varieties have been known for over 30 years. The originality of this culture causes a lot of controversy among gardeners. Each variety has its own advantages and disadvantages. In order to successfully grow "columns" on a personal plot in the conditions of the Moscow region and receive guaranteed yields, it is useful to understand the features of these varieties.
The best varieties of columnar apple trees for the Moscow region
Compared to traditional apple varieties grown in the Moscow region, columnar trees have a number of undoubted advantages:
- the minimum area occupied by one tree;
- simple work on the processing and pruning of apple trees;
- early maturity of culture (fruiting occurs in the second or third year after planting);
- regularity and good yield of most varieties;
- attractive appearance and good taste of the fruit;
- decorativeness of the garden throughout the summer;
- an interesting organization of the garden area by creating green hedges or framing paths with rows of apple trees.
Video: an overview of modern varieties of columnar apple trees
However, there are a number of circumstances that limit the cultivation of "columns" in temperate latitudes in comparison with the southern regions. The varieties created at the end of the twentieth century are so-called. the first generation of columnar apple trees had insufficient winter and frost resistance; when the apical bud was frozen, the apple tree lost its main varietal qualities - compactness and appearance. Also, the trees were highly susceptible to scab disease, as a result, up to 50–70% of the harvest was lost. In the process of breeding, varieties of the 3rd generation were created, while all the previous shortcomings of the culture were taken into account to the maximum. At present, varieties with improved characteristics for frost resistance, resistance to fungal diseases, and commercial qualities of fruits are recommended for cultivation in the conditions of the Moscow region and central part of Russia:
- The president,
- Currency and a number of other varieties.
With all the similarity of varietal qualities, columnar apple trees have significant differences depending on the time of fruit ripening, yield, and disease resistance.
Table: recommended varieties of apple trees for the Moscow region and the middle lane
|Nameapple varieties||Height wood||Period maturation||Fruit weight,yield, kg||Fruit taste||Tasting room appraisal||Frost- and winter hardiness||Resistance to fungal diseases and pests||Special qualitiesvarieties|
|Iksha||Half-dwarf||End of August||80-180g, 5-6kg (up to 12kg)||Sweet and sour, dessert, with a pronounced saffron aroma||4,5||High (up to -42ºFROM)||Resilient||Fruiting in the year of planting|
|Nectar||Half-dwarf||End of August||100-250g; 5-6kg (up to 10kg)||Sweet with a distinct honey aroma||4,0||High (up to -42ºFROM)||High, immunity to scab *||Keeping fruit up to 30 days|
|The president||Half-dwarf||Late August-early September||150-250g; 6-8kg (up to 16kg)||Sweet and sour, dessert, with rich aroma||4,5||High (up to -35ºFROM)||Resilient||Increased fertility ** in cold spring|
|Vasyugan||Half-dwarf||Early to mid September||140-200g, 5-6kg (up to 10kg)||Sweet and sour, dessert, aromatic||4,4||High (up to -40ºFROM)||Resilient||High taste|
|Ostankino||Half-dwarf||Mid september||100-300g; 6-8kg (up to 15kg)||Sweet, dessert, with "mekintosh type" aroma||4,4||High (up to -32ºFROM)||Resilient||Increased fertility ** in cold spring|
|Baby||Natural dwarf||Mid september||100-250g, 5-8kg (up to 10kg)||Sweet, very juicy, with a pronounced aroma||4,5||Medium (frost resistance up to -20ºFROM)||Resilient||Fruiting from the first year of planting. High palatability|
|Late autumn and winter varieties|
|Amber necklace (X-3)||Half-dwarf||Mid to late September||140-170g, 5-7kg (up to 18kg)||Sweet and sour, dessert, aromatic||4,5||High (up to -35ºFROM)||High, especially for scab||Self-fertile, requires cross-pollination|
|Moscow necklace (X-2)||Half-dwarf||End of September - beginning of October||150-170g; 5-6kg (up to 12kg)||Sweet with sourness, dessert, with a light aroma||4,4||High (frost resistance up to -42ºFROM)||High, especially for scab||Tendency to overload the crop|
|Currency||Half-dwarf||Mid october||100-250g; 5-6kg (up to 12kg)||Sweet with sourness, dessert, aromatic||4,5||Medium (frost resistance up to -25ºFROM)||High, scab immunity *||Fruiting from the first year of planting|
* Immunity to scab (the main fatal infection for apple trees) implies the absolute immunity of trees to disease, despite the unfavorable conditions of the year.
** Fertility is the ability of apple pollen to fertilize and set fruit.
Summer varieties of apple trees
Most of the summer varieties of columnar apple trees have high frost resistance of wood and fruit buds, good resistance (or immunity) to major fungal diseases and excellent taste of the fruit. A common disadvantage of these varieties is the short shelf life of the crop (maximum 30 days).
Photo gallery: apple trees of summer varieties
Autumn varieties of apple trees
Autumn varieties are characterized by high yields (the Ostankino apple tree sets fruit even in a cold rainy spring), beautiful large, juicy apples with increased sugar content, culture resistance to fungal infections and most pests (which allows you to abandon the chemical treatment of trees).
The Malyukha variety is known for its very tasty apples, but the tree is prone to freezing and requires special care: the crown must be constantly formed to maintain its columnar shape
The disadvantage of the Malyukha variety is considered to be average frost resistance (the apical bud freezes over) and whimsical care.
The beautiful large fruits of the Ostankino apple tree can be stored for up to 4 months without losing their presentation and taste.
Late autumn and winter varieties
The main advantages of winter varieties of columnar apple trees include their high resistance to most types of fungal diseases, up to immunity (especially to such a formidable disease as scab). Also, these varieties are distinguished by a bright appearance, a very good dessert taste of apples, good keeping quality of fruits (storage until spring, except for the Chervonets variety) and a fairly high frost resistance (with the exception of some varieties, trees without damage tolerate frosts down to -35-42ºFROM). The disadvantages of the culture include a tendency to overload the crop, which leads to a loss of varietal qualities and requires normalization of fruits at an early stage of ripening. In addition, the Chervonets variety is poorly pollinated under unfavorable weather conditions and requires cross-pollination with other apple varieties of the corresponding flowering period.
Photo gallery: winter varieties of apple trees
Does it make sense to plant "columns" in the suburbs? Need to try. Plant two or three varieties of trees, 3-5 seedlings of each variety, and choose during growing which one best suits your conditions.
Even in the difficult conditions of the Moscow region, columnar apple trees yield generous yields of delicious apples. Given the qualities of a particular variety, choosing the one that suits you will not be difficult. The choice is up to the gardener.
Columnar apple tree
The columnar apple tree is a natural clone of the apple tree that lacks side branches. In British Columbia, in the village of Kelowna (located in Canada), on an old Macintosh apple tree, which was 50 years old, they found an unusual branch, or rather, it had an unusually large amount of foliage and fruits and completely lacked side branches. This happened in 1964. This spontaneous mutation did not go unnoticed by breeders and was multiplied. Over time, with the help of it, experts created columnar apple trees. At the same time, both English breeders of Kent County and specialists from other countries worked on this plant. In 1976, the first samples of this kind of apple were obtained.
Varieties of apple trees appeared not so long ago - a little over 50 years ago, it was bred at random. In Canada, one of the farmers noticed an abnormal tree branch. It was covered all over with fruits stuck directly to the trunk. There were no lateral processes on it either, but it grew vertically upward. Thus, a spontaneous genetic change in the Macintosh apple tree was the beginning of a large new and original layer in the fruit varieties. The variety received the name - Leader.
In 1972, Russian breeders crossed it with Cinnamon Striped, getting their own version of the columnar.
A feature of such apple trees is the arrangement of fruit lines in rings along the trunk, while the leaves are dense and have a dark green color. If the variety has lateral processes, then they are rich in internodes and are also tightly pressed to the base. They are also called spur. The crown has a weak development, and the height does not exceed 3 meters.
Similar changes in the appearance of the apple tree were due to a lack of growth hormone in combination with increased bud formation. At the same time, apple trees do not rest, like many other classic varieties, but bear fruit regularly, but not for long. For high fruiting, it is important to prune columnar apple trees in a timely manner.
Thus, there are currently more than 100 species in the world. Their main characteristics are considered:
- early maturity
- complete absence of side branches
- small stature
- the formation of fruits directly on the tree trunk.
In turn, the columnar apple tree is divided into several varieties:
- super dwarf
In non-professional breeding, dwarf and medium-sized groups are most popular.
Their seedlings gain height very slowly, especially undersized varieties, but they begin to bear fruit from the first year. It should be understood that the medium-sized ones are obtained by crossing the suprekarlikovy variety with the classic apple tree. When forming a crown, lateral shoots are cut off. The result is a columnar apple tree, no more than 2.5 meters high. Of the most popular among amateur gardeners, there are Brusnichnoye, Orlinka, Medok, Moscow necklace, President.
Some of the common varieties of this type: Currency, 003 and Arbat.
At the heart of all columnar apple trees are two scions:
- Superdwarf PB-4 for the southern regions (variety Paradizka Belorusskaya). In this case, the bark of the seedling is light green with yellow.
- Superdwarf rootstock, common in the middle lane - Budagovsky Kid. The bark of the seedling here prefers a pronounced purple with a red tint.
Both species are very fragile, so apple trees are taken care of with extreme care and attention.
For southern regions
As noted above, there are varieties of columnar apple that are capable of fully bearing fruit at low temperatures, and there are those intended exclusively for southern latitudes.
The latter include: Bolero, Trident, Taskan, Sparkle, Snow White, Green noise Ideal and others. They are adapted to the typical conditions of hot regions:
- late maturity
- fruits lie well and for a long time
- apple weight from 150 to 400 grams.
Distinctive features of columnar apple trees of the southern regions:
- relative frost resistance
- fruit cone shape, round and slightly flattened
- wide range of colors from green to bright red
- barrel height up to 2.5 meters
- the crown is compact and in a volume of no more than 70 cm
- dense foliage.
The favorable climate of the southern regions contributes to a relatively long fruiting, but hybrids bred with such a factor as resistance to sudden changes in low temperatures bear fruit for a maximum of 12 years.
The varieties for the northern regions include Vasyugan, Arbat, Dialog, Moscow necklace, Chervonets, Elita and others. The Iksha variety, for example, is able to withstand temperatures down to -40˚С.
In general, apple trees have good and abundant fruiting, are early ripening and are in most cases compact in size. Common winter hardy varieties are described at this link.
For the middle lane
Breeders, by the method of constant crossing, also breed varieties for the middle lane. In the Moscow region, such varieties as Malyukha, Medok, Renet Mazherova are in special demand. Apple trees are also grown here, intended for cold regions: Arbat, Moscow necklace.
Each variety has its own unique feature:
- Nectar has a fragrant, honey-flavored fruit.
- Renet Mazherova - an apple tree similar to an outlandish candle, with a crown no more than 40 s in diameter and fruits no more than 50 gvesa. At the same time, the trunk of the tree is completely covered with them already in August-September.
These two varieties are referred to as the most high-yielding for the middle lane. Columnar apple trees are an adornment of any site, gardeners plant several different varieties in a row, making a beautiful, colorful fence.
Before buying seedlings, read about their characteristics, the ripening period of the fruits. This way you can avoid frustration when fruiting.
A winter variety of columnar apple trees that bear fruit well. The trees are dwarf, with a compact crown, do not require special care, and are resistant to most diseases. The apples are round, golden in color with a red blush, juicy, sweet and sour taste.
Autumn variety of high-yield columnar apple trees. The trees are short and compact. Fruits are round, yellowish with a striped blush. They taste sweet and sour, very juicy. Apple varieties Iksha resistant to many diseases and pests.
Planting columnar apple trees requires the creation of favorable conditions and compliance with several basic requirements.
- The soil should be fertile and rich in nutrients.
- The planting site must be open to sunlight.
- An effective drainage system must be created so that the soil contains the required amount of moisture. The occurrence of groundwater should not be less than 2 meters from the surface.
- The site must be protected from drafts, strong winds.
On the area set aside for the apple trees, you need to plan a scheme for future planting, observing the distances between plants and rows. For each tree, you need to allocate a space with the following parameters:
- the distance between plants in one row is at least 50 cm
- there must be at least 100 cm of free space between the rows.
Experienced gardeners identify two optimal periods when it is best to plant:
- In early spring, before the activation of vital processes in the wood and the beginning of bud dissolution.
- In autumn, while the weather is stable and warm.
The requirements for the preparation of a depression for planting columnar apple trees do not have any peculiarities and correspond to the recommendations for planting traditional low-growing varieties.
The minimum period is 14 days, since during this time the soil will have time to settle and the root collar after planting will not "fall" into the ground. It must measure at least 90 cm in width, length and height. The overall dimensions of the recess are determined based on the development and size of the root system of the seedling.
The space for growth and development should not be small and limited, as as the tree grows, it will need more space for roots to provide itself with nutrients and moisture.
If the apple tree is planted in clay soil, then drainage should be done in the deepening
If the planting is carried out in heavy clay soils, artificial drainage must be created at the bottom of each depression. For this, the bottom of the pit is sprinkled with gravel and sand.In addition, fertilizers should be added to the soil freed up after digging a hole, which will serve as a serious help for the development and growth of a young plant. For each seedling add 3-4 kg of compost or other organic fertilizer, as well as about 400 grams of ash, 70 grams of potassium and 80 grams of superphosphate.
Part of the soil with added and mixed fertilizers is laid on the drainage or the bottom of the depression. The rest of the soil is used to backfill the plant when planting. Gardeners have a rule - when planting trees, a layer of soil that was located in the upper part when preparing a deepening is placed at the bottom when buried, and a deeper layer of soil is placed on the surface.
The best planting option is to use annual seedlings. It is these plants that have the best survival rate and tolerate new conditions more easily after planting in open ground. Cheaper two-year-old seedlings of columnar apple trees are more often offered for sale, but they have worse survival characteristics. The high cost of annual seedlings is one of the main drawbacks of these apple trees, but competent care allows you to fully reimburse the costs for several seasons.
Saplings should be chosen with great care. They must be dry, intact, free from damage and signs of damage by any disease. The bark should be healthy and natural.
The disembarkation process itself implies the following sequence of actions:
- A seedling is carefully placed in the prepared hole in an upright position.
- The roots are neatly straightened at the bottom. It is best to put a small hole on the bottom in the center of the depression before laying the seedling, on which the seedling is placed and the roots are straightened along the "slopes" of the mound.
- The root collar of the seedling should remain slightly above surface level.
- The depression with a young apple tree is carefully covered with soil.
- Due to the vulnerability of the root system of columnar specimens of apple trees, the compaction of the soil must be done very carefully.
- Sprinkle each tree abundantly with water, using 20-30 liters of water for each plant.
The best columnar varieties of apple trees
Apple trees in appearance are: semi-dwarf, super-dwarf, vigorous, medium-sized, dwarf. The last 2 groups take root most in garden plots.
Medium-sized varieties were bred artificially, having been grafted on a super-dwarf column with a common variety. As a result, we got compact trees reaching 2.5 meters in height.
- Bolero. Green color of fruits with a slight blush. Weight varies from 120 to 200 g.
- Amber necklace. Fruits are green-yellow in color.
- Nectar. Harvest from one tree up to 8 kg. Grows in partial shade and in the sun. Winter hardy. Fruits are white-yellow in color with honey flavor. Transplant tolerates perfectly
- Ligol. Fruits are large greenish-yellow hue, sweet and sour taste.
Bolero Amber necklace Nectar Ligol Lingonberry Vasyugan Moscow necklace Orlinka
Dwarf columns were obtained from clonal cuttings (Belorusskaya, Malysh Budagovskiy) grafted with the "CO gene". The seedlings have slow growth, but in the first year of life, they are able to produce crops.
Among them, the best varieties can be noted:
All varieties bear fruit in the first year of life, and yield peaks at 4–5 years. They are highly immune to disease. Plants do not require chemical treatment. The harvest is perfectly preserved until February.
Both groups have a common characteristic - increased fragility. Taking care of trees and seedlings requires great care.
For Moscow region
- Renet Mazherova. Small fruits. Plants with a narrow crown.
- Arbat. Juicy aromatic pulp.
- Nectar. With a honey flavor.
- Baby. High-yielding variety. Fruits with sourness, yellow-green color.
Arbat Renet Mazherova Baby
Iksha Gin Dialogue Chervonets Triumph The president Elite Ostankino Senator
All varieties with good winter hardiness and active fruiting.
According to the main indicators, Attica grapes (photo above) are suitable not only for home but also for industrial cultivation. This variety perfectly tolerates transportation and long-term storage with minimal losses.
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Technical indicators of "attica":
Susceptibility to diseases and pests
This variety has an increased level of resistance to gray mold. However, it is susceptible to damage to other common cultural diseases. Therefore, it needs preventive treatment with fungicides throughout the season.
The optimal result can be achieved by spraying the vines in different phases of the growth of the bush:
- after budding (from oidium) - the drug "Baylon", "Topaz"
- before flowering (from anthracnose, mildew) - the drug "Anthracol", "Acedan"
- after flowering (from oidium) - the drug "Falcon".
The main advantage of this variety is resistance to common pests of grapes: wasps, spider mites, grape itch, leafworm, phylloxera.
Comparing the technical indicators of the variety, one can confidently judge its merits.
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The main advantages of "attica" grapes:
- stable yield
- undemanding to soil composition
- resistant to common crop pests
- immune to gray mold
- has a neutral pleasant berry taste
- well tolerates transportation and long-term storage
- forms strong bushes
- develops a powerful root system
- undemanding to care
- characterized by early ripening of bunches
- compatible with different rootstocks
- clusters are distinguished by a high indicator of marketability
- starts growing early in spring
- differs in friendly ripening of berries
- versatile in application
- does not need additional pollinators.
Many gardeners speak positively about the attica grape. This is due to the good pollination of the variety, undemanding care and neutral pleasant taste of the berries. In addition, this species can be consumed not only fresh, but also used for the preparation of preservation, as well as raisins.
Negative reviews about the "Attica" variety are mainly associated with the insipid taste of the fruit, if the summer turned out to be cool. But at the same time, many gardeners argue that in this case it is worthwhile to be patient and leave the ripe bunches on the vine for another 7-10 days. This will allow the berries to improve their taste.
Comparing the advantages and disadvantages of "attica" grapes, it is safe to say that this raisins has a number of advantages over other types of culture. But in order to obtain a stable and high-quality harvest, it is necessary to take into account all the requirements of the plant. Otherwise, all the efforts of the gardener may not meet expectations.
Apple tree columnar varieties for the Moscow region
Columnar apple trees are a special type of fruit tree, accidentally obtained as a result of a mutation of a regular apple tree. The difference in the species lies in the absence of lateral branches; instead of them, shortened processes grow. The fruiting period of such a tree is short in comparison with other species - only 15-17 years. Bred in Canada in the 60s, columnar apple trees became widespread in North America and Europe. New varieties are also being developed in Russia, adapting plants for different regions of the country.
Which variety of columnar apple trees to choose for the Moscow region
When choosing varieties of columnar apple trees for the Moscow region, you need to pay attention to their frost resistance - only in suitable natural conditions the tree will give a good harvest.
Then they are guided by taste, fruiting timing, yield, tree size. For the Moscow region, the varieties "Arbat", "Vasyugan", "Jin", "Currency" and others are suitable.
- Arbat is a dwarf variety with an average winter hardiness, disease resistant, early ripening. The fruits are yellow-red, juicy, sweet and sour.
- Gin is an early variety with a yield of 5-7 kg of medium-sized apples from one tree. Fruits are red, sweet and sour, ripen early. The tree has an average frost resistance.
- Moscow necklace is a fruitful and very frost-resistant variety that gives large apples of sweet and sour taste. Up to 10 kg of fruit can be removed from the tree per season and stored until March.
The winter varieties include KB109 - a fast-growing, vigorous species, the fruits of which have tasty green apples with stripes. The variety is resistant to diseases, winter-hardy.
- KB101 is a dwarf apple tree with large green apples. Trees increase yields quickly with good care, but their resistance to cold weather is low.
- Currency is a frost-resistant dwarf apple variety, compact, with large red fruits. Apples ripen in October, are stored for a short time.
- Vasyugan is a winter-hardy variety with large red-green fruits that ripen in October. The trees are medium-sized, compact, apples are stored for no more than a month.
Columnar apple trees begin to bear fruit 1-2 years after planting, but more often it is 2-4 years, less often the fifth or sixth. A high-quality grafting from a plant of the desired variety accelerates the appearance of fruits.
If the growing conditions and care do not meet the requirements of the plant, then the yield will be smaller, the apples are smaller, and the tree may not bear fruit every year.
Planting and caring for columnar apple trees
It is better to buy seedlings in proven nurseries in order to get a healthy, well-groomed plant, properly grafted, corresponding to the description of the variety.
When choosing a seedling, you need to pay attention to its age - annual plants are easiest to take root in a permanent place. When buying a plant, the roots should be moist, the trunks are clean, without damage to the bark and top of the seedling.
Apple trees are planted at a distance of 0.9-1 m from each other, adding organic fertilizers and potassium-phosphorus. Organic additives are not applied at the root, they are separated from the roots with a layer of earth.
In summer, trees are regularly watered, the soil around them is loosened, weeds are pulled out. Trees are fed with urea 3-4 times over the summer with a difference of 15-20 days, you can spray the leaves with the same solution to saturate them with nitrogen.
You need to start fertilizing seedlings only when the sprout takes root in a permanent place, only next spring manure, bird droppings, diluted with water and other fertilizers are introduced under the root.
Columnar apple trees do not always need pruning. If the tree is not too overgrown with side branches, then it is not touched, but when there are many processes, they can be shortened.
such trees can grow and even bear fruit in pots on the balcony
In young plants, you cannot cut off the top of the tree, but if it is damaged, then lateral shoots will begin to develop and the apple tree will lose the appearance of a column. To preserve the shape of the crown, you can leave one branch - it will eventually replace the trunk.
The top is deliberately cut off if there is a desire to extend the fruiting period of the apple tree - the lateral shoots will yield a crop for some time.
At the beginning of summer, it is necessary to carry out preventive spraying of trees so that the plants do not become infected with pests and diseases - preparations for ordinary apple trees are suitable for processing.
The crown is sprayed before budding in spring, in summer before and after flowering and at the end of harvest in autumn. You also need to protect trees from mice and hares by wrapping the trunks with spruce branches, you can protect the roots from frost by covering the ground around the tree with sawdust or straw in autumn, in winter they spud apple trees with snow.
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The best varieties of columnar apple trees for the Moscow region
Like regular fruit tree varieties, colonial varieties are divided into winter, autumn and summer varieties. For Central Russia, and in particular for the Moscow region, not all varieties of columnar apple trees are suitable, therefore, it is necessary to choose only those that are resistant to prolonged negative temperatures. Let's look at the best varieties of columnar apple trees for the Moscow region, with a photo and description it will be easy for you to make a choice.
Summer varieties of columnar apple trees for the Moscow region begin to ripen in the 20th of July or from August 1-15. Their fruits can be of different colors. This type is distinguished by a short shelf life of apples, as a rule, several weeks. Summer apples are good for cooking compotes, preserves, jams, making juices.
Semi-dwarf variety, with a compact crown. Apples of light green or light yellow color, weighing from 160-250 g with juicy grainy pulp of sweet taste. Maturity occurs in early August. This variety is characterized by resistance to harmful insects, diseases and freezing temperatures.
The variety has large, red apples of sour taste, elongated. One tree gives up to 7 kg of fruits. After 8 years, the trees reach 3 meters in height. The fruits can be stored for up to 30 days.
The variety is characterized by increased frost resistance, the fruits are small, yellow in color with a slight blush, sweet-sour taste.
The height of this columnar apple tree is 2 meters. Medok does not become infected with scab and tolerates freezing temperatures well.
The variety belongs to the early-growing, gives small fruits. Maluha is the most delicious of the columnar apple varieties.
Autumn varieties of columnar apples ripen in early autumn. The fruits are perfectly preserved for up to two months, are good fresh and preserved.
Apples of medium size, beautiful red hue, sweet and sour taste. Trees of this variety perfectly tolerate mid-zone winters. Although it is autumnal, the fruit can remain fresh until December.
An apple tree with ripe fruits looks very decorative, bright red apples of sweet taste are good for fresh consumption, juices and other preservation.
Winter varieties of columnar apple trees for the Moscow region are resistant to prolonged frost. Fruits of winter species have a denser structure and are intended for long-term storage.
The fruits are not large, yellow-green in color, with a burgundy blush. The pulp is juicy, aromatic, dense in structure, sweet taste with sourness. Trees of this variety are almost not damaged by pests and diseases.
Fruits of a yellow-burgundy color, sweet in taste, ranging in size from 100-140g, have a slight blush. Ripening begins in early October, fresh until February. This apple variety is good both fresh and preserved.
The variety is late ripening, large sweet apples with sourness. Technical ripeness begins from August 20 to September 15. Apples have a delicate fruity aroma, beige juicy pulp. 5-7 kg of apples can be harvested from one tree. If the planting was done in the spring, then in the fall you can try the harvest.
The fruits of this variety are distinguished by a bright burgundy color, weigh up to 180 g, juicy, sweet taste. Apples do not fall for a long time, therefore, the appearance of a necklace is created. Trees survive freezing temperatures well.
Since columnar apple trees have recently received recognition from our gardeners, everyone who has at least some experience in growing is in a hurry to share their impressions.
Stanislav, 43 years old.“Last spring, I planted 5 cloll-shaped apple trees, all of different varieties, three of them had flowers and apples, however, one tree had three, and the rest had one. It's a pity I don't remember the variety, we are waiting for the next season to see what comes out of the rest.
Peter, 50 years old: “Our two apple trees are already 5 years old, in general they are happy with the harvest, we get 5-7 kg of fruits from each tree, but if the trees are not fed, then the apples become smaller”.
Valentine, 40 years old. “Three years ago we bought an empty plot, they decided to plant the garden with columnar apple trees, do not be surprised, but my husband and I took a chance and planted ten varieties at once, in the second year they all bloomed, the beauty is indescribable, sorry I can't upload a photo. In the fall, the first fruits were already removed, of course, there were fewer of them than flowers. By the way, last winter we had frosts up to -30, but all the apple trees survived. "
Alexey, 37 years old. “I’m reading information about columnar trees, they don’t have such an apple tree yet, but the neighbors in the dacha have been growing three Moscow necklace trees for five years now, oh, and all the burgundy apples look beautiful”
Tatiana, 39 years old. “Our apple tree is 6 years old, bought with my husband at the Garden and Vegetable Garden exhibition, planted at a short distance as the seller suggested, in winter they covered the trunks with spruce branches and rags so that the rodents would not eat the bark. We tried the first apples in the second year, we have Maluha and President. We live in the northern part of the Moscow region, frosts are up to -30, but our apple trees feel fine. "
The best varieties for the Moscow region: summing up
For the climatic features of the Moscow region, winter-hardy species of columnar apple trees are suitable. I would like to note the popular variety among our summer residents "Medoc", it has a sweet taste with a hint of honey and a fruity aroma, the first fruits when planting in spring can be tasted in the same autumn. Good and "Ranet Mazherova", "Arbat", "Moscow necklace".
The very narrow crown of the "Ranet Mazherova" variety is only 40 cm in diameter. True, the fruits are not large and weigh on average up to 50 g, but there are so many of them that the trunk of the apple tree is almost invisible! They ripen after August 20, from a distance the tree is covered with yellow fruits, resembles a giant ear. All of the listed varieties of apple trees bear fruit in the first or second year.
Due to their small size, columnar apple trees with different ripening periods, characteristics, apple sizes are easily placed even in small areas. To give the site a special decorative effect, you need to combine several varieties of columnar plants. For example, plant apple trees in two rows.
For this, the variety "President" with light yellow fruits, "Ostankino" with large bright red fruits, "Vasyugan" with striped apples and "Amber Necklace" with a yellow color and blush are suitable. Against the background of climbing plants, you can plant the variety "Iksha" with bright orange fruits with a red-striped blush. This variety is overcast in an original way, and the apples have a non-transferable taste and saffron aroma. Apple trees of this variety are not afraid of frosts down to -42 degrees.
So let's sum up and highlight the best varieties of columnar apple trees for the Moscow region:
- "Medoc" - apples of yellow color, sweet taste, ripen at the end of August, their weight reaches 250 grams.
- "Ranet Mazherova" - yellow fruits, small, tolerates frosts down to -45 degrees
- "Arbat" -fruits weigh an average of 120g, bright raspberry color, excellent sweet and sour taste, ripen at the end of September.
- "Moscow necklace" - the variety is resistant to pests and diseases, fruits of sweet taste with sourness, bears fruit in the first year of planting.
- "Ostankino" - fruits of red color, weighing up to 300g, sweet, ripen in the second half of September, are stored in a cool place for four months.
- "Vasyugan" is a fairly winter-hardy variety, tolerates up to -42 grams, the fruits are small and sweet-tasting.
- "Amber Necklace" - fruits of yellow color with a red blush, sweet dessert taste, medium size, possibly preserved until spring.
- "Iksha" -fruits of orange color with a striped blush, ripen at the end of August, begins bearing fruit in the first year.
- "Currency" - the variety is not susceptible to scab, large apples 250g. sweet and sour taste.
- "Dialogue" - resistant to diseases and pests, winter-hardy, small fruits, yellow, sweet with sourness.
- "Maluha" - very tasty fruits of small size, bears fruit in the first year of life.
- "Present" - when planted in spring, already in autumn, you can taste the fruits, aromatic apples with white granular pulp.
Today we told our gardeners what columnar apple trees are for the Moscow region, varieties, you can also read reviews in this article. Choose the variety you like and enjoy the fast harvest!
Columnar varieties of apple trees for the Moscow region
The best columnar varieties of apple trees are grown in the Moscow region and almost throughout the territory of Russia, and gardeners' reviews of them are only positive. The generosity of nature, with which she never ceases to bestow upon the human race, is worthy of surprise. The extraordinary variety of existing varieties of apple trees was replenished in the middle of the twentieth century with columnar - the most adapted for the convenience of people. Specially selected varieties for the Moscow region, frost-resistant. compact and unpretentious, allow, with proper care, to get the maximum possible yield of large and tasty fruits.
Columnar apple varieties
Before buying seedlings, a gardener should decide which properties of future trees are most important to him. Columnar apple trees grown in the Moscow region are adapted to the special conditions of this region, at the same time they differ greatly in the taste of fruits, yield, frost resistance. It will not be difficult to choose the most suitable option from them. To make the right choice, study the description of the columnar apple varieties recommended for planting in the Moscow region.
Semi-dwarf apple trees "President9raquo. They bring sweet and sour fruits of a delicate yellow color and flattened shape. The apples are large, some of them weigh up to 250 g. Their shelf life is one month. The tree is resistant to winter frost, pests and diseases. The first harvest - from 5 to 10 apples - is worth waiting for 2 years of life.
Apples "Medoc9raquo. They got the name because of the extraordinary sweetness and juiciness of the pulp. They are ideal for canning and preparing dried fruits. Large bright yellow fruits weigh 100 - 250 g. The variety is distinguished by increased resistance to pests and good yield - up to 10 kg per tree. They are not stored for long, like most summer varieties, up to one month.
Red-green hard apples "Vasyugan9raquo. They have a conical shape and sweet and sour taste. The height of a semi-dwarf tree reaches 3 m, the first fruiting - in the first year after planting. The maximum yield is 7 kg, the fruits are stored for one month. The main feature of the variety, which is relevant for the Moscow region, is its exceptional winter hardiness, it easily tolerates frosts down to - 42˚С.
Dwarf apple tree "Maluha9raquo. It does not grow above 1.8 m, it needs regular feeding with organic fertilizers, protection from frost and drafts. The first 2 - 3 kg of fruits appear in the second year after planting the seedlings, they are medium in size, sour-sweet, very juicy and tasty. Light yellow oblong apples ripen in September and last for a month.
Long-term storage variety - "Victoria9raquo. It has extremely attractive properties: high yield, the ability to pick the first apples in the year of planting, good transportability, scab resistance. Sweet and sour apples weighing up to 200 g ripen in October and are suitable for consumption until February. Pay attention to this feature - under the weight of the fruit, the trunk can bend and break, so the tree needs a garter.
The name "Moscow necklace" indicates that the variety is ideal for the Moscow region. Semi-dwarf apple trees are unpretentious and take root well, but require a garter from the moment they are planted in the ground. They hardly get sick, without freezing, they endure winter frosts up to 42˚С. The tree bears fruit in September; with proper care, it bears up to 10 kg of fruit. Large sweet apples of dark red color keep well until March.
The recently bred Currency9raquo does not need scab chemicals. Miniature trees are exceptionally winter-hardy. Beautiful greenish apples with red barrels grow to medium and large sizes, ripen in early October and remain until the end of February. Good fruiting is possible only with regular fertilizing with mineral and nitrogen fertilizers.
It is impossible not to be surprised and delighted to see this miracle of nature for the first time - a columnar apple tree. Dotted with fruits like a Christmas tree, the small tree is resistant to pests and diseases. Its short twigs (up to 20 cm) hardly need pruning. A minimum of effort is required from the gardener - to plant, water, fertilize.
The trees grow 1.8 - 2.5 m in height, some varieties reach 3 m in height. They are compact and consist of almost one trunk. Therefore, when planting, the distance between seedlings usually does not exceed 70 cm. The optimal row width is 1 m. When choosing a place for planting, it must be borne in mind that such apple trees are very light-requiring. Young trees should not be planted between mature trees. From a lack of light, one-year-olds do not get the correct development. They stretch out quickly, do not have time to acquire flower buds and remain sterile.
When planning a plot with apple trees, keep in mind that they need pollination in order to bear fruit. The best result is achieved when planting in adjacent rows of different varieties. The main thing is to provide that they have the same flowering time. For this, winter varieties are planted next to winter ones, and autumn ones - with autumn ones.
Do you want to decorate your site? Plant small trees as hedges or along an alley.
Frosty windy winters are typical for the Moscow region. To protect young trees from cold and drafts, it is better to choose a planting site in a natural lowland. Apple trees love chernozem soils and loams, the soil should be moderately loose. Despite the small growth, the root system of trees is well developed, so large holes are dug for seedlings. The soil removed from the pit is mixed with 3-4 kg of manure and well irrigated with a urea solution.
The pit is filled with water, a seedling is placed in it. The roots are carefully straightened, avoiding bends, and covered with prepared soil. A soil embankment is arranged around the trunk so that the water does not spread during irrigation. Water it again. Fill the soil around the tree trunks with mulch made from straw, hay, and wood chips to help retain moisture for longer.
Compared to their larger cousins, columnar apple trees require minimal maintenance. The trees are almost never cut off. An exception is cases when it is necessary to thin out an overly dense crown or too often growing fruit-bearing branches.
For good fruiting and productivity, trees require watering 2 - 3 times a week. In no case do not allow the soil to dry out, if the ringlets in the lower part dry out, the tree will lose its ability to bear fruit. It is impossible to restore it.
One of the features of columnar varieties is that they do not achieve maximum yield without proper and systematic fertilization. For feeding from the beginning of spring, and all summer, organic, potassium-phosphorus fertilizers are used. At the end of summer, the tree is fertilized with nitrogen fertilization and watering is stopped.
Prefer not to use chemicals on your trees? Then it makes sense to buy varieties that are resistant to pests and diseases for planting.
Along with the above advantages, these miniature trees have one drawback. Not a single one, even the best varieties of columnar apple trees, bear fruit fruitfully for more than 15 years. In trees that have survived the 15-year boundary, the lower ringlets dry out, apples grow only on the tops. Therefore, 10 to 12 years after planting, it is recommended to renew the apple orchard. You can grow seedlings for this yourself - trees reproduce well vegetatively, without losing the characteristics of their variety.
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