How to choose and grow fruitful and tasty gooseberry varieties. Part 2

How to choose and grow fruitful and tasty gooseberry varieties. Part 2

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"A good gardener is a large gooseberry"

Read the first part of the article How to choose and grow fruitful and tasty gooseberry varieties

Gooseberry varieties: pros and cons

Early variety Spring the bush is medium-sized and medium-spine. Berries (weighing 3-5 g) are yellow, sour-sweet taste; when ripe, they do not crumble, but if they are overripe, they quickly lose their taste. Winter hardiness and productivity of this variety is above average. It is resistant to powdery mildew.

In vigorous bushes of weakly thorny varieties Senator (Consul) and Vladil (Commander) spines are solitary, weak, located perpendicular to the shoot or slightly downward. Both of them are of medium ripening period, but the second variety ripens a little earlier. Varieties of selection of the South Ural Research Institute of Control and Information Technologies. They have berries (the first weighing 2.6-6.3 g, the second 2.5-4.5), round, dark red with thin skin and an excellent sweet and sour taste. Their tasting score is 4.7 and 4.9 points, respectively, while the second grade berries have a delicate grape aroma. Both varieties are quite winter-hardy, high-yielding, self-fertile (45-48%), relatively resistant to powdery mildew, and the Vladil variety is also slightly affected by anthracnose and moth. Their positive properties are also the resistance of flowers to spring frosts.

The same early maturity and selection, thornless variety Harlequin forms a bush of medium height and density of shoots. Solitary, weak, short, thin, straight spines found at the nodes are directed downward in relation to the shoot. Dark cherry (almost black) berries (weighing 2.7-5.4 g) are one-dimensional, round-oval in shape. The taste qualities of sweet and sour berries are quite high (4.8 points). The variety is winter-hardy, high-yielding, resistant to powdery mildew, but average self-fertility (38.9%).

In a medium-sized bush of a variety Beryl of the middle ripening period (South Ural NIIPiK), thorns are usually located in the lower part of the shoots, they are weak, solitary, directed downward, sometimes perpendicularly and even upward along the shoot, and are completely absent on zero shoots. It has large (3.9-9.2 g) one-dimensional light green berries of a rounded shape with a thin skin, without pubescence. Sweet and sour taste (tasting score 5 points). The variety is winter-hardy and high-yielding. He also has quite serious disadvantages: it is affected by septoria, i.e. white spot above average and powdery mildew. Taste makes the gardener either accept the loss of some of the berries, or fight these mycoses.

Mid-early variety Pink 2 (VSTISP) forms dense bushes of medium height with a weak prickly shoots. The berries are large enough (5-6 g), round-oval, pink-red. They have a wonderful sweet and sour taste (5 points). The variety is winter-hardy, fruitful (up to 5 kg per bush), with good self-fertility, field resistance to fungal diseases (powdery mildew, anthracnose, septoria). For a stable high annual yield, the variety requires careful maintenance - regular watering and the introduction of complex fertilizers.

Weak thorn grade Cooperator medium ripening (Yuzhno-Uralskiy NIIPiK) has slightly spreading, dense bushes of medium height. Spines solitary, light green, of medium length and thickness, directed slightly downward, weak. Berries (weighing 3.6-8 g) are pear-shaped, dark cherry with thin skin; the taste is sweet and sour, pleasant (5 points). The variety is winter-hardy, high-yielding (within 3.7-6.9 kg per bush). Positive qualities of the variety: self-fertile (42.4%), resistant to powdery mildew, slightly affected by anthracnose, sawflies.

A medium-sized, slightly spreading bush of a medium-late thornless variety Grushenka characterized by medium-sized berries (weighing up to 6.5 g), round-pear-shaped. In early ripeness they are red in color, when ripe they are dark plum in color. The taste of berries is sweet and sour with a pleasant aroma, the skin is thick. The variety begins to bear fruit early, it is highly winter-resistant, relatively resistant to powdery mildew, septoria blight. Its flowers are rarely damaged by spring frosts. The yield of the bush is 5-6 kg.

Fast-growing thornless variety African has a medium-sized, medium-spreading bush with a height of 1-1.2 m. The variety is early-growing: a year after planting a one-year-old sapling, you can try the first berries on it, they taste sweet and sour, with a weak taste of black currant. The color of its berries corresponds to the name - their color is deep black. The variety is very highly winter-resistant, relatively resistant to powdery mildew, moderately susceptible to anthracnose.

Early studless variety Eaglet medium spreading, medium-sized bush. Its black berries, large to medium in size, have a pleasant sweet and sour taste, although some experts consider it relatively mediocre. The variety is high-yielding, moderately hardy, resistant to powdery mildew, but, according to experts, it is prone to spotting, which is why it often loses foliage during ripening, and then berries.

If we talk about my attitude to gooseberry fruits, then I will be sincere, because really "they don't argue about tastes." I want to admit that with the current huge range of fruit and berry crops, I do not share the great love of Chekhov's heroes for jam made from his berries. I think, as well as a significant part of gardeners. But I do not refuse it at all.

On my site I keep more than half a dozen bushes (4-5 varieties). At the same time, I give preference, first of all, to the taste of berries. I mainly use their harvest for winemaking.

I make an exception only for the fruits of the medium-ripening variety Black Negus (All-Russian Research Institute of Horticulture named after I.V. Michurin), which I like more than, for example, the fruits of the popular varieties Hinnonmaen Punainen, Kolobok and Krasnoslavyansky.

For example, the Kolobok variety has quite decent sweet berries, but it reacts negatively to the alternation of thaws and frosts, and freezes in severe winters, although it recovers later.

Black Negus - variety of selection I.V. Michurin. It is recommended for inclusion in the standard assortment in the Leningrad and Pskov regions. This variety has a fairly high winter hardiness. An adult 7-8 year old bush reaches a height of 1.5 m or more, it is quite spreading (2-2.5 m in diameter). Its spines are very strong, long, curved downward. Single or paired berries of a rounded-oblong shape, smooth (without pubescence), black (with a bluish bloom), characterized by a very delicate skin and medium to large size (3-5 g) and dark red flesh.

It should be noted that with irregular or weak pruning, as well as with shading of the bush, the berries become smaller. They have a dessert (sweet and sour) taste with a specific aroma - they resemble sweet muscat grapes. The people sometimes call this variety "wine". Because of his taste, he is very loved by children. The berries stay on the bush for a long time, but with a delay in picking, they gradually wither, wrinkle and dry out. But until October they can hang without cracking.

With good care, the yield of one bush is 3-4 kg. In the specialized literature, its high resistance to powdery mildew is noted. I noticed that with strong shading by trees and with very high thickening of its branches, as well as when planting bushes in lowland places where constant humidity is noted, powdery mildew may appear on the plants. But as soon as a good pruning of the bush, by the way, sitting in a very humid place, was carried out, the symptoms of this mycosis (by the way, without chemical treatments) no longer appeared. And the berries after such a pruning of the bush became larger.

I believe that those gardeners who want to arrange a living "edible" hedge on their site will not be mistaken if they choose the Black Negus variety for this plant. But I myself have never tasted it, since the berries of my bushes, as a rule, either I eat fresh myself, or I treat my friends, or I make jam from them.

I cook it in compliance with the proportion of berries-granulated sugar, like 1: 1.2-1.3 kg. So much sugar has to be taken for the reason that the berries give a lot of juice. So you have to start cooking in a dry (without a drop of water) saucepan - only berries and sugar. And all the same, the jam turns out to be quite liquid. Sometimes because of this, the cooked jam has to be partially "divided": boiled syrup goes into some containers, and berries into others.

I usually use syrup to make a delicious drink for drinking in summer, and jam for tea. By the way, according to scientists, the fruits of the Black Negus variety contain an antineoplastic substance - serotonin.

Gooseberry agrotechnology

I will briefly touch on planting and growing gooseberries as a crop. It must be remembered that this plant loves to be planted in the most lighted, well-ventilated place.

It is planted in early autumn or spring (before bud break, since the development of growing roots occurs at a minimum positive soil temperature). But it is better to do it in the fall.

For autumn planting, holes under the gooseberries are dug 2-3 weeks before planting, so that the soil has time to settle. Pits are dug 50 cm deep and wide. The upper fertile layer is placed in one direction, the lower, infertile layer in the other. Then 8-10 kg of humus or well-rotted manure, 50 g of double superphosphate, 40 g of potassium sulfate are added to the fertile soil. All components are well mixed. These fertilizers are then enough for plants for three years.

If the soil is clay, then 1 bucket of coarse river sand is added to the pit.

In a backyard garden, a distance of 0.9-1x1-1.5 m is left between the bushes. Shading of the bushes by adult trees is unacceptable: the laying of fruit buds and the preparation of wood for fruiting occurs only with good lighting.

Gooseberries can be successfully grown both in the form of a separate spreading bush (if desired, it can be formed on a trunk, like a tree), and plants can be placed on trellises. The trellis option is most preferable, especially if there are sufficient areas for plant cultivation, and the gardener is a big fan of various varieties. Trellis offer a lot of convenience in quickly harvesting significant harvests of berries for sale.

I emphasize that with such an arrangement of the bushes, this culture benefits in many ways: it makes it easier to care for them (timely weeding, fertilization, loosening, begins to bear fruit earlier (early maturity). They are durable, annually delight with stable successful harvests of high-quality and, as a result, well-stored berries , since the plants are better blown by the wind and less, due to non-thickening, they are affected by diseases and pests.After all, it is well known that thickening of the gooseberry bush creates many problems, including non-uniformity and non-simultaneous ripening of berries. lesions with powdery mildew, especially during the rainy season or when the bush is placed in a low place.

Alexander Lazarev,
candidate of biological sciences,
Senior Researcher, All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection,

Photo by the author and Olga Rubtsova

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Bronnitsky potatoes - Miracle vegetable garden

Potato variety Bronnitsky bred by employees of the Research and Scientific Institute of Potato Economy (Moscow Dignity). areas of the new variety - high resistance to eating (that is, degeneration, defeat by viral diseases) and excellent consumer qualities. In dachas and vegetable gardens, where potatoes have been grown for many years and seed production is not conducted, viral disease resistance gets a special meaning. After all, these diseases can reduce the yield by even 1/3 and tubers more.

Bronnitsky is a starchist, although the simplest sugar content in it is low. Therefore, its tubers are tasty, crumbly, do not possess after cooking, darken with a pleasant smell, suitable for crispy potatoes. Especially valuable in this is the ability - the variety of tubers not to accumulate the simplest sugars during the winter storage period.

The flesh of Bronnitsky's potatoes is yellow-light, but this does not in the least reduce the culinary qualities of the variety. It is known that many more consumers in our country traditionally prefer tubers with white. And the pulp in other countries, like Germany, France, the population loves yellow-meat varieties. That is why it is possible that the yellow color is traces, although the nutritional value of potatoes is not determined by them because of the low content of carotenoids (10 times less vitamin than C).

Bronnitsky potatoes are highly resistant field to late blight, that is, in any year it is resistant to any races of these mushrooms. years in However, with a high infectious load by the end of all vegetation, it is affected by this disease. So planting on which it is necessary to carry out systematic preventive copper-containing spraying preparations. The variety is still resistant to the widespread black leg (bacterial disease).

suitable Most soils for potatoes - light and medium loam. On sandy soils, the yield of tubers is relatively low. But on any soil, Bronnitsky requires a background of increased mineral nutrition, because this is an intense type of type that responds well to high doses of both mineral and organic fertilizers. weave with Collect 500-600 kg - business. Another thing is that the feature under the Bronnitsky bush in any conditions is the same number of tubers (13-17 pieces). of course, their mass may be different. With the soil lacking nutrients or in unfavorable weather conditions, plants are not able to provide the growth of the number of such tubers to large sizes. For the same reason, for a thickened planting (more than 500 hundred square meters per plant), smaller, but aligned, suitable, tubers for seeds are formed.

Usually, the physiological maturation of tubers begins 100-110 days after planting, but if it is carried out with germinated tubers, then this period will be reduced to 70 days. In general, Bronnitsky begins tuberization relatively early.

The tubers are resistant to mechanical damage. Even after combine harvesting under industrial conditions, the waste during the winter storage period is minimal, and potatoes grown in household plots are preserved by almost 100%.

Potatoes Bronnitsky varieties are zoned in Moscow, Bryansk, Ryazan Chuvashia and regions.

Proven tomato varieties for the Urals and Siberia: the best varieties for open ground and greenhouses. The most productive tomatoes for the Urals: how to choose the best varieties

It is possible to grow tomatoes in the Urals and Siberia only by seedlings, and even then it is not always possible to get a good harvest. In the conditions of a short and cold summer, tomatoes simply do not have time to ripen if the variety is chosen incorrectly. We offer you to get acquainted with proven varieties that are guaranteed to yield a harvest in harsh conditions.

A selection of the best varieties of tomatoes for open ground in the Urals and Siberia

The requirements for varieties of open ground are very high. Tomatoes must be adapted to the local climate, tolerate frost and weather changes well throughout the growing season. Breeders have developed the following varieties:

Tomato variety "Gina" of Dutch selection belongs to the mid-season varieties. The bushes are undersized, do not exceed 50 cm in height, do not require pinching and garters. Tomatoes are tied with several tassels, each weighing up to 200 grams. Fruits are round, ribbed, bright red in color. The skin is dense, the pulp is fragrant, juicy, sweet and sour.

The yield is stable, from 10 to 25 kg of tomatoes per m2. Fruiting is extended, the last tomatoes are removed just before the frost. Bushes with good immunity, rarely get sick. The variety is suitable for juicing and making fresh salads.

Tomato "Salted delicacy"
mid-early ripening is famous for its plum-shaped fruits, which are great for whole-fruit canning. The bushes are medium-sized, do not grow more than a meter. Lined tomatoes, deep red with sugary pulp and dense skin. The variety tolerates transportation and storage well, does not lose its presentation. Productivity of tomatoes up to 3.5 kg per bush.

No less interesting grade "Grushovka"
the average ripening period, it takes more than 100 days for the fruit to form. The bushes are medium-sized, no more than half a meter in height, each with 6-7 fruit clusters. The tomatoes are beautiful pear-shaped, pink-red in color, fragrant and sugary. The weight of tomatoes ranges from 100 to 150 grams, a universal variety suitable for canning and fresh consumption.

Bushes are hardy, resistant to diseases and pests, high-yielding. With normal agricultural technology, up to 5 kg of tomatoes are harvested from the plant.

Greenhouse varieties of tomatoes: the best varieties for the Urals with a description and photo

Temperature differences are often observed in greenhouses, the difference between daytime and nighttime values ​​is significant. In such conditions, not every variety is able to develop well and bear fruit. Greenhouse tomatoes must be hardy and resistant to possible diseases.

Famous varieties of the best greenhouse tomatoes for the Urals and Siberia:

Variety "Kostroma"
grown in the Urals for a long time. The plant is of medium early ripening, fruiting begins on the 105th day of cultivation. The bushes are hardy, well resistant to fungal infections, fruitful. Subject to agricultural technology, up to 30 kg of tomatoes are harvested from m2. The fruits are rounded, pink in color, pleasant to the taste, transportable.

Early ripening tomatoes "Lelya"
will please with the harvest already on the 85-90 day of cultivation. Tomatoes have a pleasant taste with a characteristic sourness, resistant to fungal and viral infections. A universal grade, transportable.

The large-fruited early variety "Kokhava" is famous for its tasty fruits and enviable productivity. Tomatoes are pink, fleshy, rather large, the weight of one reaches 200 grams. Productivity is more than 30 kg per m2, subject to good agricultural technology.

What varieties of tall tomatoes are best grown in the Urals and Siberia

Tall or indeterminate tomatoes are considered the tastiest. The bushes are highly resistant to late blight and other diseases, they tolerate temperature fluctuations well. Among the tall tomatoes, the most prolific varieties can be distinguished:

Variety "De Barao Tsarsky"
medium-late ripening of fruits is suitable for growing in greenhouses and in open beds. The bushes begin to bear fruit after 125-140 days. The plants are tall, tolerate well the lack of light and heat, resistant to late blight.

Elongated plum-shaped tomatoes weighing up to 150 g, fleshy, with a dense skin. The average yield of the variety is up to 10-12 kg per bush. Tomatoes are universal, suitable for processing and fresh consumption.

No less popular is the high-yielding variety "Batyanya" with large raspberry-colored fruits. Tomatoes gain weight up to 250 grams. The pulp is sugary, sweet. The average yield is 15-17 kg per m2. A variety of universal use. Tomatoes "Batyanya" are grown on a trellis, the bush is formed into two stems.

Variety of tall tomatoes "Intuition"
famous for its unpretentiousness, resistance to various diseases. Even novice gardeners can grow it. The yield is friendly, the fruiting is lingering. Fruits are smooth, spherical, with delicious sweet pulp. The variety is suitable for all types of processing.

The sweetest and most productive varieties of low-growing tomatoes for Siberia and the Urals: the best varieties and tips for planting

Low-growing tomatoes for open ground are not sensitive to the vagaries of the weather, they bear fruit well and stably. Among them, varieties are popular:

Variety "French Grove"
forms a moderately leafy bush, in the open field does not require a garter and pinching. Tomatoes are of medium late ripening, they begin to bear fruit after 120 days from planting. The yield is stable, no more than 5 kg of tomatoes are obtained from a bush per season. The tomatoes are elongated, the skin is red, dense, does not crack when canning, the flesh is sweet. A variety for pickling purposes.

Tomato "Glossy"
refers to mid-season varieties with oval-shaped fruits. Medium-sized tomatoes, average weight up to 100 grams, fleshy, excellent taste. The variety is suitable for canning whole fruits, making fresh salads and other processing.

Early ripening tomato "Siberian Express"
considered the best among the low-growing varieties for the Urals. The bush is compact, begins to bear fruit in three and a half months after planting. Fruits are round, red, medium-sized, good-tasting, aromatic. The variety is unpretentious, hardy, fruitful. At least 2 kg of tomato is harvested from a bush, and at least 10 kg from a meter of planting.

Long-term fruiting, unripe fruits are able to "reach" in storage, are well transported. The variety is suitable for planting in greenhouses and open ground. Fresh juice, tomato puree and other preparations are prepared from tomatoes. The bushes resist the main diseases, are rarely affected by tobacco mosaic and brown spot. However, in unstable weather, the unevenness of the fruit is expressed.

Choosing the most productive tomato varieties for 2021

In our cold climate, tomatoes are grown as an annual plant, while in southern countries (such as Mexico) they are cultivated as perennial shrubs. It's hard to believe, but tomatoes have been known in Europe since the 16th century, but they began to be eaten only in the 18th century. Before that, they were grown only as ornamental plants, and the fruits were considered poisonous. Tomatoes are now ubiquitous; they are grown in open beds, in greenhouses, in greenhouses and even on window sills.

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