How, when and where to plant cherries; how to care for cherries
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Fruit and berry plants
The history of wild cherry, or as it is also called - bird cherry, has its roots in the distant past, from where it traveled a long way to today's well-known domesticated representative of this glorious family. Moreover, scientists have confirmed that the selection of this plant took place simultaneously in different places, and as a result, a high-quality fruit tree with delicious berries was obtained. Not everyone knows that cherry owes its name to the English word cherry, which means cherry in Russian. That is why there is a mistaken opinion among the people that cherries are the younger sister of cherries and were born thanks to their selection. In fact, the modern cherry tree emerged from the crossing of the sweet cherry with the wild cherry.
With its many virtues, sweet cherry is a popular and desirable representative of many garden plots. Today it is one of the most widespread fruit trees and has about 4,000 varieties worldwide, which, according to their qualities, are divided into only two groups - Ginny and Bigarro. The Gini variety includes all varieties of early cherries with very tender, juicy and sweet berries, but they have a significant drawback in the form of a quick loss of the presentation of the fruit and their poor transportation. Bigarro combines medium to late ripening varieties with a denser and firmer berry, which is equally good and only plucked from the tree and processed, has a longer shelf life and is quite transportable.
Also, only cherry fruits are distinguished by the most diverse color palette, the colors of which can vary from light amber to black-cherry. The berries themselves are of different sizes, depending on the variety, are covered with a smooth skin, in the middle they all have a small bone and juicy pulp that just melts in your mouth.
Let's try with you to grow and get a decent harvest of one of the most beloved trees.
Choosing a place for planting cherries
To plant this thermophilic tree, you should choose a sunny, bright place on a small hill or gentle slope, where there are no drafts and cold north winds. In the absence of elevations on your site, you can make an embankment of soil 40-50 cm high, preferably from the south side of the house. Also, for the good growth of our beauty, moderately moist and fertile soil is required. Alternatively, light soils are suitable, which can warm up well and allow air to pass underground. A tree planted in heavy clay / peat soil or in soil with added rubble has a very small chance of survival and fruiting. You should also check that groundwater does not flow near the tree, since this plant does not like stagnant water near its roots.
Considering that the sweet cherry itself is sterile and needs cross-pollination, it is advisable to plant several cherries and cherries of different varieties nearby, but with the same pollination and flowering periods. Having decided on a place for planting, you need to decide which seedlings will be settled in a new place. When choosing them, it is very important not to get lost among the varieties of cherries and it is worth considering the time of fruiting (early, middle, later), the location of the garden plot and, of course, your wishes in the end result. When buying plants, it is worth taking a closer look at one- or two-year-old cherry seedlings, which have a sufficiently developed crown, a healthy root - at least 25 centimeters in length and, of course, how reliable the place of sale itself is. If you buy trees older than three years, they may simply not take root in a new place.
Having made this difficult choice and having bought the required number of plants, in early spring they are planted in the ground, while remembering that a good place for spring planting should be prepared in the fall. For this, in the fall, you should dig a hole about half a meter deep, up to a meter wide, fill it with a couple of buckets of humus or other organic fertilizers, mix them with the ground and leave it for the winter. And in early spring, even before the buds swell, fertilize with a small amount of superphosphate and such an excellent natural fertilizer as ash, then mix and fluff the earth. If the roots have dried out during transportation, they should be soaked in a bowl of water, at least for a day. Also, for good adaptation of the root system in the soil, before planting it should be dipped in a solution consisting of 1 part of clay, 2 - mullein, 5 - water. Then gently straighten the roots, if necessary, cut the damaged ones and immerse them shallowly into the prepared hole, you can even slightly raise the plant above the ground so that the root collar protrudes 4 centimeters above the level of the hole. Beforehand, in the center of the hole, dig in a one and a half meter stake, to which, on the north side, lean and neatly tie the planted tree.
After planting, make a hole around the seedling, pour a bucket of water and mulch with humus. The plant should be watered every two weeks, in case of drought - once every 10 days, however, it should be remembered that excessive moisture can lead to cracks in the fruit.
When planting several trees, keep a distance of at least three meters between them and make sure that no shadow from other trees falls on the cherry. In subsequent years, preparing cherries for winter, you should fertilize the soil with granular superphosphate no later than September. Also, given the good growth of shoots, the tree must be formative pruning every year in early spring and, if necessary, pruning of dry and broken branches. Cuts and cuts of branches should be treated with garden varnish or garden putty, and the trunk and bases of the skeletal branches of the tree should be whitewashed and wrapped from winter frosts and rodents with branches or agrofibre.
But not only rodents and cold are the enemies of cherries, no less great danger lies in wait for the plant from the side of birds. And for sure, the name of the cherry "bird cherry" corresponds to the great love of feathered neighbors for delicious berries of fruit trees. What tricks did not ingenious gardeners - amateurs try to come up with in this difficult struggle: they hung children's toys on branches, luminously - rustling objects, reflective tapes, barbed wire and just different things creating noise effects, but the birds quickly expose the next not dangerous for them "scarecrows ”, Do not react to them and still manage to feast on the forbidden fruits. Moreover, if cherries are not provided with any protection, then there is a possibility of being left without berries at all, but with happy feathered neighbors. Experienced gardeners - amateurs are advised to use nets for covering trees, as the most effective means.
Sweet cherry is a fruit plant and caring for it is identical to caring for any fruit trees: loosen and fertilize the soil, water it in time, prune the branches of the crown and dead wood, and also protect it from various pests and diseases.
If you have read everything carefully and are ready for the correct and careful care of cherries, then it, in turn, will not remain in debt and will bring you the first early berries, which are not only tasty, but also very healthy.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Pink
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Fruit Crops
Sections: Fruit and berry plants
It is better to grow cherries from a young seedling. It is impossible to get good planting material from a bone. The fact is that the plant will not inherit parental qualities. Planting a seedling must be carried out in accordance with all the rules.
When to plant cherries?
In the northern regions, planting cherries in the fall must be done very carefully so that early frosts do not damage the tree. If possible, it is better to postpone work until spring. In the south of the country, seedlings can be planted in the fall. But all work must be completed before the onset of frost. The seedling needs time to take root. The optimal time for planting is from the beginning to the end of October.
Where to plant cherries?
In order for the tree to develop well and bear fruit, it is important not only to take into account the timing of planting, but also the location of the seedling.
Sweet cherry prefers lighted areas that are protected from the wind by a wall or other structures. In such a place, the young tree will be well sheltered from frost.
It is important to pay attention to the soil composition of the site. The soil must be fertile and moisture-consuming. But the groundwater must be deep.
It is best to set aside a place for cherries on a hill where there is no risk of spring flooding. Various varieties of cherries and cherries will be good neighbors for the plant.
How to grow cherries without hassle
In order for the fruit tree to develop actively and bear fruit well, a sunny place is chosen for it, which is not blown by cold northerly winds. A good option would be to plant a seedling from the southwest or south side of a building. Sweet cherry loves fertile light loams, sandy loam soils, and feels absolutely uncomfortable on poor sandstones, heavy peat and clay soils.
You need to plant exclusively zoned seedlings, which are sold in specialized nurseries. In addition, they will definitely tell you how to grow cherries without unnecessary hassle. To improve pollination, experts advise planting two or three trees on the site, but if there is not enough space, growing cherries from your neighbors will save the day.
Basic, beloved by all varieties:
- very early - "Ruby early", Juicy"Skorospelka»
- early - unsurpassed "Valery Chkalov", Gentle"Backyard"And"Zhabule»
- medium - "Pink pearl», «Adeline"And dark red"Veda»
- late - "Leningrad black", Sweet"Drogana yellow"And"Bryansk pink».
In the middle lane, spring planting of cherries is practiced, as it is a thermophilic breed that can freeze out in the very first winter.
We plant correctly
It is possible to lay a cherry orchard in spring from April to the second decade of May, provided that the seedlings will have unblown leaves. September and October are most favorable for planting in autumn, because a young tree will have time to take root before the onset of frost (applicable only for the southern regions).
- Planting holes must be prepared in advance. If you are planting in the spring, cook it in the fall, and for planting in the fall - around August. It is best to make the pits rounded, so the roots will develop well, evenly filling the space. The optimum diameter of the hole is about a meter, the depth is about 80 cm. We put two buckets of good earth and 12 kg of manure, which must be rotted, into the hole. We mix everything thoroughly and leave so that the earth settles and settles
- At the time of planting, we dig a hole, leaving a small mound in the middle. Drive in a strong stake 5 cm from the center, which will protect the trunk of an immature tree at first from strong wind and sunburn
- We study the root system for damaged roots and cut them to healthy tissue. In addition, do not forget to put the seedling in water a day before planting so that it is well saturated with moisture.
- We put a young tree on a mound and carefully place the roots, while watching the position of the root collar, which cannot be buried
- We tie the seedling to the stake and fill the hole with earth, tamping it with our feet perpendicular to the trunk (heel to the edge of the hole)
- Create a hole around the trunk and pour out 3 buckets of water.
The planted young cherry trees are subsequently watered at least 4 times.
We do the pruning
Young trees grow very intensively, therefore, for the first 6 years, before the leaves bloom, formative pruning is done. The tree needs to be kept within certain limits so that it is convenient to harvest.
The most common crowns of the following types:
- sparse tiered. In total, three tiers are laid, leaving in the lower - 4 skeletal branches (3 is possible), on average after 50 cm - 3 branches, and in the upper, at the same distance - 2 more branches.
- flattened. The pruning principle is based on the compilation of three tiers: in each of them, two branches are placed perpendicular to each other. After laying the last tier above the weak lateral branch, the main conductor is cut off. Subsequently, branches in tiers are cut, adhering to the sparse-tiered principle
- cupped. Such a crown consists of mainly four or five strong branches, which form a kind of bowl. Thanks to good illumination, fruit twigs will live for more than ten years.
Upon completion of the formation for ten years, pruning is done in moderation, removing all broken, unnecessary and growing shoots to the guide. So the time for the first rejuvenating pruning is imperceptible: you need to shorten all two- and three-year branches. Three years later, they make another one, cutting out branches with five- and six-year-old wood. The tree between "rejuvenations" continues to be thinned every year.
Water and fertilize
In the year of planting, it is very important to destroy the weeds in the near-stem circle of the cherry and then continue to carefully monitor this. The soil around the tree can be mulched to retain moisture as much as possible.
Experts recommend that the first watering should be carried out only after flowering, the next - in mid-June and then in July. Do not watered during the flowering period, the tree can respond by completely dropping the ovary. Moisture-charging watering is carried out in October - up to 100 liters for an adult tree. For good harvests, the tree will need a lot of nutrients, which means that you cannot do without top dressing.
Every three years, 8 kg of organic matter per square meter are dug up with the soil according to the projection of the crown. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied in early spring and in July for loosening in liquid or dry form. The tree is fed with phosphorus and potash fertilizers in September so that it has time to prepare for the winter cold. In addition, the cultivation of cherries requires whitewashing of the trunk and skeletal branches in the fall and spring to prevent sunburn and frostbite.
HOW TO CARE FOR A CHERRY CORRECTLY
Sweet cherry is a rather unpretentious culture. Taking care of her is not difficult, and even if you are a novice gardener, you will absolutely be able to do it.
In the early years, plants really need nitrogen for rapid growth and crown formation. Therefore, start with nitrogen fertilization. Feed the cherry trees for the first time at the end of April - as soon as the snow melts. For feeding, use a urea solution (25 g per 10 liters of water for each seedling). After May 15, water the plants with a mullein solution (two shovels of manure per 10 liters of water), also one watering can under the seedling.
After the cherries begin to give berries, you need to give the plants nitrogen nutrition with natural organic matter every spring, and feed them with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers in the fall. In the spring, under hilling, two glasses of crushed eggshells are introduced to form seeds in the fruits.
On acidic soils, at least once every five years, neutralize with dolomite flour (at the rate of a liter can per square meter). When caring for cherries, you must not forget about regular pruning. In no case should the crown be thickened, otherwise pathogens and pests can multiply there due to poor ventilation.
We offer you the simplest cropping that even a beginner can perfectly do. Remove all branches growing inside the crown, or at a slight angle (less than 35 degrees) to the central trunk, as well as intersecting with each other. Shorten long branches that break the symmetry of the crown, remove all root growth.To make it easier for yourself to care for fruit-bearing trees, cut their central trunk and upper branches to a height of 2.5 - 3 m.
When caring for cherries, do not forget to whitewash the trees up to the second tier of the lower branches. In spring, day and night temperature drops can reach 30 degrees. This can lead to the appearance of strong frosts on tree trunks. Protective whitewashing will prevent their appearance and protect plants from overwintering pests and pathogens of fungal diseases.
We were surprised and very happy to receive so many questions from you related to the care of the frost-resistant cherry that you bought from us!
We had no idea how many gardeners are now growing our cherries in the northern regions.
We have already written several times in our blog about how this culture appeared, how its fruits are useful, and most importantly - how to properly care for it. You can read about this in detail in our published articles:
You are now asking about specific activities related to the care of frost-hardy cherries in spring, starting in April. We will try to answer you in as much detail as possible.
Last year, in the spring, we planted three varieties of cherries purchased from you: Iput, Gift to Stepanov andJealous. Our trees have taken root well and have grown noticeably by the fall.
As you recommended, for the winter we covered the trunks with dry leaves, spruce branches and over-lutrasil. The trees are all alive.
Tell me when to finally remove the shelters (we left only one layer of spruce branches, as it was warming, and then cold again). And where to start caring for our frost-resistant cherries?
Alexander and Tatiana Petrov, Moscow region
Now you can completely free your plants from spruce branches and dry leaves. Examine each plant carefully to see if the rodents have damaged their stems and the lower part of the trunk in winter. Hares, mice and voles are very fond of aromatic, sweet cherry wood.
If the bark is not severely damaged, urgently treat all wounds with a solution of potassium permanganate, and then cover with garden varnish. In case of severe damage to the trunk in the lower part (around the circumference), do not be discouraged. This misfortune can be corrected with the help of a completely simple "bridge grafting".
If you did not whitewash the trunks in the fall and the trees received burns or frostbite, immediately start treatment. First, very gently remove the damaged bark down to living tissue.
Disinfect the resulting wound with a raspberry solution of potassium permanganate and cover it with garden varnish on top.
To avoid such troubles in November, whitewash well all the trunks from the ground to the second fork of the skeletal branches. Buy ready-made whitewash. It contains all the necessary components, including plant protection products from pests and diseases.
When to start the first pruning of frost-resistant cherries in the spring and should it be done every year?
Svetlana Ovcharova, Yekaterinburg
Pruning frost-resistant cherries is one of the most important agrotechnical techniques in caring for cherries! And you need to start it in the spring (in April) the next year after planting. The first cut is the most important! The formation of the future tree begins with it.
How to do it, read in detail in our article.: "How to care for frost-resistant cherries."
Mature trees should be pruned every year in April at the same time (plus or minus a week). Then fruiting will begin at the same time every year!
If spring pruning is done correctly, the tree will quickly gain strength, grow well and produce high yields. And the likelihood of the appearance of fungal diseases will be practically reduced to zero.
By the way, all our cherry varieties have not only increased frost resistance, but are also resistant to almost all diseases of stone fruit crops.
When pruning, do not accidentally remove the branches on which the fruit buds have set! Otherwise, you will be left without a crop.
In fact, pruning hardy cherries is a two-step process. The first one is the usual sanitary one, in which all frozen, dry, broken, old and weak branches are removed.
The second stage is thinning, in which all thickening, growing inside the crown or at an angle of less than 40 degrees to the trunk and crossing branches are cut out.
It is especially necessary to actively prune young plants (up to five years old). In the early years, frost-resistant sweet cherry trees branch out strongly. Therefore, feel free to shorten their branches to 45 - 50 cm.After five years, only part of the branches is shortened, and no more than 20 cm.
Such care of cherries allows you to form a strong skeleton of the tree, to provide good illumination and airing of the entire crown, to create all conditions for obtaining high yields annually.
Thank you for the wonderful cherry seedlings! We bought from you 4 years agoOvstuzhenka, Revna andIput... The first harvest was harvested last year. To be honest, they did not believe that this would happen. But your seedlings are very good, they quickly took root and began to grow. I have never been ill with anything.
Tell me how we can fertilize our cherry trees, taking into account the fact that they have entered the season of fruiting?
Elena Belkina, Miass
We have already said that caring for frost-resistant cherries begins in April. The first feeding - with urea (2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water under one tree) is carried out as soon as the snow melts.
At the beginning of flowering, double superphosphate and potassium sulfate are introduced into the trunk circles (1 tbsp. Spoon per 1 sq. M of the trunk circle), which are embedded in the soil with the help of shallow loosening.
After a week, the trees are given calcium in the form of a solution of calcium chloride (2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water) or eggshells ground into flour (a liter jar for one plant).
Cherries need calcium for the formation of seeds in fruits. If it is not enough, all the ovaries will simply fall off.
At the end of June, cherries are fertilized with a solution of mullein at a concentration of 1:10 (10 liters under one tree). In July, they are fed with potassium magnesium (doses are indicated on the package), since stone fruits, especially cherries and apricots, need a lot of potassium.
The last feeding - some kind of ready-made mineral complex for the autumn feeding of fruit trees, frost-resistant cherries are given in early October. In this case, the dosages indicated on the package are taken into account.
And yet, although no one asked a question about treatments for pests and diseases, we want to give you a recommendation from ourselves.
Since the winter this year was very warm, most of the wintering pests and pathogens tolerated it perfectly. Therefore, in the near future, we can expect their powerful invasion of our gardens.
In this regard, now carry out two preventive treatments (with an interval of a week) of the entire site, all the plants on it, wooden fences, walls of sheds and gazebos:
1. With a solution of the drug "Fufanon" - against harmful insects.
2. 1% Bordeaux mixture - against fungal diseases.
This will save up to 90% of the future harvest!
THE BEST VARIETIES OF FROST-RESISTANT CHERRY FROM OUR COLLECTION
Now that you know how to properly care for frost-hardy cherries in spring, you can choose the best varieties from our collection. This is the right thing to do now, because experts recommend planting "northern" cherries in spring - late April - early May.
When planting in spring, the plants have time to take root well and calmly prepare for the winter cold.
If frost-resistant cherries are not yet growing in your area, remember that they are only partially self-fertile, therefore, in order to obtain high yields, it is necessary to plant at least two different varieties for pollination.
The best pollinators for all varieties are Ovstuzhenka and Iput.
Our best varieties:
You can buy all these wonderful varieties from us right now!
Reviews of gardeners about the sweetheart cherry variety
Sweetheart is a self-fertile variety, bred in Canada. The fruits are large (9.7 g) and have an elongated heart shape, up to 34 mm long. Productivity is high, dark red berries with firm flesh, moderately resistant to cracking. The tree is strong enough, wide crown. Fast-growing, very productive variety. The color of the berry is red and very bright. The taste is juicy, very pleasant. The pulp is light red.
Now, when buying seedlings, you need to look for them grafted onto clonal rootstocks. The VSL-2 stock is suitable for cherries: it is weak. I have grafted myself on such a variety Sweet Hart.
Staccato ripens five days later than Sweetheart. Like Sweetheart, the self-fertile variety is a universal donor.
The plot is small, so for a long time, as a beginner, I was looking for several varieties of sweet cherries. This is our favorite berry. Sweetheart always makes us happy. The tree has been growing for the sixth year. The berries do not crack, crumble or rot. I recommend it to everyone, the variety will not disappoint you.
Sweethart cherry owes its popularity among gardeners to many undoubted advantages. There were also some drawbacks, the main disadvantage is the tendency to infection with powdery mildew. Caring for a tree is not particularly difficult; even an inexperienced gardener can get a harvest.
We collect berries
Cherry varieties ripen from the beginning of June to the twentieth of July. It is customary to distinguish between two types of ripeness: technical, when fruits are characterized by the acquisition of their inherent color and taste, and consumer, when they are the most delicious and juicy. The crop is harvested in dry weather for just a couple of days, otherwise the crop can be lost. The berries are removed from the stalk and immature and diseased specimens are immediately removed. For transportation, the fruits are cut off at the stage of technical ripeness.
Everyone loves sweet cherry, because it contains many valuable elements, including vitamin C, nicotinic acid, carotene. Doctors recommend eating berries for those who have thyroid disease, as it is also rich in iodine. And how many delicious preparations can be made from it - compotes, preserves, jam, juices, can be pickled and used as a side dish for meat dishes. And how tasty frozen berries are in winter: you open a jar, and there ... summer.