Planting pepper seedlings in the ground and frost protection
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Read part 1. Preparation, germination and planting of pepper seeds
There is no vegetable garden without peppers. Part 3
Planting pepper seedlings in the ground
In the North and Northwest, it is planted in a greenhouse or greenhouse. Planting time depends on the temperature of the soil. It is believed that even at a temperature of + 14 ° C, peppers can be planted. The practice of many years has shown that in our region it is better to wait until the biofuel "flares up" and the soil warms up to a depth of 15 cm to + 16 ° C. After all, in mid-May we have prolonged cold snaps with rain, snow, and the "burning" of biofuel begins to fade, especially if the groundwater is near.
Those who use subsoil heating (electricity, stove chimneys, steam) have nothing to worry about. In order not to be mistaken with the soil temperature, the thermometer must be stuck into the soil to a depth of at least 15 cm. And then cover it from above, for example, with a thick board. The temperature should be checked early in the morning, at 7-8 o'clock. The mistake is made by those gardeners who stick the thermometer shallowly into the soil, do not cover it with anything and watch the readings during the day. Of course, the temperature will be high because the top layer warms up quickly in the sun. In fact, it is much colder in the lower layer.
Planting options for peppers in a cucumber greenhouse
1. I select a separate area near the entrance, closer to the door.
2. A separate area near the entrance and along the greenhouse near the glass.
I plant threecucumber plants
and twopepper plants
near glass, i.e. there are two pepper plants per running meter as compactors.
You can also plant three peppers if they are of a bouquet type, i.e. do not branch. Varieties such as Winnie the Pooh and Dobrynya Nikitich will bear fruit by mid-July and can be removed. Just do not pull out, but break it out so as not to damage the roots of the cucumbers. If you plant branchy peppers with cucumbers, then no more than two plants per one running meter. And so along the entire perimeter of the cucumber greenhouse. It turns out in it one ridge under the cucumbers, the other under the peppers. The greenhouse is set up so that in the morning it is illuminated by the eastern sun, in the evening - the red rays of the setting sun fall.
Practice has shown that on the ridge, which is illuminated by the morning sun, cucumbers grow well using the trellis method in two rows, and on the opposite ridge, which is illuminated by the evening rays, peppers grow well and are poured. In practice, it looked like a mystery to me - I tried to plant peppers as compactors on the western ridge, i.e. on this ridge there were cucumbers in two rows, and peppers near the glass (there was a film in the old greenhouse). The peppers were well tied and poured.
This riddle was solved by Felix Edmundovich Velichko, who published the biodynamics of peppers. Pepper benefits from the ultraviolet-rich rays of the midday sun and the red light of the setting sun. In practice, many gardeners have already tried this option.
Distance between pepper plants when planting in the ground
Let's consider several options:
1. Standard varieties with limited branching, bouquet type - Eroshka, Dobrynya Nikitich, Dolphin, Funtik, Buratino, Winnie the Pooh can be planted up to 8-9 pieces per 1 m². In the northern and north-western regions, bouquet-type varieties are most often used as compactors (they do not branch) - Winnie the Pooh, Dobrynya Nikitich, Eroshka, and the distance can be 20x20 cm. The yield is early, friendly. Such varieties in technical ripeness are light green, light yellow, ready for use.
2. Varieties and hybrids of semi-determinant type (spreading): Mercury F1, Frain, Type, Aries F1, Bagration F1, Tenderness - up to 5 plants per 1 m². Not very spreading: Elephant F1, Cardinal F1, Baron F1, Kapitoshka, Garden Ring, Yaroslav - you can plant up to 8 plants per 1m².
In addition to varietal characteristics, the density of planting depends on the date of planting. The earlier the planting, the longer the plant is in the greenhouse and more branches, which means that more feeding area will be required. If the ridge is filled with manure or you put humus in the holes, or the peppers are mulched with manure on top, then in this case the plants grow powerful (the leaves are large, branch very strongly, there are many stepsons along the central shoot), which means that the distance between the plants will have to be increased. If the peppers are formed, then in our zone the plants do not turn out to be bulky, spreading and high, they take up little space, so up to 8 pieces can be planted on 1 m2 of even very spreading plants.
In all printed publications, tall, late-ripening and mid-ripening varieties are recommended to plant 3 pieces per 1m². This is for extended turnover heated greenhouses. There peppers grow with a long growing season. In our country, peppers bear fruit for up to three months, while some gardeners have only 1.5 months. During such a period, the plant cannot give many branches to reach a height of 100-150 cm. In our country it manages to give three branches with ripe fruits, the largest - four branches, and the summer ends, we "push" the plant.
Planting pepper seedlings
It is better to land in cloudy weather, in sunny weather - in the evening. If I have potted seedlings, then I plant them at any time of the day, because the root system is not damaged during planting, and therefore the plants do not wither. Before planting, I spray the seedlings with the homeopathic remedy "Healthy Garden", I spill them well so that the plants get drunk. The depth of the hole depends on the height of the pot, it must be calculated so that the plant can be buried 1-2 cm.
Can pepper plants be deeply buried? You can if you live in the south. Our weather is very changeable. With a cold snap, the stem of a buried plant can rot, new roots grow poorly. In hot weather, the gardener will not feel that the plant has stopped growing. When disembarking, the optimum air temperature is desirable + 18-25 ° C, the temperature in the ground + 16 ° C and above. If it gets colder to + 8-10 ° C, then the growth of the pepper stops and the plant will drop flowers, at + 12-13 ° C it grows slowly but grows.
The best condition for the survival of peppers before planting seedlings is to completely shed the ridge a few days before planting. Then cover it all with a film so that the top layer does not dry out.
Sometimes they ask: should the wells be watered with potassium permanganate? Yes, water if the soil is old, i.e. it has already been used in the greenhouse. My soil is a three-year compost, it is clean. I can potassium permanganate and not water. If during the preparation of the soil you introduced manure or humus into the ridge at 5-6 kg per 1m², then you do not need to pour organic matter into the holes. The same is with mineral fertilizers.
If manure is not a biofuel, then organic matter in any form can be added to the holes - semi-rotted manure, humus, biofertilizers (vermicompost, omug, powder) made on the basis of poultry manure, pig manure, etc. If you still feel that the soil is "poor" - you can pour humate over the holes.
There are Irkutsk humates (powders) - Gumat-80, Gumat + 7. The "Fart" firm produces "Ideals"; there is lignohumate from St. Petersburg. I use Irkutsk humates, pepper likes them. Pour the well with water at a temperature not lower than + 20 ° C, or better even + 24 ° C, or potassium permanganate, or humate. We planted a plant, it is necessary to sprinkle it around the earth, water it very well near the hole, the water will be absorbed, the earth will squeeze the roots. Then pour the earth around the circle again and water it again. The water will not have time to completely absorb, and you add earth again, as if mulch the hole. Under such mulch, a crust does not form, the water stays in the hole, the soil does not dry out for 5-6 days, so I usually do the first watering no earlier than 5-6 days after planting.
humus the entire ridge. Or use other types of mulch (leaves, moss, grass). But this is not always justified, because under it slugs, ants can accumulate, and this is a scourge for peppers. In the northern and northwestern regions of the region, mulch from straw manure is justified, but only in small greenhouses, where the film is opened for the whole day.
where ventilation is weak, with a large accumulation of carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, plants can "burn out". Everything is needed in moderation. I do not mulch peppers in the greenhouse, I love open soil, you can loosen it on time, add fresh compost. Practice and control have shown that if biofuel is properly installed, then mulch in the form of straw manure, as a heater, is not required.
Shelter from cold snaps and frosts.
Be sure to make a second shelter inside the greenhouse or greenhouse. I use 17 g / m² lutrasil. If there is frost or prolonged cold snaps in mid-May, then I cover it in two layers with such lutrasil, put it on a trellis (wire), and the ridge is completely covered, as if under a canopy. Lutrasil or spandbond 60 g / m² helps very well with frosts of -6-8 ° C, and with prolonged cold snaps it is irreplaceable. If the plants are covered with lutrasil or spandbond, then in the daytime in sunny weather it is not necessary to remove or open it, the plants feel great. For gardeners who come only for the weekend, this is a way out.
Previously, when there was no lutrasil, the second shelter was made of film. It was bad for the plants under the film in the daytime in the sun, they had to open it slightly. Here is an example from my practice: I planted part of the cucumber seedlings in a greenhouse. I had to go to the city for the next batch. But unforeseen circumstances detained me in the city for a long time. There were hot days in early May. The plants under the double cover of the film burned down - the biofuel "burns" from below, the sun beats down from above.
L. Klimtseva, experienced gardener
Read all parts of the article:
Part 2. Care of pepper seedlings before picking and picking seedlings
Part 3. Planting pepper seedlings in the ground and frost protection
Part 4. Preparing the soil in a greenhouse for seedlings of peppers
Part 5. Care for peppers and feeding in the greenhouse
Part 6. Temperature conditions in the greenhouse and the formation of peppers
Before, when to plant peppers for seedlings 2021 and in open ground, you must take care of the site in advance for growing this crop. A well-lit and wind-protected place that is sufficiently warmed up by the sun's rays is best suited for this.
Cucumbers, cabbage, squash, pumpkin, beets, carrots and legumes are considered to be the most suitable precursors for peppers. But pepper can be planted after its nightshade "congeners" such as potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant and tobacco not earlier than after 3 years. Such a time period is needed in order to protect the pepper from infection with dangerous bacteria that could remain in the soil after growing nightshade crops.
So, it is better to prepare a site for planting pepper seedlings in September-October: the soil is cleaned of vegetation and organic fertilizer (compost or humus) is applied. For the best result, it is recommended to embed wood ash into the soil - 70 g / m². After fertilizing, the site must be dug onto a shovel bayonet.
With the onset of spring heat, the soil in the area under the pepper needs to be floured and phosphorus-potassium fertilizer added 30 g / m². After that, you can start planting pepper seedlings.
Currently, there are many different varieties, the classification of which is based on such parameters as the height of the bush, ripening time, purpose. Depending on the climatic characteristics of the cultivation region, the gardener himself chooses the most suitable varieties or hybrids - in the conditions of a short summer, early ripening varieties are used, while in the southern regions it is easy to get a high yield of late ripening varieties.
However, when choosing a variety, farmers are often based on the division according to taste - into sweet and bitter.
Among sweet varieties, the most popular are:
Chord - an early ripening variety suitable for conservation with excellent taste. On bushes up to 1 m high, red cone-shaped fruits ripen, the mass of which varies from 160 to 190 g with a wall diameter of 6 mm. The variety is resistant to certain viral diseases.
Corvette - a mid-season, high-yielding variety, a semi-sprawling bush of which reaches a height of 70 cm. Bright red cone-shaped fruits weighing up to 80 g are excellent both for fresh consumption and for conservation.
Eroshka - an early variety with compact bushes up to half a meter in height, a distinctive feature of which is the high load of fruits - up to 16 pieces per bush. The orange-red fruits are cuboid and weigh about 140 g with a wall diameter of 5 mm. The variety is resistant to viral mosaic and top rot.
Funtik - early maturing, medium-sized variety with large cone-shaped red fruits, when ripe, the weight can reach 180 g with a wall thickness of 7 mm. The yield is amicable when 18 fruits are formed on two tiers of the bush.
Pinocchio - a very early hybrid, the height of which does not exceed 70 cm, is characterized by oblong cone-shaped fruits of red color with a weight of up to 120 g. It stands out for its keeping quality and is suitable for various preparations for the winter.
When buying varieties of hot peppers, the choice is often made on the following:
Little Prince - mid-season variety with decorative properties. On bushes up to 120 cm high, yellow or red rounded fruits with a strong aroma and pungent taste ripen. Fruit weight does not exceed 10 g.
Ukrainian bitter - mid-season variety with a semi-spreading bush up to 45 cm, on which a crop is formed from red cone-shaped fruits weighing up to 20 g. It is used both fresh and dried.
Fiery volcano - high-yielding early ripening variety. Narrow-triangular fruits with a pungent taste and pleasant aroma weigh on average about 20 g.
Planting pepper seedlings in the ground
- Full photo
Planting pepper seedlings in the ground
Pepper belongs to those crops that require planting for seedlings. By its nature, this thermophilic plant does not allow sowing seeds directly into open ground in a number of regions of Russia due to their climatic features.
Therefore, gardeners and summer residents germinate pepper seeds in advance at home, and when the seedlings get stronger and grow up, they plant them in the beds.
For the successful growth and development of plants, planting of pepper seedlings in the ground should be carried out no earlier than May - June. At this time, the threat of unexpected frosts will pass, therefore this period is optimal for planting work.
The soil for pepper seedlings is chosen light, fertile enough, not very sour. Loamy soils with equal parts of humus and compost will be ideal. The fertile layer should be at least 25-30 cm thick.
In order for the planting of pepper seedlings in the ground to be successful, and the plants to take root and gain strength in a new place, it is necessary to track the temperature of the soil - it should not be lower than + 15-16 degrees. If the indicators are lower than the above, the soil should be warmed up. To heat the ground, cover it with a dark film and wait for it to warm up for about a week, and only after that they start planting seedlings.
Before planting, the soil is watered abundantly, and wood ash is poured into the holes under each sprout of pepper and watered again.
It is recommended to plant pepper seedlings in a checkerboard pattern with an old clod of earth to prevent damage to the delicate root system of the sprouts.
Each bush should be 60 cm (for low-growing varieties) and 70 cm (for large varieties) from the neighboring one, and the aisles are made more - 70-85 cm.
Secrets of planting and growing peppers in the ground, greenhouse and at home
Adding an article to a new collection
In order to grow a good harvest of sweet or hot peppers, you do not need to spend day and night in a greenhouse or in a vegetable garden. It is important to know some of the features of care, which we will talk about today.
Pepper is a very confusing herb. The first mention of him, written in Sanskrit, was found in India. But the homeland of pepper is South America. Today, pepper has settled in almost all corners of the planet and, depending on the place of growth, more resembles grass, shrubs or liana. In our latitudes, sweet peppers, often called "bell peppers," and hot peppers are cultivated. In order for the plant to feel comfortable, it needs good illumination, high humidity and abundant watering.
To obtain a high yield, it is important to regularly saturate the garden plot with useful substances. In regions where low humidity, nitrogen fertilizers are scattered over the garden bed. For this, it is better to use granular fertilizers. Where there is little rainfall, it is better to use this technique before the rain. Since the granules dissolve from moisture in the soil and thereby penetrate to the roots, in drought, this method does not work.
It is necessary to prepare a plot for corn in advance. When the snow cover has melted, the bed is harrowed. Before planting a crop, it is weeded or treated with a soil herbicide. Chemical protection products are usually used over a large area. It is important to adhere to dosages and rules of use.
Proper watering is important for the culture. It especially needs high humidity during the formation of the ninth leaf on the bush, during flowering and at the time of grain formation. The rest of the time, one watering is sufficient for 7 days. With regular rainfall, you do not need to water the corn.
It is possible to grow a rich corn crop in regions with cool and short summers. The main thing is to choose the right crop variety, sow seeds for seedlings in a timely manner and fulfill all agrotechnical requirements to obtain strong and healthy seedlings.
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