How and when to preserve a vegetable garden to increase its fertility

 How and when to preserve a vegetable garden to increase its fertility

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

It is not always possible to regularly look after garden plots due to their remoteness from home. To prevent the vegetable garden from overgrowing with weeds, it can be preserved for a while.

What is vegetable garden conservation

It turns out that the plot can not be dug up for the whole season, not harrow the ground, getting rid of harmful roots, but "turn off" the whole vegetable garden for a while.

Moreover, "turn it off" for the benefit of the land and for the subsequent yield.

This method is called mulching. This is the creation of a protective covering on the ground, which can prevent the growth of weeds and retain moisture in the soil.

What is carried out

There are many materials that can be used for mulching: from specially produced agricultural canvases to dry bark from the nearest forest. However, there is material that will not only perfectly cope with the task assigned to it, but also cost almost nothing. This is ordinary thick or corrugated cardboard. You can take boxes from the nearest store.All you need to do is rip off the remnants of the packaging tape so that the garden does not fill up with garbage. Everything else will be used without residue, and even the steel staples from the stapler will oxidize and disintegrate in the ground without a trace.

It is necessary to unfold all these extracted boxes (some, by the way, even use old newspapers in layers) and cover with them the area where you do not want to see thickets of weeds after a while.

From above, the cardboard can be covered with the usual mulching material: straw, hay, fallen leaves. This is done to prevent it from being blown away by the wind and sagging from the rain too quickly.

What is the use for the earth

In the warmth, darkness, dampness and safety, a microflora useful for gardening develops under the cardboard and a variety of weeds die. Through the efforts of the same earthworms, all used cardboard can be recycled even in one season.

In addition, slugs and other pests will disappear from the site.

In this case, the earth will rest. Cardboard not only retains moisture in it, it allows air to pass through well and does not allow it to overheat.

Mulching retains micro and macro elements in the soil. And taking into account the use of additional powder, it can also regulate acidity.

By the way, gardeners believe that the benefits of mulching begin to be felt only in the third and subsequent years. So the vegetable garden can be “turned off” for a long time.

How to plan planting in the garden

Author: Natalia Category: Garden plants Published: February 28, 2019 Last revised: October 08, 2020

On small plots, apart from vegetables, many gardeners would like to grow flowers, fruit trees and berry bushes. To place all these crops in accordance with the requirements of agricultural technology, literally every centimeter has to be prudently used. However, planting planning is important not only for the owners of small plots: even an area of ​​a hectare in size requires an economic approach, otherwise, instead of a beautiful estate, something completely mediocre may turn out.
How to properly plan a flower garden, a vegetable garden and a garden on the site will be discussed in our article.

How to properly prepare the ground?

Growing strawberries outdoors is not an easy task. This crop is often affected by various pests and suffers from bacterial and fungal diseases. In addition, strawberries may simply not grow and not bear fruit, because the soil for it was initially chosen incorrectly.

A plot that has not been used before must be prepared for planting in one year. Initially, cleaning is carried out from weeds, roots, branches, fallen leaves. Stones are removed from the soil. If necessary, the soil is deacidified. To do this, dolomite flour or wood ash is added to it. These formulations will help saturate the substrate with magnesium.

The application rates of minerals are determined depending on the initial acidity index. They range from 300 to 600 g per 1 meter of area. If the soil is heavy, it is "diluted" with sand. In the light, on the contrary, they bring in high-moor peat or nutritious chernozem. The soil must be loosened with the used component.

Suitable place for planting

It is necessary to break the beds for strawberries in a place protected from the wind, but the site must have access to the sun. It is unacceptable to place large spreading bushes and trees around the perimeter of the beds. They will shade the landings. Due to the lack of light, the fruits will not form fully.

The ground for strawberries should be flat, a slight slope is acceptable. It is impossible to arrange a garden bed in lowlands where moisture accumulates. A garden plant has a superficial root system, therefore it will suffer from excess moisture.

The soil for strawberries is not used after growing vegetables of the nightshade family - this is the basic rule of crop rotation on the site. The beds are not set up in areas where tomato, eggplant, potatoes, sweet and hot peppers grew.

Soil disinfection

Chemical, agrotechnical and biological methods are used for soil disinfection. Each has its own merits and demerits.

Chemical disinfection is considered the most effective, but pesticides often contain compounds harmful to strawberries. When choosing an effective remedy, you need to pay attention to the safest ones.

  • TMTD (active ingredient - thiram) - destroys the pathogens of phytophthora, root rot. Effective against bacteria and soil fungi
  • copper sulfate (vitriol) - rarely used, because it actively accumulates in the soil and has a negative effect on the vegetation processes. The composition destroys fungal spores, they need to be processed in advance
  • "Iprodion" or "Rovral" is a plant-safe fungicide with a wide spectrum of action. It is laid in the prepared holes, observing the proportions.

Keep in mind that you need to work with chemicals carefully. Caustic compounds destroy not only harmful, but also beneficial flora. Because of this, the fertility of the soil decreases and it has to be additionally fertilized.

Bacteriological preparations are safe for plants. They contain strains of beneficial bacteria that produce an antibiotic. Such funds are used not only to destroy pathogens, but also to prevent diseases of horticultural crops.

The agrotechnical method of soil disinfection involves planting repellent plants on the site.

Soil fertilization

Before transplanting in the spring, the previously prepared area is fertilized with a mixture of organic and mineral compounds. For this, a mixture of humus, potassium sulfate and superphosphate is used. Digging in autumn is not enough, the soil must be mixed well with fertilizer, and then the beds must be leveled and prepared. As the culture grows, the soil is mulched with peat.

How to plant and grow peanuts in the garden?

The second name for peanuts is peanut. This legume is in demand, it is used not only in cooking, but also in medicine and cosmetology. The botanical description states that peanuts are not a nut, but a leguminous herb. The homeland of the plant is South America. It appeared in Europe thanks to the Spaniards. In the 16-18th century, legumes were considered the food of the poor. Each farmer was keen to grow peanuts in his orchard. At the beginning of the 20th century, Americans invented a large number of remedies based on the fruits of the plant. Medicines, perfumes, cosmetics appeared on sale. Soon after, peanut-based insecticides became popular.

The legume culture is still in demand today, most often it is used in cooking. On the territory of the former CIS, peanuts are grown in Ukraine, Belarus, in the south and in central Russia. In cosmetology and medicine, legume oil is used. Peanuts are annuals reaching 65 cm in height. The plant has branched shoots, a powerful taproot. Peanuts have a developed root system, but so that it does not rot, you need to follow the watering rules. The stem of the plant is erect, the lateral branches are directed upwards. Leaves are elongated, about 10 cm.

The peculiarity of the legume culture is that its flowers bloom one day at a time. The flowering period begins in early summer and ends in mid-November. The fruits are rich in acids and oils and are oval in shape. The average size of peanuts is 1.5 cm. During ripening, the fruits tilt to the ground and gradually ripen. The color of the peel depends on the variety, it can be:

  • cream
  • pinkish
  • pale yellow
  • rich burgundy.

Peanuts ripen in mid September or early October.

Legumes prefer lighted areas. It is recommended to plant it separately in the country. The shadow of neighboring trees should not be allowed to obstruct the illumination of the peanuts. The plant develops well if the air temperature is kept within 23 degrees. It is not recommended to plant peanuts in cold climates, for example, in the Urals. If the temperature drops below +19 degrees, plant growth slows down. It should be noted that peanuts are often grown in Ukraine and southern Russia. If you plan to grow in conditions of central Russia, you need to prepare seedlings.

Before planting in the ground, you need to make sure that the frost has receded, and the soil has warmed up to +14 degrees. In the middle zone, peanuts are planted in late May or early June. The plant does not tolerate frost - it is important to take this feature into account. For planting, use fruits purchased in a store. The seed should be large, healthy and clean. It is important to note that fried and salted fruits are not placed in the soil. To get a rich harvest, crop rotation is required, peanuts grow well after:

  • cabbage
  • potatoes
  • tomatoes.

If other legumes grew in the selected area, the plant will not take root and root rot will appear. Peanuts grow well in loose, moist soil, it is advisable to select one with a neutral pH. To increase fertility, it is necessary to add humus, fertilizers with magnesium and calcium. If the acidity of the soil is increased, lime should be added. It is necessary to properly prepare the site. The soil is dug up in the fall, the optimal depth is 25 cm. Humus is used as fertilizer, 1.2 kg per square meter is applied. To increase the nutritional value of the soil, you need to add 50 g of mullein and the same amount of nitrophosphate per 1 sq. m.

Before planting, it is necessary to make a hole 12 cm deep. The optimal distance between the holes is 50 cm, it is better to arrange them in a checkerboard pattern. The recommended row spacing is 25 cm. Peanuts are sown in different ways. In any case, it is important to observe the distance between the rows, it should be 60 cm. 3 strengthened seeds are placed in the hole. Small seeds rarely sprout. Select medium sized seed. After planting the seeds, the wells should be irrigated.

The use of wood ash in the garden and in the garden

The use of wood ash in the garden is multifaceted. Depending on the type of plant, the amount of application and the type of fertilization may differ.

  • Pumpkin, zucchini love ash. They are fed up to 3 times per season. In the spring, when the garden is still being prepared, before planting (in the holes) and in the middle of summer (preferably in liquid form). No more than 200 g of ash is used per square meter.
  • For garlic, ash is applied to the ground before planting - in the fall. An average of 400 g of fertilizer is consumed per square plot.
  • The potatoes are fed 3 times. In the spring, when the earth is dug up, a glass of substance is added to the square of the earth. When planting potatoes, 3 tablespoons are poured into the holes. The third time - during re-hilling in the form of liquid fertilizer. For each bush, at least 400 ml of solution is poured.

  • For peppers and eggplant, fertilize is applied 2 times. The first time during the digging of land for planting (600 g / m2) and during planting - 100 g per hole.
  • Celery, carrots and beets give a rich harvest when applying wood ash. They feed only once - in the spring. Add to the square up to a glass, dry.
  • Fruit trees are fed with ash every 3 years. They take 2 kg of ash on a bucket of water, dilute it and pour it into a ditch made in the near-trunk circle (so that the liquid does not spread).
  • An adult currant bush needs up to 600 g of ash. Sometimes liquid dressings are used, but not more than 2 times per season!
  • For strawberries, you can use liquid or dry dressing. For dry feeding, 65 g / meter is taken, and for liquid feeding - a liter of working composition per square.

Mulching the site

One of the rules of lazy farming says that there should be no bare soil on the beds. Thus, moisture evaporation decreases, the fertile layer forms faster and, most importantly, weeds do not grow. All this is achieved by mulching. It is better to use organic matter as mulch: rotted sawdust, needles, hay, straw, cut grass and seedless green manure. If it is not possible to update the mulch, you can use inorganic materials: black film, cardboard, expanded clay.

10 important things to do in a flower garden in July

1. Treat plants from diseases and pests. In order for rainy weather to not have time to provoke the appearance of powdery mildew, gray rot and spotting, carry out preventive treatment with one of the systemic fungicides (for example, Topaz or Skor) according to the instructions. Spray plants against pests with a universal insecticide (this can be Fitoverm, Aktara or Alatar) according to the instructions. If at this moment the plant is blooming, make sure that the composition does not fall on the buds (for example, put plastic bags on them). For your own safety, work with gloves and a mask (especially if the product has a strong specific odor). If you do not like to use "chemistry", do with folk remedies.

2. Take care of the rhododendrons. If the plants turn noticeably yellow by mid-summer, check the soil pH. If the indicator exceeds the 5 point mark, then rhododendrons suffer from a decrease in acidity, which can be corrected with vinegar, oxalic or malic acid. Simultaneously with the introduction of these substances into the soil, gently loosen it - the same option must be done immediately after watering.

3. Take care of chrysanthemums and bulbs. Using the pinching method, remove the tops of the shoots from the small-flowered chrysanthemums - thereby you will help them bloom more luxuriantly. In early flowering chrysanthemums, remove axillary shoots - as a result, their central inflorescences will grow large. Dig up the bulbous ones - hyacinths, crocuses, muscari, snowdrops and tulips, and if about 5 years have passed since the planting of daffodils, then also them.

4. Spud flowers that need it. Some inhabitants of your flower garden have a shallow root system, and therefore periodically need to roll moist, fine crumbly earth to the lower parts. These are, in particular, Astilba, Heuchera hybrid, Rhodiola rosea and daylilies. But for dahlias and Chinese asters, hilling is important for another reason - for the formation of additional roots.

5. Tidy up bulky plants. Support tall specimens. Chrysanthemums, gladioli, dahlias, delphiniums and lilies able to grow to their full height, even without the help of a strong wind, run the risk of bending over or completely breaking. To prevent this from happening, tie them to the pegs. Assess the condition of the irises: if they have grown rhizomes (in varietal plants of this species, this happens about five years after planting), divide and plant them so that they do not reclaim the entire area from more modest neighbors in the flower garden.

6. Feed the flowers. Astilbe, dahlias, honeysuckle, clematis, lilies, daylilies, roses and echinacea are especially in need of potash and phosphorus fertilizers during flowering. Additional useful substances will not interfere with asters, gladioli and chrysanthemums on alert.

7. Take care of your potted plants and planters. In some regions, the second month of summer promises to be not very rainy and at the same time sultry. Pay close attention to decorative colors. They need shade from the scorching sun, and the soil should remain moderately moist. Remove faded buds in time from faded plants, including garden ones.

8. Take care of the lawn. It is necessary to shorten the grass by about a third and at the same time prevent its regrowth more than up to 8 cm. In July, the lawn is waiting for the second (or already the third) top dressing. It can be carried out both with the help of special fertilizers "for the lawn", and by mixing 15-20 g of urea and 15 g of potassium sulfate for each "square" of your green lawn.

9. Pay attention to the ground under the perennials. Mulching will save these plants from weed growth, and the dense layer of material that you choose for this (bark, wood chips, sawdust, straw) will retain rainwater and prevent the soil from drying out.

10. Adjust the number of buds on the flowers. In order for the plants not to waste their reserves, remove the inflorescences that "hang their nose" and begin to fade: the extra energy that the plant will spend on them will not help them much. It is better if these forces are directed towards the formation of new flowers. And in some cases, this will also prevent self-seeding.

Here is a basic list of things to do on the site in July. But do not forget to rest, so as not to associate the dacha exclusively with hard labor.

Watch the video: How to Build Soil over Winter Ready for Spring to Grow Amazing Vegetables