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The flowering herb Cheiranthus can be an annual, biennial and perennial, and it belongs to the Cruciferous family. It is also called jaundice, lacfiol, or yellowfiol. Not so long ago, this plant was very popular among gardeners. But today it is no longer so widespread.
Zheltushnik is able to decorate any flower bed. Its flowers are usually painted in warm yellow shades. That is why such a flower is also popularly called "yellow levkoy".
The homeland of such a plant is the Mediterranean. However, you can also meet it on the territory of the Crimea and the Caucasus peninsula.
Features of heirantus
On the surface of thin weakly branching upright shoots there is a slight pubescence. The bush can reach a height of 0.4–1 meters. The entire surface of the stems is covered with dense opposite foliage, which has an oblong shape. It is painted in a bluish green hue.
Large racemes consist of flowers, the four-petal corollas of which can reach from 20 to 25 mm in diameter. They can be painted in a wide variety of shades of yellow. In addition, there are heiranthus with crimson, orange and dark red flowers. The inflorescences have a very pleasant smell.
When the bushes bloom, fruits are formed in place of the flowers, which are pods. Inside them are small brownish seeds (there are approximately 500 seeds in one gram).
Most varieties of jaundice bloom in the last weeks of the summer. However, there are also varieties that bloom from April to May.
It is quite easy to grow Heirantus in your garden. It will be enough to follow simple agrotechnical rules, as well as provide the flower with timely minimal care.
Lakfiol (heiranthus) -bountiful flowering dwarf shrub
Growing from seeds
Sowing Heirantus seeds for seedlings is carried out at the very beginning of the spring period. At the same time, grown seedlings are planted in a permanent place in the garden after about 2 months.
You will need a special seedling box or a wide container. To fill it, use a light soil mixture saturated with nutrients. Since the seeds are very small, it is recommended to combine them with sand before sowing. In this case, you will be able to sow them more evenly. Water the crops with a spray bottle, while on top they are covered with a transparent film or glass. Move them to a cool (16 to 18 degrees) place with diffused lighting. Do not forget to ventilate the crops every day, and also, if necessary, water them from a sprayer. After the appearance of the first seedlings, the film is removed.
The picking of seedlings into individual small pots is carried out after 2 true leaf plates are formed in it. Seedlings are transplanted into the garden only after the earth and air have warmed up well (from about mid-May).
It is recommended to grow only annuals through seedlings, while biennial varieties and species are recommended to be sown immediately into the garden.
Sowing in open ground
In open ground, the seeds of biennials are sown in May. Level the surface of the previously dug area and distribute the seed evenly over it. It should be embedded in the soil with a rake, and then the crops are moistened from a watering can. The seedlings that have appeared need to be thinned, while the extra bushes can be transplanted to another place.
In regions with frosty winters in August, heiranthus is recommended to be dug up and planted in a pot, which is transferred indoors. This flower is able to withstand frosts down to minus 18 degrees, while adult bushes are more cold-resistant.
In regions with a warm and mild climate, jaundice is often sown before winter. And in such regions, it reproduces very well by self-seeding.
Planting Heirantus in open ground
Choosing a suitable site
For growing Heirantus, it is recommended to choose well-lit areas that have reliable protection from strong winds and drafts. Flooded and lowland areas are not suitable for planting. If, in the selected area, the groundwater lies very close to the soil surface, then a high bed should be built to plant the jaundice. Also, for planting such a plant, it is extremely undesirable to choose areas where crops belonging to the Cruciferous family were previously grown.
The soil on the site must be fertile, pass water and air well, and also have an alkaline or neutral reaction. When about 15 days remain before sowing or planting Heirantus seedlings, you should dig the soil to the depth of a shovel bayonet, while organic matter (humus or compost) is introduced into it.
Seedlings are planted in pre-prepared planting holes. Moreover, their size should correspond to the size of the root system. Plant a seedling in the hole and cover it with earth. At the same time, make sure that the root collar is flush with the soil surface. The distance between adjacent bushes can vary from 20 to 30 centimeters. The planted plants must be watered.
Heirantus should be watered regularly and in moderation. At the same time, remember that such a culture tolerates a short drought much more easily than stagnant liquid in the roots. It is recommended to moisten the soil only when its top layer is completely dry. Do not forget to systematically loosen the surface of the site and remove weeds.
For a more lush flowering, the bushes must be fed in a timely manner. First of all, fertilizers are applied directly to the ground during the preparation of the site for planting the jaundice. After about half a month has passed after planting the seedlings in open ground, their first feeding is carried out. Perennial species and varieties are fed at the very beginning of the spring period. Also, the bushes need additional nutrition during the formation of buds. Organic fertilizers and mineral complexes are suitable for feeding Heiranthus.
Trimming and pinching
In order for the bush to be more lush and well-branched, the upper parts of the shoots are regularly pinched. In order for new buds to form as soon as possible, do not forget to remove in time the inflorescences that have begun to fade. If you cultivate Heirantus as a perennial plant, then in the spring time all dead stems are necessarily cut off from it.
In mid-latitudes, it is recommended to cover the plant with a thick layer of mulch (loose leaves) for the winter. Remember that the bush can withstand a short-term drop in air temperature to minus 18 degrees. If the frost is more severe, this will lead to the death of the flower.
Diseases and pests
Most of all, diseases such as:
- White rust or white rot... In the affected bush, foliage and shoots are damaged, and it loses its decorative effect. Cut out all affected parts of the plant and spray the bush with the fungicide solution.
- Keela... It damages the underground part of the bush, or rather, its roots. For prevention purposes, during the preparation of the site for planting, the soil must be lime. Also, do not allow the liquid to stagnate in the soil and do not add too much nitrogen to it.
An earthen flea, which is also called cruciferous, can settle on the jaundice. You can get rid of pests with the help of insecticidal preparations.
Heirantus in landscape design
Most often, heirantus is used for group planting in a flower bed. Beautiful inflorescences of warm colors look very impressive, while they cheer up.
Such flowers also look great in mixborders, rocky gardens, rabatki and rock gardens. For planting low-growing varieties of heirantus, baskets, containers or flower pots are often chosen. They can decorate a balcony, veranda or gazebo.
When growing jaundice in a flower bed next to it, it is recommended to plant heliopsis, tulips, linaria, Vittrock violets, poppies, alliums, daffodils, soapwort, forget-me-not or iberis.
Jaundice inflorescences smell very nice. Moreover, their smell is very similar to the aroma of lilac or night violet matiola. The plant is often used in the formation of flower arrangements. It is even grown commercially for cutting.
Types and varieties of lacfioli with photos
Alpine Heyrantus (Cheiranthus alpinus)
The bush reaches a height of about 0.4 meters. Its shoots are adorned with lush dark green foliage, while the flowers are yellow in color.
Plant height can be up to 60 centimeters. Flowers can be painted in various shades, namely: pale brown, purple, golden or dusty red.
Heiranthus allionii (Cheiranthus allionii)
This plant is a hybrid. Its large inflorescences are bright yellow in color.
The length of graceful shoots is about 0.8 m. Inflorescences are yellowish.
The most popular varieties among gardeners:
- Bedder... This is a series of hybrids, the height of the bushes in which varies from 0.3 to 0.4 m. Simple inflorescences can be colored orange, yellow or red.
- Zwerg... Such undersized hybrids are decorated with tricolor inflorescences. There is a variety of ZwergBusch: double flowers.
- Prince... Simple inflorescences can be colored in 5 different colors.
- Goldkonig... The powerful stem reaches a height of about half a meter. The bush is decorated with inflorescences consisting of golden flowers.
- GoliathTreib... The vigorous bush is decorated with dark brown simple flowers.
- Linnaeus... Plant height is about 0.5 meters. Simple flowers are cream colored.
- Fire king... During the flowering period, scarlet inflorescences form on medium-sized bushes.
- The Snow Queen... This is a mixture of varieties, which includes only undersized varieties. They are highly frost-resistant.
Lakfiol: everything you need to know about growing and grooming
Lakfiol, or heirantus, is a beautiful flowering plant, undeservedly forgotten by most summer residents. Unfortunately, today it can only be found in flower collectors.
Lakfiol is endemic to the Mediterranean, also found in the Crimea and the Caucasus, which speaks of its thermophilicity and whimsicality. Most lacfioli are yellow, but there are also colored hybrids with red and orange impurities. Because of this, it is also popularly called the jaundice. By the type of vegetation, they are one and two years old, which, accordingly, affects the characteristics of cultivation. Their advantage is that they hibernate in the ground without shelter and withstand frost to -18, in more northern areas it is usually transplanted into pots or greenhouses. If transplantation is not possible, then the soil is tightly covered with foliage, hay or spruce branches.
Reproduction and planting
Lupine is propagated by seeds or vegetatively - by cuttings.
Seeds can be sown in April. By the way, lupine seeds retain their germination capacity for up to 5 years.
Seed capsule of lupine
But you can also sow them in the winter: in October - early November, seeds are sown in open ground, sprinkled on top with a layer of peat. In the spring, the seeds will begin to grow; in early August, you can see the first flowers. When planting with seeds, when you plant lupins in a permanent place in a flower garden, you need to maintain a distance of 30-50 cm between plants.
Also, seeds can be sown on seedlings, and with the onset of spring, plant them in a permanent place in the ground. For seedlings, mix the soil with peat and sand and sow seeds into it. Land for landing should be loose. If there is an old plant, you can mix the soil with the nodules that are on its roots - to increase the number of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The seedlings are watered moderately, and with the appearance of 3-5 leaves, they are planted in open ground, after the return frosts have passed.
Sprouted Lupine Seeds
When multiplying by self-harvested seeds, there is a possibility that the color of lupine will change. The dominant color will be purple, while white is almost always lost.
In our market, which brings together large online stores, you can choose the seed of this crop. Section Seeds of perennial lupins.
Propagation by cuttings
The vegetative propagation method of lupins is by cuttings. Renewal buds are formed at the base of the stems. After capturing part of the root collar, we cut out the renewal bud with a knife and plant it in sandy soil. After about 25 days, young plants will develop roots, and they can be safely planted in a permanent place.
If you are planting cuttings in the spring, use the rosettes that form at the base of the stem. If in summer, take the lateral shoots formed in the leaf axils. The good thing about the vegetative method is that you can preserve the color of the lupins.
Lakfiol: growing a flower
Based on the fact that lacfiol very badly tolerates frost and cold, before the onset of winter, young plants must be transplanted into small pots or boxes and put in a warm greenhouse for the winter. Under such conditions of wintering lacfioli, caring for it consists in moderate watering. You should know that it is not necessary to water the soil in which the flower grows, but the sand on which the containers with the plants stand. If some leaves of the plant turned yellow and disappeared, then they should not be cut off, but carefully cut off.
With the onset of spring, Heirantus seedlings can already be planted in the place chosen for it. The distance between plants should not be less than 25-30 cm. The first flowering of this plant can be observed already somewhere in 10 months after sowing. This happens most of the time in June. However, if the plant is cultivated in the subtropical climate of the country, then, in the case of wintering Heiranthus in the open field, the first flowers will appear on it already at the end of April.
In the event that the plant is grown as an annual, then its seeds, with the onset of the warm months of spring - April or May, can be planted directly on garden beds. After four or five months after sowing, lacfiol will definitely bloom.
Lakfiol can be grown not only in flower beds or garden plots, but also these flowers look great in front gardens and summer cottages. Cut flowers look great as bouquets. And some, so-called, dwarf varieties of lacfioli, planted in flower pots, may well decorate a room in any house.
Vegetable Garden - Page 34
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