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How to properly grow hazelnuts from walnuts at home?

How to properly grow hazelnuts from walnuts at home?


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It's hard to find someone who doesn't like chocolate or hazelnut candy. These small nuts not only taste good, but also have a beneficial effect on the human body.... The high content of vitamins, chemical elements and amino acids improves health in case of anemia, chronic fatigue, diabetes, neuroses and heart diseases. Hazelnut oil contained in nuts, supplying the body with vitamin E, restores vitality and has a rejuvenating effect. Eating hazelnuts in food is equally beneficial for children and older people. Let's take a closer look at this plant, with the features of the care and cultivation of hazel at home.

There is no industrial cultivation of hazelnuts in our country. Valuable fruits are imported mainly from Turkey, Italy, Spain and China. But hazelnuts are not as exotic as they seem. It is a cultivated form of common hazel, which grows under natural conditions in the Caucasus, the Middle East, Ukraine and throughout the European territory up to northern latitudes. So why not grow this unpretentious and useful plant in your country house, because planting hazelnuts is an excellent business prospect and investment in your health.

Hazelnut - a cultural form of hazel on the site

Growing hazelnuts for a gardener won't be a big hassle. No wonder the Italians call "cultivated hazel" a plant for the lazy. Hazelnut is a shrub that reaches 2-5 m in height, depending on the variety, but can be formed by pruning in the form of a tree - the choice depends on the owner of the site.

The first harvest can be expected as early as 3-4 years after planting the seedling... The plant does not need particularly careful care, because in natural conditions, hazel grows well without human help. After planting, agricultural technology is reduced to watering, removing root growth, annual pruning, and pest control if necessary.

Hazelnuts planted on the site for decades will supply fruits with high nutritional properties and useful substances. Mass harvesting of nuts begins from 5-7 years of plant life and lasts for 10-15 years... After that, the plant is "rejuvenated" - for several years in a row, 2-3 old branches are cut off, which are eventually replaced by young ones and begin to bear fruit generously.

From each adult hazelnut, subject to agrotechnical practices get 5-12 kg of fruitthat can be stored for a long time (1-3 years) without sacrificing taste. If you plant at least three plants on the site, the annual harvest will look quite significant.

Hazelnuts can grow in one place from 50 to 100 years. By planting a plant once, you will provide yourself and your children with valuable nuts for many years to come.

In addition to the benefits of harvesting, the plant has a high decorative effect. Hazelnut varieties have leaves of different colors and sizes., therefore, gardeners often practice planting variegated bushes in a row - with red, yellow and green foliage. Hazelnuts also look spectacular as a specimen plant, formed in the form of a tree. Aesthetic lovers will appreciate the beauty of the bush that throws out spectacular earrings that attract bees in early spring.

Reproduction of hazelnuts at home

Lovers of growing a tree from a nut may well resort to the seed method of reproduction. It is uncomplicated and, subject to the necessary requirements, will allow you to get a strong and healthy plant. However, such hazelnuts will begin to bear fruit much later than the one grown from a seedling. If, when planting a seedling, the first nuts appear 3-4 years after planting, then the plant grown

from walnut, bears fruit for 6, or even 10 years.

Therefore, gardeners are more likely to use the planting of seedlings. With this method of reproduction, in contrast to planting a nut, all varietal characteristics of hazelnuts are preserved, based on which they choose a plant suitable for certain conditions.

Sapling selection

One- or two-year-old seedlings are selected for planting. It is recommended to give preference to winter-hardy and drought-resistant varieties.... The purchase of a seedling in a local nursery guarantees the receipt of zoned varieties adapted to the climatic conditions of the region.

When choosing hazelnut seedlings in a nursery or garden center, you need to carefully examine the root system of the plant. It should be well developed and free from damage. Slightly damaged roots are cut to a healthy place... If there is a lot of damage, you should refuse to buy a seedling, since a strong pruning can affect the survival rate and lead to the death of the plant.

Choosing a landing site

Hazelnut is considered a plant that is unpretentious to the composition of the soil and terrain. Moderately fertile soil and a sufficient amount of moisture are favorable for the development of the plant and future abundant fruiting. Most suitable for cultivation are gray forest soils, loamy, sandy loam and chernozems of various types. The optimal occurrence of groundwater is no closer than 1.2-1.5 m to the surface... During the spring thawing of snow, the site should not be flooded with water - prolonged waterlogging leads to decay and death of hazelnuts.

However, do not be upset for those whose soil composition on the site is far from ideal. Hazelnuts are safely grown on almost any type of soil characteristic of the middle lane, except for very heavy clay, swampy, saline and dry sandy soils. When planting a seedling, chernozems are facilitated by the introduction of sand and compost humus - this will improve the air and moisture permeability of the soil... The composition of acidic soils is improved by the introduction of hydrated lime, ground chalk or wood ash.

Hazelnuts grow equally well on flat areas and mountain slopes. Due to the developed fibrous root system, the plant is planted specifically in places where it is necessary to prevent soil erosion. When planting on a plot for hazelnuts, you can take any place that is not suitable for other horticultural crops.

Experienced gardeners practice in the first few years planting different garden crops between the bushes of young hazelnuts, which improve the composition of the soil, yield a harvest and do not allow empty space on the site.

An important requirement that must be observed when choosing a landing site is good illumination. Hazelnuts can grow in shaded areas, but then you should not hope for a good harvest.... Only the presence of a large amount of natural light contributes to abundant fruiting.

When planting on slopes for "cultured hazel", you can determine the place on any side except the south. It would seem that the south side is better lit and suitable for a plant that loves light. In fact, in early spring, in bright sunlight, flower buds bloom ahead of schedule, and then die during spring frosts.

The culture is sensitive to through winds, therefore when determining the site for planting, the areas that are maximally protected from drafts are selected... Walls of buildings or hedges are used as protection from the wind.

When planting several seedlings, the distance between them and to the nearest trees with a voluminous crown is maintained at least 4-5 m, depending on the size of the future plant in adulthood.

Landing technology

According to information from horticultural guides, seedlings of "cultivated hazel" can be planted in early spring (March-April) or in autumn. Hazelnuts have a short dormancy period, their buds move out earlier than other trees, and most of the plants planted in spring do not take root.

Experienced gardeners are more inclined towards autumn planting - in October-November. Dates for each area are determined individually, depending on weather conditions... In any case, the autumn planting is carried out a month before the onset of frost.

To get a generous harvest of nuts, at least three bushes of different inter-pollinated hazelnut varieties are planted on the site.

For autumn planting, a hazelnut planting pit is prepared since spring, if the planting of a seedling is planned for the spring, then the preparation is carried out in the fall. This technique allows the weed-free soil to rest and to accumulate a sufficient amount of moisture. Often life makes adjustments to our plans, and if the decision to plant hazelnuts came spontaneously, the planting pit can be prepared at least two weeks before planting or immediately before planting.

The landing pit is dug 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 m in size. Organic and mineral fertilizers are introduced into the prepared pit and mixed well with the ground:

  • humus - 2-3 buckets;
  • double superphosphate - 150-200 g;
  • potassium sulfate - 50-70 g.

Compliance with the recommendations for soil preparation will provide the seedling with sufficient nutrition for 3-4 years.

It is more convenient to plant hazelnuts with an assistant: one holds the plant and straightens the root system, the other carries out all the necessary manipulations. Planting technology is simple:

  • If the roots of the seedling were processed in a clay mash, wash the clay from the roots... Dipping in a chatterbox is only necessary to retain moisture in the roots until the moment of planting.
  • If the roots of the plant are a little dry, first put them in water for 1-2 days... Drying of the roots is evidenced by the shriveled bark of the shoots.
  • If the roots are significantly dry, then not only them, but the entire seedling should be immersed in water for 1-2 days until the bark becomes smooth.
  • Form a landing mound in the center of the pit, stick a peg into it.
  • Place the seedling next to the peg, carefully spread the roots of the plant throughout the pit... The root collar of the seedling during planting should be slightly above the soil level. After watering, the ground will settle, and the root collar will be leveled to the ground. This is very important - when the root collar is buried in the ground, the hazelnuts will develop poorly, and they may not produce fruits at all.
  • They fill up the hole in two passes... First, half of the hole is covered with soil, the earth is tamped a little and generously watered. Then the rest of the pit is poured, tamped again and watered again. The total amount of water for each seedling is at least 25 liters, optimally depending on weather conditions - 30-40 liters.
  • Check the level of the root collar - maximum permissible excess above ground level is 1-3 cm.
  • The seedling is tied to a peg and cut over 5-6 buds... The height of the aboveground part should be 20-25 cm. Pruning promotes the development of several fruitful shoots during the growing season.

Care of a young seedling

A near-stem circle with a radius of 0.5 m is mulched with peat, humus, manure or sawdust, leaving a free space of 5 cm near the stem. The mulch layer is usually 7-10 cm.

Hazelnut does not tolerate stagnant water, but at the same time it is a moisture-loving plant. Therefore, in the first time after planting, regular and abundant watering is of great importance for the growth of the seedling. The first time the plant is watered a week after planting, take a 7-10-day break and watered again. After that, you can be sure that the planting ball forms a single whole with the rest of the soil and will be able to retain the necessary moisture.

In the first 2-3 winters, hazelnut seedlings are covered with lutrasil or spunbond... This protects the plant from freezing and breaking out unripe shoots.

Further care and cultivation

From planting a seedling to the beginning of fruiting, depending on the variety, you will have to wait 3-4 years. The harvest will be small at first, but in 1-3 years, picking nuts will delight you with its abundance, and after 10 years it will be possible to collect a bucket of nuts from each bush. You can hope for abundant fruiting if the necessary measures for the care of hazelnuts are taken.

Watering

During the growing season, the plant is watered 1-2 times a month, the total number of waterings since April is 5-6 times... The last time the shrub is watered after the leaves fall - this will create a charge of moisture necessary for the plant in the soil for the next spring. In June and July, the need for moisture increases due to the growth of fruits and the laying of the generative organs of the next season's harvest, so hazelnuts are watered twice in these months. For irrigation, use 40-50 liters of warm water for each bush.

Weeding and mulching

Weeding helps to kill weeds and to saturate the root system with air. When loosening the soil, it must be borne in mind that most of the roots come close to the surface. Damaged hazelnut roots are not restored, so the depth of weeding is 8-10 cm... The soil of the trunks is mulched with peat, sawdust, and dry grass.

Pruning

Pruning is necessary to form the shrub. During each summer season, extra shoots are cut, leaving 8-10 of the strongest... They try to remove shoots located inside the bush, as well as weak and damaged ones.

Hazel pest control

For hazelnuts from pests, the hazel weevil and hazel barbel are dangerous. Signs of their appearance are "worminess" and premature drying of the fruit. Insect control uses systemic insecticides, carrying out processing in early May, when the beetles appear in large quantities, and in mid-June, when the nuts protrude from the plyuska. Of the diseases, powdery mildew is most often found, which can be eliminated by treatment with colloidal sulfur, lime-sulfur broth or store-bought fungicidal agents, as well as timely cleaning of infected fruits and fallen leaves.

The reader may get the deceptive impression that planting and growing hazelnuts is a rather troublesome task. In this article, we have tried to give as much information as possible useful for owners of summer cottages and their own estates. Hazelnuts do not need a special temperature regime, they can grow on almost any soil and withstand the lack of dressing... It is enough to make a minimum of effort, and the plant will thank you with a generous harvest of tasty and healthy nuts.


How to grow hazelnuts from walnuts at home

Your summer cottages and gardens are full of a variety of trees and shrubs. What about hazelnuts? The cultivation of this shrub is gaining more and more popularity. In fact, hazelnuts are called a cultivated variety of hazel or hazel. The fruits of this plant are prized for their nutrients. Nuts are very tasty and healthy, often used in cooking and confectionery.

Usually, seedlings are purchased for breeding this plant, but you can also grow hazelnuts from walnuts yourself.

In this article, you will learn:


How to grow hazelnuts from walnuts at home

It may be necessary to grow hazelnuts from a nut at home if you did not manage to plant a nut in the fall or if you are afraid that delicious seeds can go for lunch to moles and mice. A simple way to grow hazelnuts at home from a nut will also allow you to observe the plantings, rejecting those that do not germinate at all, this method is also less laborious.

You will need peat moss or sphagnum moss. And also special wet wipes for germinating seeds or simple disposable towels made of non-woven material (not paper), which you then moisten.


Where to plant

Hazelnut is unpretentious to growing conditions, it grows on ordinary soils of middle latitudes, only swampy, clayey, saline soils can not stand.

IMPORTANT. The most suitable soils for planting a nut are various chernozem soils, loose sandy loam and loamy soils.To improve the moisture and air permeability of the soil, chernozems should be lightened by adding sand and compost to them, wood ash, lime, chalk are added to soils with high acidity.

To grow hazelnuts from walnuts at home, it is worth considering some expert advice:

  • growing this nut requires good natural illumination by the sun, there will be no good harvest in shaded areas
  • he cannot stand drafts. In open areas blown by cold winds, it is required to provide protection from them, for example, install hedges, buildings
  • it is not recommended to plant hazelnuts on the southern slope of the hills. From the sun's rays in the spring, buds bloom very early, and with frost they die
  • groundwater should pass, but not closer than one and a half meters to the surface. In the spring, due to melted snow, the area can be flooded, which leads to plant rot
  • the area is recommended to be used flat or with a slight slope. On steeper slopes, planting should be done on horizontal terraces.


Seeds

Choice

Seed propagation is the main method of planting a nut. Nut seed germination is one year. For sowing, large fruits are selected, which have a tasty kernel and a thin shell.

You need to collect the nuts that have just fallen from the tree, or even better - knock them down yourself. Only ripe and undamaged nuts are selected for seeds.

Their shells should be free of visible damage, stains and other defects. It is not recommended to plant store-bought nuts as their freshness is unknown.

Cleaning

Nuts may not be peeled from the outer layer (pericarp), but peeled fruits germinate much faster. Peel the nuts carefully so that only the outer shell comes off and the inner one remains intact.

Manipulations are recommended to be performed in household rubber gloves, since dark marks are difficult to wash off from the pericarp juice on the hands.

Peeled nuts should be lowered into a bucket filled with water. For planting, select drowned fruits, since they have a whole kernel, therefore, such nuts are more likely to give good sprouts.

Drying

After cleaning from the outer green shell, the fruits are laid out in one layer to dry in the sun, and then (after 1-2 days) they are removed to dry in the shade. It is not recommended to dry fruits that will be used for planting in the future near heating devices. If you are going to plant walnut fruits in the fall, you do not need to dry them at all, but sow them immediately in the chosen place. Such seeds will sprout next year in May.

Landing

In autumn

A nut seedling develops a taproot, which grows to a great depth. And therefore, the fruits should be sown immediately in a permanent place, since the transplantation can injure this root.

The depth and diameter of the holes for walnut seeds should be up to one meter. This depth is required to provide the future tree with a supply of nutrients. Seeds are planted in holes to a depth of 15-20 centimeters. The soil selected from the pits is mixed with humus and returned back.

Nuts are laid on the bottom with a seam upwards, and not with a point, otherwise the tree will begin to bear fruit later.

Three to four fruits are placed in each hole, placing them at a distance of 20-25 centimeters from each other (the fruits are planted in a triangle or square). The pit is filled up with the formation of a mound in the middle, and then the soil is compacted. Among the seedlings that have grown, the strongest is chosen. Seedlings grown from seeds should be properly pruned. It is necessary to water young walnut trees from May to July twice a month, per 1 m2, four buckets of water. Watering is delayed in rainy weather and stops in August.

In the spring

Seeds that will be planted in May need to be stored in a cool place, and stratification is performed about 3-4 months before planting. It provides for laying nuts at + 4 + 7 degrees in wet sand. Before putting nuts in the sand, you can keep them for a short time in a glass container filled with water (water temperature is room temperature).

In open ground, seeds are planted in May. Planting depth is within 7-9 centimeters. The first shoots appear in about ten days. By autumn, their height is approximately 10-15 centimeters. First, the seedlings grow upward, and then their trunks begin to thicken. If you water them abundantly in the summer, then the plants can grow taller, but in this case they overwinter worse.


Care and growing hazelnuts at home

Delicious and healthy hazelnuts are loved by both adults and children, especially with chocolate. It is quite possible to grow it in our latitudes, because its wild species - common hazel - grows well and bears fruit in the forests of Russia, the Caucasus, the Middle East and Ukraine. To decorate your garden plot with a beautiful shrub and get a harvest of hazelnuts, you need to know the simple rules of care necessary for its good growth and development.

Growing a nut in a pot

If you want to grow hazelnuts from walnuts, it's not difficult, but you will have to wait a long time. Having bought ready-made seedlings, which are about two years old, the harvest can be obtained already for 3-4 years. And from a nut, a full-fledged plant that bears fruit will only grow 6-10 years after planting.

This method of propagation is used mainly for obtaining new varieties of nuts. But if the characteristics of the fruits obtained are not important to you, and the fact that you have to wait for them long enough, you can try to grow hazelnuts from seeds. To do this, you need to choose nuts without damage, large, beautiful, high-quality. After all, it is from these that good bushes can turn out, bringing a stable harvest.

The seeds should germinate. To do this, they are placed in water or wet sand. Even better results can be achieved if the preliminary stratification of nuts is carried out at low temperatures, which will significantly improve their germination and protect future young plants from the negative effects of the environment.

Sprouted seeds are planted in a pot to a depth of 6–7 cm. It is better to fill it with soil that is well suited for hazelnuts: light, moist, with a low level of acidity. It is advisable to mix it with compost or humus in equal proportions so that the young plant receives as much nutrients as possible and develops better.

In a pot, hazelnuts can grow for up to two years. We must not forget to maintain optimal soil moisture and provide good illumination. When the plant reaches 15 cm in height and its stem near the root becomes 3 mm thick, it can be transplanted into open ground.

Planting hazelnuts in the ground

It is better to replant young plants in autumn, in November. Before transplanting, you need to hold the pot of hazelnuts outdoors as long as possible so that it gets used to the effects of the environment. You can also plant it in spring (early March), but autumn is more suitable for better adaptation of plants to low temperatures.

Seat selection

Hazelnut is a rather unpretentious plant, so it can be grown on almost any soil.

There are only small planting requirements that improve growing conditions and increase yields:

  • the soil can contain a lot of sand or clay, as long as it is not too acidic
  • increased acidity can be removed by adding lime
  • chernozem is perfect for growing if it is slightly lightened by adding sand or humus
  • gray forest soil is best suited for planting, exactly the same as in the natural habitat of common hazel
  • it is imperative to protect the young hazel from drafts
  • hazelnuts grow and bear fruit better when they get enough sunlight
  • the slopes of the mountains are great for walnut, but only the north-western and northeastern sides, because in the south it blooms very quickly and may not withstand frost
  • groundwater nearby will have a beneficial effect on the growth of hazel, because it loves moist soils
  • do not plant hazelnuts in very swampy or very dry places
  • the distance from a young plant to large trees with a spreading crown should be at least 5 meters.

Soil preparation

Since hazelnuts love loose soils, the area allotted for it must be dug up half a year before planting. At this stage, potash and phosphorus fertilizers can be applied if there are not enough minerals in the soil. Also, it will not hurt to add humus or compost.

Sprinkle acidic soils with lime or chalk.

If water stagnates on the site and the soil is too wet, you should think about a drainage system, or choose a more suitable option. Too dry soils need to be watered very well and fertilized with compost and humus, due to which their quality will significantly improve.

If the place is too open, and drafts are possible, it is better to immediately take care of protecting the hazel. To do this, you can put a fence made of slate or plant a fast-growing hedge. It is imperative that weeds be removed during digging of the site so that they do not interfere with young plants to grow and develop.

Landing pit

The holes are dug out large enough, their depth and width should be at least 50 cm. The distance from hazelnuts to large trees is maintained from 5 meters or more. If you want to make a walnut hedge along the fence, there can be only 2-3 m between young seedlings.

Moreover, in the first years of growth, it is recommended to plant garden plants between them, to improve the quality of the soil and prevent the appearance of weeds that interfere with development.

For the correct growth and development of the hazel, it is necessary to plant it in the following sequence:

  1. Dig holes and make small mounds in their center.
  2. Spread the rhizome over this mound.
  3. Sprinkle with a fertile topcoat mixed with compost in equal proportions.
  4. You can add mineral fertilizers and a handful of mycorrhiza.
  5. Gently tamp the soil, being careful not to damage the root.
  6. Make a watering hole and pour two buckets of water under each plant.
  7. Cover the soil with grass or sawdust to keep moisture from evaporating longer.
  8. If necessary, trim the top of the seedling at a height of 15–20 cm. If it is below this height, you do not need to trim.
  9. Make a support in the form of a wooden peg and tie the plant to it.

If you buy a ready-made seedling from a nursery, you need to make sure that the climatic conditions of your area are suitable for the variety you choose. In this case, good survival rate and yield are practically guaranteed to him. But if you grow hazelnuts from walnuts, its varietal characteristics are not preserved, so you cannot be sure that it will take root.

But it's worth a try. It is better to plant as many nuts as possible so that some of them can eventually become fruit-bearing shrubs. In the future, you can graft a plant with good varietal characteristics on hazelnuts grown from walnuts.

Subtleties of care and ripening time

Hazelnut is an unpretentious plant, so not only experienced gardeners, but also beginners began to grow it in the country more and more often, since it requires a minimum of attention. Shrub maintenance is easy enough, but you shouldn't forget about it if you want your home walnut garden to produce a generous, stable harvest.

Watering

For the first time, young seedlings must be watered a week after planting. The next watering should be no earlier than in 7-10 days. While the plant is rooting, it needs to be watered twice a week, and then once a month will be enough. During this time, the soil from the hole must connect with the one that is around it, so that the optimum moisture level is maintained on the site.

Water for monthly watering will need 3-4 buckets. In July-June, the number of irrigations increases to 2 or even 3, depending on how dry the summer is, because during these months nuts grow and the future harvest is laid.

The hazel tree does not tolerate excessive moisture, so if you notice that after watering or rain, water stands under it for a long time, you need to take care of the drainage system. The last time of the year, hazelnuts are watered after the leaves fall, so that the moisture contained in the soil helps it to prepare safely for wintering.

Fertilizer selection and feeding

The need and amount of fertilizing depends on the quality of the soil. The more fertile and richer it is, the less fertilization is required. Before planting hazelnuts, compost, humus, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are introduced into well-dug soil. And then once a year, in early spring, the bushes are fed with a bucket of manure and humus, compost and wood ash.

100-200 g of nitroammophoska (no more) will help plants grow and develop even better.

If the soil is fertile enough, it is better to do without adding nitrogen fertilizers, because they accelerate the growth of bushes, but at the same time their yield decreases. But for dry, poor, infertile areas, such feeding will definitely not hurt. In June, when nuts begin to form, it is advisable to add a 0.5% urea solution under each bush.

Mulching

So that moisture does not evaporate very quickly and weeds do not appear, it is recommended to mulch the soil around the hazelnut bushes. Before that, of course, you need to thoroughly weed and loosen the area under the hazel. Peat, compost, straw, sawdust and dry grass are good for mulching. If it rains often, you can do without it, because the soil under the bushes will be sufficiently moist all the time.

Preparing for winter

Since hazelnut varieties are bred specifically suitable for certain climatic conditions, each gardener can choose the best option for his site. Such bushes will tolerate even the most frosty winters when they become adults and strong enough.

But young plants are better protected from severe frosts, therefore, when the daytime air temperature drops to -2 ° C, they need to be covered with a couple of layers of spunbond or other non-woven material.

The branches need to be bent to the ground, pressed with something and covered well so that the hazelnuts can safely endure the winter. Before wintering, mulch, leaves and weeds must be removed so that pests - lovers of delicious nuts - do not hide under the bushes for the winter.

Pests and diseases

In the forest, hazel nuts are very fond of eating forest dwellers, such as squirrels, wild boars, mice, woodpeckers. Hazelnuts growing in summer cottages, of course, rarely have such problems. But caterpillars, beetles, weevils and butterflies can cause significant damage to the hazelnut harvest.

And also hares, which, although rarely, run into the dacha to feast on delicious nuts. Walnut weevil and barbel are the biggest challenges for growing walnut bushes. If you do not get rid of them in time, some of the nuts will be irretrievably damaged.

To protect plants from them, it is necessary to carry out the following measures:

  • digging the soil around the bush
  • harvesting worm nuts
  • shaking off pests on the film and destruction
  • insecticide treatment.

Most often, hazelnuts are sick with powdery mildew, which appears in the second half of summer.

To get rid of it, there are such ways:

  • spraying with lime-sulfuric broth
  • colloidal sulfur treatment.

And of course, to prevent diseases and the appearance of pests, it is necessary to weed the soil under the bushes in time, water as needed and remove the leaves and mulch before wintering so as not to leave pests and their larvae under the bushes for the winter.

Collection and storage of fruits

Hazelnuts begin to ripen 3-4 years after planting with seedlings and 6-10 years later if grown from walnuts. At the end of August, the nuts can be harvested.This is quite simple to do, because the hazel branches are perfectly bent and unbendable, so they can be tilted without harm to the plant.

There is no need for a harvest ladder, even if the shrub is tall. You need to collect the hazelnuts until the moment when it begins to fall out of the shell, so as not to lose some of the nuts.

With good care of mature plants, you can get from 5 to 12 kg of yield.

You can store hazelnuts for 3 years in a dry place in a container that prevents moisture from entering so that the nuts do not get damp or moldy. If you maintain optimal storage conditions, the taste of hazelnuts, even at the end of the term, will remain unchanged.

Hazelnuts are a fairly unpretentious plant that can even be grown from a nut, but for this you need to approach the process very seriously and responsibly. If you choose high-quality seeds, grow seedlings in a pot, transplant in a suitable place, protected from drafts and with fertile soil, and also remember to properly care for it, it is quite possible to start getting a stable, generous harvest in 6-10 years.


Hazelnut: planting and care!

Everyone knows and loves hazel nuts, delicious and healthy, but they grow mainly in forests. So, hazelnuts are a cultivated form of hazel, which can be grown in personal plots, subject to proper planting and care.

Different varieties of hazelnuts are forms and interspecific hybrids of common hazel, large (Lombard), Pontic and variegated. Hazelnut is a deciduous shrub up to 3 m high with large cordate or oval dark green leaves. Large-leaved forms of hazelnuts, which are often used in landscape design, are very decorative. Male and female flowers are collected on the same plant, therefore hazelnuts are called monoecious and dioecious.

Male and female flowers are collected on the same plant, therefore hazelnuts are called monoecious and dioecious.

Male flowers resemble catkins, while female flowers look like rounded buds at the ends of the shoots. The shrub blooms very early, long before bud break. In Ukraine, this usually happens in March. Pollination occurs with a cross wind, but insects, in good weather, willingly visit flowers. The fruits ripen in September, outwardly similar to nuts, like hazelnut, but larger in size, have a thinner shell and improved taste. The fruit is a single-seeded nut with a ligneous pericarp, surrounded by a green wrap (the so-called plyus). Kernels contain 50-60% fats, up to 18% protein, vitamins (A, B1, B2, C, D, E, etc.), as well as macro- and microelements. Nuts are widely used in food, especially in the confectionery industry.

Choosing a landing site

If there is a free, well-lit place on your site, then feel free to plant hazelnuts! It thrives on almost any soil, except dry sandy, waterlogged and saline soils. Loose, fertile, slightly acidic or neutral soils (pH 5.8–6.5) are optimal.

If on your site there is a free, well-lit place - feel free to plant hazelnuts!

Groundwater should be no higher than 1.5 m. It is better to choose a landing site so that it is not exposed to spring floods. Shrubs can be planted both on flat areas and on slopes. Avoid planting on southern slopes, as they are drier, in addition, plants bloom on them earlier, and there is a possibility of frost damage.

Landing

Landing time. Planting can be carried out in autumn (September-October) or early spring, immediately after thawing of the soil and until the end of April.

Distance. Hazelnuts are planted for many years, as the crown grows, it grows strongly, so the distance between plants is 4–5 m, between rows 5–6 m. When planting in order to create a hedge, the distances are reduced to 2–3 m. Many gardeners only supplement their garden with hazelnuts, so the plant is planted solitary. It should be borne in mind that in order to ensure good fruiting, it is better to plant at least 3 bushes, different mutually pollinated hazelnut varieties on the site. And for a large garden with 10 rows of hazelnuts, wild hazel is planted to improve cross-pollination.

To ensure good fruiting, it is better to plant at least 3 bushes, different inter-pollinated hazelnut varieties on the site.

Landing pit. Pits measuring 70x70x70 cm are prepared in advance (for spring planting - in autumn, for autumn planting 1.5 months before planting). 10 - 15 kg of humus, 200 g of double superphosphate, 70 g of potassium sulfate are introduced into the pits. Everything is thoroughly mixed with earth. Or instead of the above complex, 100 g of long-acting organic mineral fertilizer OMU Universal is introduced. A landing mound is made in the center of the hole. The roots of the seedling are dipped in a clay-dung mash and spread over a mound. After that they are covered with earth and compacted. The root collar of the seedling should be at ground level or 2-3 cm higher. A hole is made around the bush and poured with 20 liters of water. Planting is mulched with sawdust or other materials (for example, dry grass, peat). The aboveground part of the seedling is cut off at a height of 15–20 cm from the soil surface and the seedling is tied to a support stake. The first days after planting, especially in spring, the plants shade.

The harvest

The ripening time of nuts depends on the variety, usually the end of August - September. You can determine the moment of ripening by the state of the wrapper: it turns yellow or turns brown, and the nut itself can be easily removed. Fruits are collected by shaking them from the bushes, and those that are not shaken off are removed by hand. Then the nuts are laid out in a thin layer for drying in well-ventilated rooms or just in the sun. When dry, they are cleaned of wrappers and finally dried. Nuts keep well for several years.

You can determine the moment of ripening by the state of the wrapper: it turns yellow or turns brown, and the nut itself can be easily removed.

harvest in August-September

Includes weeding, watering, mulching, fertilizing, pest control and pruning. The soil in the trunks should be periodically loosened to a depth of 10–15 cm, while destroying weeds and mulching with dry grass, peat or sawdust.

Watering. It is very important to carry it out during dry periods at the rate of 10 liters of water for each plant. It is especially necessary to provide hazelnuts with moisture in June-July, when the generative organs of the next year's harvest are laid.

Top dressing. Organic fertilizers (5 kg of humus or compost for each plant) are applied once every 2-3 years. Good results for increasing yields are given by nitrogen fertilizing with urea or ammonium nitrate (100 g per bush) in spring and early summer. Complex fertilizers with a full set of macro- and microelements are applied 2 times a season. In order to avoid unnecessary hassle with fertilization, you can apply the organic-mineral fertilizer OMU Universal once a season. Fertilize plants after rain or heavy watering. All worries associated with feeding are aimed at improving fruiting.

Pruning. Pruning is done in late autumn. Formative pruning of the bush is of great importance, due to which the shoots are provided with sufficient illumination necessary for the ripening of the nuts. This formation of the bush must be completed by the beginning of the fruiting of hazelnuts, which usually begins at the age of 4. For the correct formation of the bush, excess shoots are cut out in its middle, and the side ones are bent to the sides and fixed in this position with a wire. As a result, the bush is well ventilated and illuminated. As a rule, no more than 8-10 trunks are formed, which will serve as the basis for the bush.

As a rule, no more than 8-10 trunks are formed, which will serve as the basis for the bush.

In the future, pruning consists in removing excess root shoots, thinning the bush, removing weak, broken shoots. The need for such pruning arises at 5-6 years of plant life. At the age of 15–20 years, rejuvenating pruning will be required, as the yield of the plant decreases as a result of aging. Such pruning is carried out by removing 2-3 old trunks within 2-3 years, cutting them as close to the ground as possible. The growing young shoots are pruned for further branching.

Pests and diseases

Nut weevil. The main pest of hazelnuts is the nut weevil (fruit weevil). When growing hazelnuts, there is often a problem of premature shedding of nuts and infestation of nuts with weevil larvae ("worminess"). All these are the results of the harmful vital activity of the nut weevil. An adult insect is a small bug with a characteristic proboscis; the female gnaws young fruits with it at the moment the nut moves out of the plyus and lays eggs in them. The larvae emerging from the egg feed on the inside of the nut, causing great harm.

Control measures. The most effective measure to combat the weevil is 2-fold treatment of plants with systemic drugs, such as Aktara, Engio, Calypso. Processing is carried out when beetles appear in the spring (usually at the beginning of May) and at the time of laying by females of eggs (as a rule, this happens in mid-June at the time of the nut emerging from the plyuska).


Watch the video: Growing Hazelnut Tree From Seed