Proper planting and care of sunflowers in the open field
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The Indians were still engaged in the cultivation of sunflowers, who used seeds to relieve chest pain and treat fever. In the fields of our country, the culture of the Compositae family is grown mainly to obtain vegetable oil. In this review, we will consider the main points of planting, care and agricultural technology when growing a plant in open ground.
The timing of planting a sunflower in the country in open ground
Sunflower cultivation provides for a seed planting method. It makes no sense to use seedling sowing, because the grains are aged in spring frosts without risking the future harvest. Some gardeners living in the northern regions manage to grow oil crops using seedlings (seedlings). Sowing is carried out in prepared pots or plastic bottles without a bottom in order to transfer the shoots to the garden bed along with the earthen lump. This allows you to maintain a poorly developed root system. If it is damaged, the plant may not take root in a new place.
Sowing dates are in late April or early May. Seeds of high-oil sunflower varieties sprout well and germinate when the soil warms up to 8-10 ° C. Sunflower is unpretentious to growing conditions, the newly emerged seedlings can easily withstand temperatures up to minus 5 °.
The most popular varieties for the Moscow region, St. Petersburg and other regions
Varietal diversity complicates the seed selection process. When buying, you need to focus on the popularity of the variety and the climate. You are more likely to get a good harvest with proven sunflower varieties. This culture is grown in summer cottages, both in the Moscow region, St. Petersburg and in the southern regions. Which variety to plant, decide for yourself.
The hybrid is characterized by high productivity, resistance to drought and diseases (white rot, ash rot, phomosis, phomopsis). The plant is not afraid of weeds (weeds). The sunflower is of medium early ripening, the growing season lasts 110-120 days. The height of the stem with a basket is 140-150 cm. The variety is recommended for growing in steppes and forest-steppe zones.
Three-line hybrid with a vegetation period of 100-110 days. The stem height reaches 165-170 cm. Strong immunity contributes to resistance to white and gray rot, phomopsis. The seeds contain a high oil content - up to 55%. The yield is 39-41 kg / ha.
The Dutch breeding hybrid is resistant to herbicides. The peculiarity of the variety is low requirements for soil cultivation. Technical ripeness occurs 100-110 days after germination on the ground surface. The oil content of the seeds is about 55%. It is not recommended to sow in fields where there were outbreaks of Phomopsis.
An early ripe variety with a growing season of about 85 days. 54% oil. Plant height - up to 168 cm. The Buzuluk variety is stable under different climatic conditions, drought-resistant. This is an intensive variety, it requires high-quality agricultural technology and the use of fertilizers.
Sunflower sowing technology at their summer cottage
For planting sunflower, you need to choose areas with the following predecessors: corn, cereals. And it is better to refuse the place where tomatoes, beets, legumes were cultivated.
Before planting, the seed must be properly prepared. The process includes sorting (selection of large healthy seeds) and soaking for 14 hours in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. To accelerate germination and obtain friendly seedlings, the kernels are processed with growth biostimulants. Fungicides and insecticides can be added to the solution to increase the resistance of young shoots to diseases and pests.
Before sowing a sunflower, you should seriously consider choosing a site for planting. The culture needs sun, so the place should be well lit and ventilated. Fertile soil with a small amount of clay is considered ideal. However, the plant can adapt to any environment except acidic, saline and swampy.
It is better to start preparing the site in the country in the fall, carefully removing all plant residues from it and digging into the depth of the shovel bayonet. Simultaneously with the digging, mineral fertilizers should be introduced.
Sowing patterns and planting depth
Let's figure out how to sow a sunflower and what is the optimal planting depth? It is necessary to plant seeds in moist soil to a depth of 6-8 cm. In each nest, you need to lay 2-3 seeds... When planting large varieties of plants, an interval of at least 1 m is observed; for medium-sized varieties, a distance of 60 cm is considered acceptable. The more space remains between the holes, the larger the kernels of the new crop will be.
Many gardeners are racking their brains about how to arrange the planting of sunflower. Some have adapted to plant a plant along the fence (leave 65-75 cm between the holes, at least 30 cm from the fence). However, it is necessary to clarify that the fence should be in the form of a grid, so as not to create shading. As an option plant a sunflower between the beds of cucumbers or other vegetable crops that get along well with each other (the square-nesting method 50x70 cm is suitable). Landing along the path (distance between holes 70 cm) is considered no less interesting.
Proper care of seedlings and agricultural technology
To make the seeds in the baskets large, you need to make some effort: provide watering, timely fertilize, loosen the soil and remove weeds, carry out inter-row cultivation. Periodic treatments of the plantation in order to prevent diseases and pests will be a good addition.
Irrigate fields or beds with sunflower regularly until 4 pairs of leaves are formed on the young shoot. Further watering is carried out as needed. It is necessary to increase the consumption of water or to increase the regularity of its introduction into the soil during the period of inflorescence development and seed filling.
The soil is saturated with moisture to the depth of the roots. In hot weather, irrigation is carried out daily. If a prolonged high temperature with a low level of air humidity is established, then the beds or fields should be watered several times a day. This will help large nuclei form.
In order to grow and get a good harvest, a sunflower needs regular feeding. The first is entered after the formation of the third pair of sheets. Superphosphate is used as a fertilizer (20-40 grams per 1 m2). It is scattered on the ground, then embedded to a depth of 10 cm and watered.
The second complementary food is introduced after the formation of the basket. At this stage, potassium-nitrogen fertilizers are more suitable (a tablespoon of potassium sulfate is added to a bucket of mullein solution). When seeds ripen, use the same composition.
If blistering deformations appear on the leaves of the plant, and cracking on the stem, then this is a signal of boron deficiency. Spraying with boron fertilizer should be carried out.
Pests and prevention
Failure to comply with the rules of agricultural technology endangers the harvest. The greatest problems arise when a disease is detected. Among the most dangerous are the following fungal infections.
- Downy mildew (downy mildew) characterized by the following features: wilting leaves, thinning of the stem, white bloom on the underside of the foliage. If a crop is infected twice in one season, then another symptom is added - small oily spots on the tops. With the development of the fungus in the active phase, the basket is damaged, as a result of which it ceases to develop.
- Plants are often affected by black spot, which is recognized by dark necrotic spots, growing over time to a size of 4-5 cm. Other signs indicate infection: numerous cracks at the point of attachment of the petiole to the stem, dark spots on the petioles of an elongated shape.
- Gray spot affects almost the entire plant, forming dark angular spots with a gray outline on the leaves, petioles, and stems. Over time, parts of the plant dry out and fall off.
- With bacteriosis plant tissues rot, covered with mucus. If you do not process the culture, it will wither and dry out.
To combat fungal diseases, systemic fungicides are used: Kruiser, Apron. If a viral infection is detected, then the affected plants must be removed from the garden and disposed of.
Insects-parasites can also harm the crop:
- steppe crickets - attack the plant at the stage of formation of the first leaves, destroy the growth point;
- weevil - parasites bite the stem of young shoots, eat out cotyledon leaves, feed on shoots that have not yet appeared on the surface of the soil;
- meadow moths - the larvae are distinguished by their gluttony, eat up almost completely the leafy part of the culture, destroy the epidermis in the baskets and stems;
- gnawing scoops - insects at the caterpillar stage eat up the stem at the root zone;
- Chafer - the parasite larvae damage the root system of the plant.
In order to combat insect pests, insecticides are used: Akarin, Zalp, Agrovertin, Aktellik. It is impossible to hesitate with processing, parasites can carry incurable viral infections.
The sunflower harvest begins when the plant reaches full maturity. The basket and leaves dry up, turn brown (brown). Ripe seeds accumulate a sufficient amount of oils, the kernels become hard, and the peel takes on a shade corresponding to the variety. The whole planted field as a whole is also evaluated. If the number of remaining plants with yellow petals does not exceed 15%, harvesting season begins.
It is necessary not to overexpose the sunflower, otherwise the seeds will spontaneously crumble from the baskets.
The culture includes minerals and vitamins useful for the body, essential oils. You can use seeds for both culinary and medicinal purposes. When planting in large areas, you can replenish stocks of vegetable oil for the winter. It is not at all difficult to master the agricultural technology of growing sunflower.
Correct planting and care of the Coleus outdoors
Coleus is an evergreen shrub or herbaceous annual plant that until recently was grown only as a houseplant. Coleus garden varieties have decorative leaves of various colors and shapes., you can often find plants with a two-color design. Flowers gather in spike-shaped inflorescences and attract attention in various plantings. Let's take a closer look at this plant, its care features and outdoor cultivation.
How to grow good carrots in the country
One of the most popular vitamin vegetables on the tables of our country is carrots. It is planted in almost all gardens and plots, but not everyone can boast of its rich harvests. Now we will figure out how to plant and care for it correctly in order to count on stunning harvests.
So, carrots are the most popular vegetable used in many dishes. But correct landing and good care, which you will carry out in the open field, are important here. Understand this topic in more detail. It seems like it seems to be an unpretentious root crop, but it will be better if you manage to observe some factors to which the carrot will certainly respond gratefully. She will be especially pleased with loose and fertile soils, she loves sandy loams and medium loams, they are especially rich in oxygen. Please note that varieties with very long fruits require soil loosened very deeply, for one and a half bayonets of a shovel.
In terms of acidity, it needs neutral indicators, for example, 6-7 PH. The formation of a dry crust on the ridges is unnecessary, even if they are slightly damp. Heavy and dense soil, which is difficult for air to reach, will not contribute to the pleasant taste of the vegetable, even with excellent care. And it will be a problem for seeds to germinate in such soil, while adult bushes will be threatened with fungal diseases.
Do not forget about the crop rotation, the most suitable predecessors for carrots are:
- Legumes and grains.
- Onion is a turnip.
Herbs are very unsuitable predecessors:
Planting carrots in the same place every year is also a bad idea, this can be done only after 3-4 years, then you can no longer be afraid of pests and various diseases.
Especially for her beds, places well lit by the sun are suitable. Even its direct rays are not afraid of carrot bushes. But with a small amount of sun, the harvest will be small and tasteless.
Cooking the ridges
In order to learn how to grow carrots in the open field, you need to familiarize yourself with the information below. Fertilizers are important. Rotted manure or humus (half a bucket per square meter of beds) will perfectly prepare your ridges for planting carrots. If the soil of your site is heavy, then it should be diluted with sawdust, it will loosen and saturate with oxygen. And wood ash will add potassium to the soil. This will sweeten the carrots to taste and make them more palatable. And you can dig up a site for carrots already in the fall. It is better to dig up a bayonet and a half, so the earth will loosen up better, and it will be easier for you to harvest in the fall - it will be easier to pull out the carrots. In the spring, it remains to walk with a rake - and you can start sowing.
As we said above, only rotted manure is used, fresh will lead to the flowering of the bushes and the branching of the carrots themselves. Even excellent further care will not fix the situation. Be careful with nitrogen components, their excess will lead to coarsening of root crops and the accumulation of nitrates in them.
And carrots can also be planted in the winter, it will turn out like spring crops. With the first heat, it will already hatch and it will be possible to start harvesting a couple or three weeks earlier. But you can not count on its long-term storage, it is better to use it right away or put it on blanks. If you nevertheless decide to plant it before winter, and you have severe, frosty winters, pile a thick layer of foliage on top of the beds, you can use sawdust or straw. In extreme frosts, even this may not protect the seeds from death.
So more often it is sown all the same in the spring. Here you can also calculate everything in terms of time - if you need an early carrot, then plant part of the area with early varieties, this can be done when the temperature rises to + 8C. The beds will still be filled with moisture from the melted snow, so all factors will be in favor.
Further, unexpected frosts, cold snaps will affect the harvest by the fact that it will not be able to be stored for long, it will begin to bloom, so only in mid-April it is possible to start sowing mid-season and late varieties that are planned for storage. Sowing can be continued until the end of May with a long spring, but the main thing is not to delay planting, otherwise you will have to wait for seedlings for a very long time.
If long and heavy rains are predicted, try to be able to weed out in front of them, they will benefit the seeds.
Seed preparation for planting
This article will tell you how to grow good carrots in the country. Experienced summer residents advise planting carrots already in the form of germinated seeds.Here, the ripening time is reduced and the risks of not germinating seeds have already been minimized. The germination procedure is simpler than a steamed turnip, and consists of
Place the seeds in warm water for 10 hours. The pacifiers will immediately pop up.
Further, the germinated seeds are spread on a cloth or cotton wool. The temperature should be room temperature, + 22 + 24C. After 3 days, it will be possible to observe the first shoots.
Other options for accelerating seedlings.
You can soak the seeds in + 30C water for a day, changing the water every 4 hours. You can do this not only in water, but also in a solution of wood ash in a proportion of 1 tbsp. spoon per liter of water. The temperature and shift schedule are the same. Then the seeds are taken out and kept in the refrigerator for 2-3 days in a piece of clean cloth.
Collect the seeds in a gauze or linen bag and keep them hot (+ 50C) for 20 minutes, then for 2-3 minutes. cold water.
In the same bag, the seeds are lowered for 10 days in the ground, buried.
Further, you can sow the prepared seeds already on the beds.
When sowing carrot seeds in both autumn and spring, wet beds are needed. Prepare the grooves of medium depth. From too shallow furrows, the wind can simply blow away all the seeds. And from deep shoots you will wait for a very long time. The row spacing is left 15 cm. The seeds are scattered 2 cm apart. For light soils, the embedment depth is sufficient 2-3 cm, and in heavy soils - 1.5-2 cm.
When sowing non-germinated seeds, you need to rub them in your palms so that all the hairs are removed.
And after filling the furrows, it is necessary to compact the ground with a board, a roller, or slapping it with your hands. Then fall asleep on top of mulch 3 cm thick. This will prevent a dry crust from developing, which can prevent the seedlings from hatching.
Carrots germinate at + 15 + 18C. Untreated seeds germinate in 18-25 days. Short frosts at -4C are not scary, you don't even need to insulate the beds. But if the frosts are long, they can lead to the flowering of the bushes.
If you decide to plant carrots in the winter, then the timing for this is the end of October or the beginning of November. Prepare the site 3 weeks before sowing. After seeding the seeds into the furrows, peat is poured onto the ridges in a 3-centimeter layer. For insulation. And in the spring, when the snow melts, you need to cover the ridges with foil. After emergence, the film can be removed. And remember, only light soils are suitable for autumn planting.
Correct agricultural technique
Now you have been able to learn how to grow your carrot crop. And you already understood that growing carrots is not difficult even for novice summer residents.
Care for the ridges consists in the following manipulations:
- Loosening the more often the better.
- Frequent weeding.
- Regular watering.
- Top dressing.
The first thinning should be done when 2 leaves appear on the seedlings. We leave 2-3 cm between them. After 3-4 sheets, we carry out repeated thinning with a distance of 4-6 cm, at the same time it is possible to weed the beds.
With proper watering, you can count on a sweet and rich harvest. Carrots are very fond of water, with a lack of water, the fruits will become lethargic and bitter in taste. So you need to water all spring and summer. Water should go into the soil by at least 30 cm. With a lack of moisture, lateral roots form on the fruits, and its presentation becomes not comme il faut. And with excessive watering, the roots can crack and the tops can grow, so finding a middle ground in watering is your task.
We water once a week, but according to the following scheme:
- Immediately after sowing, 3 liters of water are poured per square meter of the garden.
- After the first thinning, we shed 10 liters per 1m2.
- After good development of the leaves, we increase the watering volume by 2 times.
- And one and a half - two months before harvesting, we reduce watering. They are carried out every 10-12 days, 10 liters per square meter. And 2-3 weeks before collection, watering is completely stopped.
Fertilizers are applied twice a season. This is done 1 month after germination, then again a month later. The solution is introduced by the root method, the following mixture is poured:
- 15 g superphosphate,
- 15 grams of urea
- 20 g of potassium nitrate,
- 1 tbsp nitrophosphate,
- 2 glasses of wood ash.
All this is added to a bucket of water. Water the beds with this composition after the main watering.
For 4 thousand years of cultivation of this culture, a huge number of varieties have been obtained. These are with different ripening periods, and resistant to cold and disease, with different shelf life and with different tastes. There is a place for any gardener to turn around.
Together with the above, carrots are a storehouse of vitamins and minerals. Few dish is complete without it. With proper care, it will be born with a pleasant sweet taste, and will delight you not only in the first and second courses, but also in desserts and even in baked goods. Moreover, these rules are not so complicated.
The uniqueness of garden jasmine
During the flowering period, there is a large amount of essential oils in the flowers, but only in those that have blossomed quite recently. They have a beneficial effect on human well-being. Benzyl alcohol and jasmine benzyl acetate are able to normalize a person's sexual libido. The buds of such a plant are used to make a special decoction that has the ability to normalize the work of the digestive system. Also, the substances contained in garden jasmine can cleanse the body of toxins, as well as strengthen the immune system. In any of the varieties of such jasmine, there are substances with medicinal properties. The jasmine bush will not only become a great decoration for your site, but can also significantly improve your health.
In order for the cultivation to be successful, you need to know at what time and how exactly to plant a given flower in open ground.
Part 3. Difficulties
Iris, like any other crop, can bring a lot of trouble to its owners. Usually the reason for this is inadequate care of them.
The most common diseases in beards and other iris species are viral and fungal infections. What should be the treatment and control of iris diseases?
Mosaic Is a viral disease. It manifests itself in the form of stripes and spots on the leaves. The virus is carried by aphids.
To date, effective methods of treating the viral mosaic have not been found, therefore, preventive measures must be followed:
- Remove infected seedlings immediately
- Observe the watering regime, apply fertilizers, and also treat the plant from insect pests and diseases. Suitable drugs such as "Actellik", "Confidorm" and others).
Bacterial rot found on brown spots on the leaves of the plant. The disease can be detected in the spring after wintering. It will be necessary to remove the affected areas, then treating the areas with a solution of potassium permanganate. If the disease has gone too far, then it is better to destroy the affected plants and treat the soil with antibacterial agents.
The causes of bacterial rot are:
- Freezing of the root system
- Excessive soil moisture
- Dense plantings
- Lack of calcium and phosphorus in the soil.
The material in the video below is about bacterial rot and how to deal with it.
Gray rot can affect either stems and leaves or the root system. The main reason is stagnant water in the ground. Therefore, iris should be planted exclusively in well-drained soil. The exception is marsh iris. Also, the reason may be a lack of phosphorus and potassium in the soil. It is required to treat the disease with the help of fungicides, and if the plants are very badly affected, then it is better to destroy them.
The most common pests include:
- Iris fly
Scoops - this is an extremely dangerous pest for a flower. Firstly, they eat up the base of the peduncle, as a result of which the plant turns yellow and may even die, and, secondly, the activity of scoops leads to the development of bacteriosis. As a preventive measure, it is necessary to treat the plant with karbofos.
Iris fly (iris flower girl) visually similar to an ordinary fly. Because of this pest, bud diseases develop. She feeds on the buds of culture that have not yet opened. As a result, the bud begins to rot. As a preventive measure, it is necessary to treat iris with insecticidal preparations (Aktellik, Aktara) even at the stage of bud formation.
Iris buds infested with iris fly larvae.
About the iris fly and the fight against it - on video
Thrips - very dangerous pests despite their miniature size. Initially, these pests settle on the leaves, which leads to their gradual drying and yellowing. Then they move to the buds. Subsequently, the buds are damaged and do not open. You can treat with karbofos with the addition of laundry soap. You can also use insecticidal preparations (Aktellik, Aktara).
Medvedka - a very common pest, especially in the southern regions of Russia. It can cause irreparable damage to irises. The pest damages the root system and bulbs. You can fight the bear by adding crushed eggshells dipped in vegetable oil to the soil. It will also be effective to fill the pest moves with soapy water or a solution of washing powder. In the fight against the bear, the marigolds planted nearby help.
Slugs infect iris leaves, and are also a distributor of bacterial rot. They are collected by hand, and the soil is also treated with superphosphate. For prevention, it is recommended to remove weeds around the plants in time.
Often, iris owners are faced with the following problems:
- The appearance of spots on the leaves of brown or yellow color... The reason is waterlogging of the soil or frequent precipitation. Damaged leaves must be trimmed. As a preventive measure, it is necessary in the spring, a month or two before the beginning of flowering, to treat the culture with fungicides
- If a the flower blooms poorly and sluggishly, then it does not have enough sunlight. Also, a possible reason is the excessive acidity of the soil.
- Wrinkles on the leaves Is a temporary phenomenon caused by bad weather conditions. Does not harm the plant
- Suspension of flowering can be caused by: strong overgrowth of the root system, depletion of the soil, freezing of flower buds, damage to the culture by pests and diseases, lack of watering in drought.
These are not all the difficulties in growing irises, we will be glad to see your other questions and comments.
Unpretentious and capricious juniper does not require much attention. However, following some rules, you will save the beautiful appearance of the plant and ensure long life.
Watering and feeding
Plant able to withstand without watering for a long period. However, in hot dry summers it is recommended to water it at least once a month.
Also periodically arrange a shower using a spray bottle or other sprayers. The procedure is carried out every week in the early morning or evening, when the sun is not as active as during the day.
In the spring, they introduce into the soil under the plant nitroammophos at the rate of 45 g per square meter. During the summer, you can fertilize the juniper with organic or mineral fertilizers no more than once a month. Such feeding is carried out if the tree grows slower than it should be.
It is carried out only if absolutely necessary, because there is no guarantee that the juniper will take root in a new place.
If you still decide - prepare optimal soil... It is best to mix coniferous soil, peat, sand in equal parts. Water the tree abundantly after placement.
Pruning and grooming in winter
The plant itself is perfect does not require pruning... All that is needed is to remove dry branches at any time. However, when forming a beautiful crown, you can cut off excess branches using a sharpened tool.
You can't cut many branches at once - tree may get sick.
Young plants harbor in the first couple of years lutrasil or other similar material. Older plants with a spreading crown are tied with rope or twine to prevent branches from breaking due to snow. You can also periodically shake off the attacking snow from the tree.
Juniper care in spring
When the sun becomes active and the snow slowly melts, a very dangerous period begins for all types of junipers. They are may dieunless you take action.
The sun is capable of literally burn the needlespreviously under the snow or simply unaccustomed to the burning rays. To prevent this, it is necessary to shade the plants with burlap, thin cloth or other covering material.
After the snow melts, remove the covering material, clean the trunk circle of fallen leaves and other organic debris. The layer of mulch is removed, as it can lead to rotting of the roots. The soil is dug up or loosened. When the soil dries up, the threat of rotting will go away, a fresh layer of mulch is poured.
Possible problems when growing catharanthus
Katarantus signals the inappropriate conditions of his detention or non-observance of the rules for caring for his appearance. Keep a close eye on the plant and correct your mistakes in time.
- Soft, yellowing leaves - too much sun. In the open ground, you need to build some kind of awning for the plant, but it is better to transplant the plant to a place where the rays are scattered. In the house, you need to rearrange the flower away from the window.
- The tips of the leaves turn yellow - low air humidity. In room conditions, installing the pot in a pallet with expanded clay, onto which water is poured, will help solve the problem. In the garden, the catharanthus needs to be sprayed.
- Yellowing and shedding of the lower leaves, provided that the color of the rest of the foliage is preserved - a natural process. In this case, you should not take any action.
- Minimum number of flowers - the plant is cold. The problem can be solved only in room conditions by moving the catharanthus to a warmer place. In open ground conditions, you will have to wait for warming.
- When grown at home, the plant may stop blooming.and the foliage will begin to turn yellow. This phenomenon suggests that the catharanthus is cramped in the pot and there is no room for growth and development. After removing the flower from the pot, you will see that the roots have entwined the entire earthy clod. Transplant the catharanthus into a large pot and the plant will come to life.
As you can see, caring for a catharanthus is not that difficult. If you know and take into account all these nuances when growing, you will get a spectacular, long-flowering plant to decorate a garden plot or an apartment interior.