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Fusarium is a dangerous fungal disease that threatens garden and vegetable crops, flowers and wild plants. The infectious agent of the disease is a microscopic fungus of the genus Fusarium. In conditions of high humidity, its spores fall into open cuts and wounds of the rhizome, suck out the juice of leaves, fruits, ears and buds. Due to the high rate of population development, the fungus is capable of infecting a large area in a short time. Fusarium cases can be observed in all climatic regions.

Features of fusarium

Fusarium mushrooms, which have a similar structure and life cycle, belong to the class of imperfect mushrooms, the genus mold. The peculiarity of the pathogen is that asexual reproduction is characteristic of fungi.

Spores are synthesized in roots, stems, leaves, grains and produce toxins that accumulate in plant cells. As a result, such a product is no longer edible and can cause serious poisoning when a person is diagnosed with acute nutritional mycotoxicosis.

Spores are very resistant to external factors and can persist in the ground for a long time. They are not afraid of temperature changes and aggressive environmental factors. Even after several years in a field or ridge where signs of the disease were found, the mycelium can revive again and infect new crops.

If treatment is not started on time, fusarium wilting will occur - a condition in which the vascular system of plants is gradually destroyed. The fungus, absorbing the cytoplasmic fluid, has a negative effect on tissues. As a result, fruits, roots and seeds begin to dry out and rot. A diseased plant, tired of fighting a parasitic fungus, withers. The mycelium clogs blood vessels, releasing toxic substances such as vomitoxin, zearalenone, and other mitotoxins.

The affected bushes bloom worse, the growth and regeneration of tissues is suspended, mineral metabolism and the process of photosynthesis are disrupted, spots with irregular pigmentation of a greenish or yellow color appear. The pathogen first attacks the root system. It no longer develops, and the roots darken and change. Fusarium spores penetrate from the soil into the smallest root processes, and then into the larger roots. After that, they rise through the discharge vessels along the stems to the leaf plates.

Withering begins with the leaves of the lower layer. The plates look watery at the edges. The foliage turns yellow, and in advanced cases flies around. With fluctuations in humidity, toxic mycelium leaves a brown coating on the affected leaf plates. Darkened vessels are visible on the cut stem of a diseased bush. As a result of the loss of turgor pressure, the petioles also weaken. From this moment on, the fading of the ground part is already inevitable.

Fungal diseases, including fusarium, develop more actively with sudden changes in temperature and humidity conditions, especially when the plant is experiencing a lack of nutrients.

Fusarium control guide

Factors contributing to the activation of pathogenic fungi:

  • bad weather conditions: dampness, cloudy days, cold weather;
  • lack of sufficient distance between plants: when plantings thicken in crowded conditions, diseases begin to develop;
  • the risk of getting sick increases in weakened bushes due to improper care and crops that are unsuitable for varietal and winter-hardy qualities;
  • dense, deoxidized soil, in which liquid regularly stagnates, due to which air exchange in the root zone is disrupted;
  • landing in lowlands;
  • oversaturation of the site with a large number of chemicals, chlorine and nitrogen minerals;
  • when the planting field is located near an industrial area, highway or metallurgical facility;
  • scanty and rare watering of the root system in the heat;
  • increased air humidity, lack of light.

Fusarium disease of garden and grain crops

Fusarium wheat

All grain crops: wheat, barley, rye are susceptible to fusarium infection. Fusarium fungi can infect the root system and ears. This disease manifests itself as a pale pink coating on the ear. Sources of infection are plant debris, soil and seeds. Spores are spread by the wind over long distances, so the entire field is threatened. The optimal conditions for the development of a fungus on an ear are cloudy rainy weather, air temperature from 27 to 30 degrees, high air humidity, then there is a massive defeat of grain plantings.

Fusarium infection leads to weight loss of the weevil, which can reduce yields by 30% and, thereby, reduce the income of agricultural producers. Disease also leads to the accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain, which puts the entire batch at risk of being rejected. It is dangerous to eat such grains. Plant residues in the field also contribute to the development of the disease, it is in them that spores like to persist. If during the examination of the grain, infected plants have already been found, it will be too late to carry out the fungicidal treatment.

Fusarium root rot is caused by pathogens that have been in the soil for a long time. They are spread quite quickly by water and wind, or through infected seeds. Symptoms of the disease appear during the formation of sprouts and during their growth.

The pathogenic mycelium through the roots of winter wheat enters all organs and tissues: stems, ear, flag-leaf, tissues of the spikelet and grain, where it actively develops and gradually weakens the culture.

Signs that the plant has started root rot:

  • problems with seed germination;
  • slow growth and discoloration of bushes;
  • blackened diseased rhizome.

Fusarium spike protection strategy:

  1. Optimization of cultivated areas.
  2. Reducing the number of infections by deep embedding of its sources in the soil or burning plant residues.
  3. Carrying out measures to improve the soil, namely: destruction of post-harvest residues, improvement of biocenosis, introduction of biological products.
  4. Reducing the rate of reproduction of pathogens by cultivating less susceptible wheat varieties.
  5. Shortening of the harvesting period.

Fusarium tomato

Fusarium wilting threatens primarily monoculture tomato varieties planted in greenhouses. In diseased bushes, a change in the structure of tissues is observed. The infection enters the lateral roots through the ground. Particularly vulnerable areas are growth points. The danger of the disease lies in its transience, mycelium spores spread along the petioles and shoots, impregnating the fruits with toxins. The seeds of diseased tomatoes are thrown away, they cannot be used for sowing. The incubation period can vary from 1 to 4 weeks.

Fusarium is often confused with other diseases (late blight) or lack of mineral supplements, however, foliar chlorosis is much more pronounced with Fusarium.

The pathogen is able to live in soil for 10-15 years; it does not require special favorable conditions for spreading. It infects plants mainly through the root, so the ambient temperature does not seriously affect it. Young growing tomatoes are most affected. The first sign of fusarium wilting is yellowing of the lower leaves. They lose their turgor, the veins become light. In this case, the upper leaves remain green, but curl.

On tomato seedlings, Fusarium develops so quickly that the leaves do not have time to turn yellow. Root and vascular necrosis begins. The plant dries up and withers. Brown vessels can be seen on the cut of the stem. Darkening of blood vessels is noticeable even through integumentary tissues. In diseased tomatoes, the leaves, along with the veins, eventually completely discolor, and the juice stops flowing through them. White bloom appears on the roots. The top of the seedling tilts, the whole plant looks sluggish. The stem inside becomes empty, if you do not take action, the tomato bush will die.

Fusarium on eggplant

The risk of Fusarium contamination of eggplants increases during their flowering period. The disease often leads to the fact that the leaves on the plants become covered with yellow spots, and then dry out. Eggplants shed flowers and ovaries. The disease from the lower tier rises to the upper tier of leaves, and later the spores spread to the entire bush. In addition to yellowing, dots and specks can be observed on the leaves, the plates can fall off - in this case, the bushes remain without leaves, their growth, flowering and fruit set stops. The root system is covered with a pink bloom.

Pathogenic ascospores penetrate from the infected soil, where pathogens hide, into the stem or through mechanical damage on the fruits. They cause blockage of blood vessels and release toxins, which is why eggplant develops toxicosis, which manifests itself in the form of necrosis on the leaves. Fusarium is activated at 22-26 degrees against a background of high humidity.

Eggplants are attacked through seeds and root hairs. Sick bushes begin to lag behind in growth, poor fruiting or none at all. In seedlings affected by fusarium wilt, root and root rot develops. The course of the disease accelerates in hot weather and under conditions of increased acidity of the soil.

Fusarium on cucumbers

Cucumbers, like all vegetable crops, are susceptible to various diseases. In order not to lose the harvest and the plants themselves, it is necessary to identify the fusarium disease in time and start treating it.

Fusarium wilting of a cucumber can be detected at an early stage, when the cucumber is not yet showing signs of disease. In this case, the treatment has a very good effect. Both indoors and outdoors, cucumbers are not immune to disease. However, in greenhouses and hotbeds, the disease progresses faster.

Symptoms of the disease include: wilting of the tops of the stems, lower leaf plates, the appearance of traces of rot on the underground part. In this case, the disease rarely manifests itself earlier than the flowering phase and the formation of ovaries, and in conditions of high humidity, a pinkish fungal bloom settles on the plants. The root collar and roots of diseased bushes acquire a dark brown color, the shell of the shoots is covered with cracks. As in patients with tomato fusarium, the vessels darken.

If the pathogen has already entered the cuts on the root system, it will be difficult to stop its spread. The source of infection is open ground, in which the ascospores of this dangerous disease persist for a long time. The disease begins to develop most actively on those days when the temperature outside does not rise above 10-15 degrees. The plant dies before our eyes in just 3-7 days, if no control measures are taken.

Factors contributing to the development of pathogenic fungi on cucumbers:

  • fluctuations in daily temperatures;
  • cooling below 13 degrees;
  • dense wet soil;
  • the site is in the shade;
  • poor air permeability of the soil.

The disease is focal in nature, penetrates the soil and small wounds. Weakened plants are most susceptible.

For prevention, it is important to ventilate the greenhouse, water the cucumbers only with warm water, and spray with antifungal drugs.

Fusarium on potatoes

Fusarium disease is extremely harmful: heavily infested potato tubers usually rot, while weakly infested tubers give a low yield. The causative agent is widespread in all areas of potato growing. Tubers can rot both in the field and during storage. The disease manifests itself in stem and tuberous forms. The most characteristic signs of the disease on the bushes appear towards the end of flowering, at first the leaf slices gradually turn yellow and wither, then the stems.

In hot weather, due to active evaporation, fusarium wilting is accelerated. A diseased plant is indicated by discoloration of leaf plates, an anthocyanin color at the edge, in advanced cases - wilting of foliage. The surface of the stems near the ground darkens, and an increase in air humidity contributes to the development of rot and plaque of a pink or orange hue. The cut stem also has a brown color inside.

Infection with dry rot during storage of potatoes occurs mainly through mechanical damage that occurs during autumn or winter processing and sorting of tubers. As a result, the potatoes deteriorate, and depressed brown-gray spots form on the skin. The pulp in this area dries up and becomes loose, and the voids that appear after a while are filled with mycelium. The peel is covered with a pale pink or whitish spore bloom. The affected potato hardens and becomes light. When stored in one place, healthy tubers become infected very quickly.

Fusarium on garlic

By fusarium of garlic, gardeners mean rot of the bottom. The disease poses a serious danger to planting onions and garlic in the area. Bulbous plants that are grown in areas with mild and warm climates are especially vulnerable. After the release of spores, the feathers of healthy garlic wither quickly. A garlic head pulled out of the ground looks soft and decomposes quickly, exuding an unpleasant rotten smell.

The defeat of garlic and onions by Fusarium wilting threatens the gardener with the loss of up to 70% of the total harvest. There are about 8 groups of Fusarium pathogens for onion crops, which complicates the treatment process and the search for antidotes. It can take up to two years to combat a pathogen that infects the soil. To avoid this disease on the site, you need proper agricultural technology and healthy seeds.

Rot develops early in the growing season, before harvest and during storage. The source of infection can be water for irrigation, soil, already infected seeds or rotted plant parts left in the garden after last year's harvest. Before planting garlic in the ground, it is important to inspect the cloves from all sides for damage and sort out the defective seed. Rot on the scales of chives and roots progresses in storage with high air humidity and a temperature of 13-30 degrees. Also, the disease actively develops in wet weather at temperatures from 22 to 23 degrees.

The main signs of fusarium on garlic:

  • stunting;
  • yellowing of the lower leaves;
  • weak or decayed root system;
  • pink bloom in the axils of the leaves and between the scales of garlic;
  • the appearance of brown stripes on the feathers;
  • softening of the bottom, traces of mycelium on the surface in the form of a white bloom;
  • mummification of heads.

Crops such as peppers, sunflowers, soybeans, cabbage, corn, peas are also susceptible to disease. In practice, infected spores can infect plants both indoors and outdoors.

Fusarium on fruit and berry crops

Fusarium strawberry

Fusarium wilting of strawberries is one of the most dangerous diseases of berry crops. A plant with root rot withers within six weeks and dries up. Dying off of roots and root collar is observed. It is easy to find traces of necrosis on the leaf blades. At an advanced stage, the leaves of the strawberry turn brown, like the petioles. The rosette disintegrates, and the bushes, due to the loss of turgor in the tissues of the stems and leaves, tilt to the ground.

Often, the disease is activated during the period when ovaries appear or when berries are ripening. It is practically impossible to cure the plant. It is better to remove the bushes from the garden and be sure to burn them outside the garden. The causative agent of the disease, living in the soil, affects not only strawberries, but also garden strawberries.The degree of damage depends on the age of the bushes, the climatic conditions of the region where the crop is grown, and compliance with agricultural practices. To stop the spread of the pathogen, the following drugs are used: trichodermin, trichoplant, glyocladin. The soil and roots of seedlings are treated with a solution of these drugs. The variety Zenga belongs to strawberry varieties resistant to fusarium wilt. To protect the planting from infection, process the seedlings before planting.

Fusarium melon

Fusarium of melons and gourds is widespread in the countries of Central Asia, where favorable conditions for the development of the pathogen are recognized. Depending on the variety and growing conditions, this fungal disease can destroy up to 70% of melon plantations.

The development of the disease begins with roots and shoots. They turn brown. On the root layers, hairs disappear, and the base of the root becomes covered with reddish spots or stripes. Affected bushes quickly die. If the pathogen has affected the bushes during the period of fruit laying, then the melon will not fully ripen, it will lose its taste and will no longer be edible. The fruits will become watery and tasteless and will fit only for livestock feed. On days when the temperature outside fluctuates between 23-25 ​​degrees, and the humidity is about 80%, the fungus on the melons develops faster.

Fusarium on flowers

Asters

Almost all annual asters have insufficient resistance to fusarium diseases. Flowers are attacked by a fungus at the bud formation stage or at the beginning of calyx opening. In sick asters, foliage curls, buds droop, brown oblong specks or black veins appear on the stems. Brown stripes are formed on the surface of the root collar. Shoots are deformed due to tissue destruction. The basal areas are overgrown with a whitish bloom from the mycelium or pinkish tubercles. Such a plant may not live to bloom, and if the aster begins to bloom, then it is extremely not decorative. The culture lags behind in growth, the buds fade quickly. The causative agent of gray rot penetrates the roots and moves higher along the vascular system, which by that time is already functioning intermittently.

Lilies

The plant is afraid of moisture and loves dry, sunny places. Mechanical damage to the roots and waterlogged soil are the main causes of gray rot. When the spores spread throughout the bush, the buds begin to crumble and the bulb may die. Carriers include rodents, insects, water and wind.

Infected lilies have brownish trunks, rot is noticeable on the rhizome and bottom. The bottom gradually dies off, voids form inside the bulb, and on the surface there are ulcers and specks of a yellow-brown hue. Rot affects both the inside and outside of the bulb and the base of the stem. Heat and high humidity are the main factors contributing to the development of the disease. A diseased plant lags behind in growth, the higher healthy bushes rise, the brighter the contrast becomes.

Orchids

Gray rot on orchids can develop for months, but its last stage is really fleeting, when, within a couple of days, due to illness, the leaves rapidly turn yellow and their leaves begin to fall. A distinctive feature of Fusarium will be the presence of a raspberry ring on the cut and the appearance of red-brown areas on the aerial roots. A sick flower must be isolated, since the spores of this rot can easily be transferred to a neighboring flowerpot. A feature of the treatment is dry resuscitation and treatment. Moisture on the leaves, soaking in this case are contraindicated. Fundazol is diluted with water and applied in the form of a gruel to the affected area.

fusarium. how to cure a plant

How to deal with fusarium

In any case, before diagnosing a plant for fusarium, it is necessary to exclude damage by other pests, viral mosaic, spotting, scab, etc.

Today this disease is considered incurable. The defeat of the pathogen begins from the roots, therefore, the disease can be detected only at the last stage, when the vital functions of the plant are already impaired. When vegetables, cereals and flowers with obvious traces of fusarium spores are found, the bushes are dug up and must be destroyed by fire. The area where the diseased plant was located is treated with a solution of copper sulfate. A good prophylaxis would be to spray outwardly healthy plantings with a solution of a fungicidal preparation.

An indoor flower with signs of fungal wilting is burned. In vases of healthy plants, the soil is changed, which is spilled with a solution of biofungicide, before being poured into the pot.

If the disease could be identified at an early stage, then the stalk is cut off from the affected bush and the cut site is carefully examined. Cuttings with clean vessels in the cut can be rooted, but it will not be possible to save the parent bush. They dug it out, treatment in this case will no longer help.

The stalk is disinfected in a container with a dissolved biofungicide, and then rooted in moist calcined sand. The cut area is moistened in special preparations like Heteroauxin, Kornevin or Zircon - root growth stimulants.

Fusarium prevention measures

The best prevention of fusarium disease is considered to be proper care and adherence to agricultural technology and hygiene in the garden, which helps to exclude the possibility of a disease.

It is important to disinfect the cutting tool in a timely manner when working with sick and healthy plants, disinfect the soil after plants that have had viral or fungal diseases, and destroy pests. Competent protection of crops from the initial stages and right up to the harvest itself is the key to effective fight against fusarium and the consequences of its life, and preventing the development of the disease means preventing crop loss.

Autumn bioprocessing of the land from pathogenic bacteria and fungi that overwinter on plant debris, including the fusarium fungus, which is the source of the disease, also reduces the risk of disease.

It is important to disinfect seeds and seedlings with fungicidal preparations before sowing. During the active growing season, the culture is fed with potassium-phosphorus compositions. Fresh organic fertilizers are applied to the soil with care.

To kill pathogenic microflora, the beds are covered with black or transparent film. Before storing tubers, seeds, corms and bulbs, they are carefully examined, and injured specimens with foci of mycelium are removed. Before planting in the ground, healthy planting material is treated with Fundazol.

Sour soil in the area is diluted with chalk or dolomite flour, which helps to reduce the likelihood of gray mold infection. It has been proven that the causative agent of this disease does not live in a neutral substrate with a high calcium content. To protect berry crops and flower beds from fusarium, a weak solution of potassium permanganate is poured under the roots, you can also add a little boric acid. For preventive purposes, it is enough to carry out the procedure at least once a season.

How to treat fusarium, protecting rasters from bacterial fungi (Agroexpert Zinovia Elinskaya advises)

Problems with fungal and bacterial diseases can be avoided if you regularly maintain cleanliness in the garden, remove weeds and loosen the soil, treat the soil from pests, observe the dosage and frequency of both mineral and organic fertilizing. Avoid the accumulation of plant residues, fallen fruits and berries, it is better to bury them or burn them outside the garden. Before planting seedlings or seeds under the open sky, the substrate is disinfected with potassium permanganate or antifungal drugs to kill pathogenic bacteria, spores and insect larvae, but no later than a month before sowing.

Diseased plants are promptly disposed of, they are burned together with an earthen clod, and not covered with compost. In such microflora, pathogens multiply faster.

At the end of the work, the surface of the garden tools that came into contact with the diseased bush is disinfected with technical alcohol. In order not to spread fungal spores to healthy beds, the soles of the shoes in which they walked around the site are also wiped and disinfected. Not only the soil, but flower pots and other containers where cultivated plants were grown, can serve as a source of infection.

Fusarium treatment: a list of effective fungicides

For the treatment of seeds, seedlings and substrate from fusarium, the following fungicidal agents are used:

  • Agat-25K - a biological product that has a balanced composition of macro- and microelements, contains pine extract and chlorophyll-carotene paste. It increases the yield, destructively affects the pathogens of fungi of the Fusarium genus and improves the quality of the soil.
  • Fitosporin-M - a preparation of natural origin, which serves to protect soil, compost, planting material from fungal and bacterial diseases.
  • Baktofit - a broad-spectrum fungicide for the prevention and treatment of fusarium, is responsible for the development of healthy microflora, prevents the manifestation and suppresses pathogens of a wide range of plant diseases.
  • Trichodermin - is widely used in agricultural technology, increases soil fertility, protects seeds from fungal infections before planting in the ground, inhibits the growth of fungi and completely destroys them.
  • Vitaros - used for disinfection of planting material and processing of bulbs and root crops before sending them for storage.
  • Potassium humate - fertilizer based on humic acid, peat and brown coal, has effective fungicidal properties, stimulates the growth of vegetative mass.

Protecting your garden from disease: 3 modern effective biological remedies

Folk remedies for fusarium

It is practically impossible to cure a plant with signs of fusarium with folk remedies, especially in the midst of the disease, but for timely prevention and maintenance of the health of the bushes, they will be no less effective than chemicals. Below we will consider several methods of treating fusarium with alternative methods:

  1. 35 drops of iodine, 25 g of laundry soap (preferably shavings) are added to 1 liter of milk. The components are mixed until complete dissolution and the resulting mixture is treated with healthy bushes.
  2. In two liters of water dissolve 1 glass of wood ash and 1 tbsp. l. laundry soap. Insist for about two days, after which they spray the bushes and soil with a mixture in the area with plantings. Re-spraying can be done after a week.
  3. A glass of onion peel is poured with boiling water (the norm for a bucket of water). After 30 minutes, when the liquid is infused, it is filtered and diluted with water in a 1: 1 ratio. Onion infusion is watered over the ground parts of the plant
  4. Garlic is cleaned and crushed, 1 liter of water is added and infused for 24 hours, filtered and brought to a safe concentration by adding another 9 liters of water. Processing is carried out in the evening.

Fusarium potato: fight and prevention of dry rot

Fusarium potato is a common cause of declining yields in a popular crop. The Fusarium fungus is dangerous because it is well preserved in the soil, and at the same time moves to a storage with diseased tubers, so it is very difficult to fight it.

It is easy to identify the infestation of potato tubers with Fusarium - the tubers dry out from the inside, cavities form in them, and the remnants of the pulp are converted into a dense, dry, lump. It was the Fusarium fungus that ate up all the tissues and left us with potato starch as a keepsake. Around, of course, there will be a "fluff" consisting of the mycelium of the fungus.

Most often, Fusarium infects potatoes even in the field, in the beds, but it is able to "move" to a neighboring tuber and storage - enough for the peel of the "neighbor" to be slightly damaged.

On the other hand, nature has long assigned soil fungi to the role of "forest orderlies" - they infect weak and non-viable plant specimens, without touching healthy plants with good immunity. In the soil, under favorable conditions, the fungus can be dormant for up to 10 years, waiting for "prey". Therefore, the most effective way to prevent fusarium disease is to use healthy planting material.

Of course, there are factors accompanying the fusarium epidemic: acidic soil, excess nitrogen fertilizers and fresh manure, high soil moisture at elevated air temperatures, etc. Completing this picture are planted potato tubers, the variety of which has no immunity to fusarium.

Stem of a potato affected by Fusarium in a section. Clogged vessels are visible, so water stops flowing along the stem and the bush withers. Photo: Forestry Images

Potato bushes suffering from fusarium can be detected already in the second half of summer - they lag behind in development, wither and can wither after heavy rain following a period of drought (the mycelium of the fungus, along with moisture, rises along the stem to the leaves and clogs the vessels).

Ideally, tubers from stunted plants should not be brought into storage at all - quarantine outside its walls. Signs of infection appear through dull, grayish-brown spots, slightly depressed inward, appear on diseased tubers. The skin around the spot is usually wrinkled.


The reasons

Growing and harvesting eggplants takes a lot of effort as they are quirky and require careful maintenance. A common problem is yellowing of eggplant seedlings. Mostly the lower leaves. Why is this happening:

  1. Lack of moisture or cold water. If you are planting seedlings at the wrong time, they will turn yellow. It must be watered early in the morning or when the sun sets over the horizon with warm water. Otherwise, it will get sunburn and its leaves will turn yellow and fall off.
  2. Lack of food. Lack of nutrients in the soil can cause yellowing of the leaves. To avoid this, the plant must be fed with mineral fertilizers. The soil should be loose and moist, not acidic in any way. Manure cannot be used as fertilizer. It is unacceptable to grow eggplants in the ground where potatoes, peppers or tomatoes grow.
  3. Fusarium. The disease caused by the fungus affects the leaves first. They turn yellow and then dry out. If you don't take action, then the bush dies. Infection occurs through soil or seeds. The first sign of disease is a brown cut of the stem and a pink coating on the roots. This disease is difficult to cope with and it is better to prevent it.

  • Fusarium wilting leads to the death of the bush. It is not necessary to plant such a culture. To do this, you must observe the crop rotation. Eggplants in the same place can be planted no earlier than four years later. Before sowing, the seeds must be soaked in a manganese solution. Plant healthy seedlings in the soil and use fertilizers with phosphorus and potassium in the composition.

  • Eggplants grow well where cucumbers or cabbage grows.

  • The period of adaptation of plants after planting in the soil can also cause wilting and yellowing of leaves.

  • If the temperature drops to +13 degrees, the seedling may die.


What to do?

Eggplants with yellowed leaves can be saved if you have time to start early treatment. In the end, for a specific case, you need your own way of solving this problem. Improper handling may not only not help the eggplants, but also worsen their already deplorable condition. Leaves turn yellow on eggplants, as in the period when the seedlings are not yet planted in the open field and during fruiting.

Unfortunately, not all vegetables are immune to such alarming symptoms as yellowing of the leaves. In this article, you can find out why cucumber leaves turn yellow and how to deal with it.

If the leaves of eggplant seedlings turn yellow, then first you should understand the problem and only then solve it. What to do to restore healthy plant species:

  • If infected fungus or other disease, then you should pay attention to special drugs aimed at destroying the causative agent of the disease. Typically, these substances are in the form of a solution. They should be applied to the entire surface of the infected eggplant, treating each part of the bush.

As soon as the disease recedes, the plant will acquire vitality and will continue to develop normally. Leaves that turn yellow are unlikely to turn green again.

  • Unknown reason. Farmers-gardeners do not always have the opportunity to treat with special chemical compounds immediately after identifying the reason. In this case, they should try to protect healthy bushes. We need to do the following: immediately remove all plants that have been susceptible to this disease. They are easily identified by their painful appearance and yellowness on the sheets. Thus, the summer resident will leave the spread of the infection.
  • Bright sunlight. It is very easy to eliminate the cause of the burns. It is necessary to correctly adjust the height of the placement of lamps in the greenhouse, which create artificial lighting and heat.

  • Buy shading grid. It perfectly solves the problem of yellowness on eggplants. Such a net is also useful when growing other equally popular vegetables.
  • Lack of potassium. The way to deal with this problem is to provide the beds with the necessary minerals. To do this, it is enough to purchase special fertilizers that are enriched with many types of trace elements, useful for the growth and development of seedlings and future fruits in greenhouse conditions.


Fusarium potato: preventive measures

Fusarium symptoms on potato leaves. Photo: WikiGardener - Fandom

The best prevention of potato fusarium is the cultivation of varieties that are resistant to fungal diseases, coupled with the correct agricultural technology. Correct agricultural technology means neutralizing acidic soil, feeding with potash fertilizers, minimizing nitrogen fertilizers and treating tubers (before planting) and bushes with specialized fungicides (1% Bordeaux liquid, Kuproksat, etc.) and "add" saprophytic fungi, such as Trichoderm Veride, to Fusarium. Observance of crop rotation also contributes to the "recovery" of the soil from fusarium.

If during the growing season, potato bushes sick with fusarium were noticed, then the best prevention of tubers dug up and laid for long-term storage would be the exclusion of injuries and cuts during the sorting and transportation process - you should not throw tubers unnecessarily, and cut tubers should be immediately selected, not laying in storage. In addition, it is recommended to keep the tubers for weeks in a warm, dry place, as a quarantine, followed by inspection.

For the prevention of planting diseased tubers in the spring, it is recommended to germinate seed potatoes and carefully examine the planting material before planting.


What is sick?

This is a plant that spreads healthy phytoncides around in the garden, and on our table serves as a source of healthy food, is affected by many pests and diseases.

Timely warning and getting rid of them will help you grow great onions without any problems.

If the diseases affecting the plant are not treated in a timely manner, this will affect the quality of the bulbs - they will grow small, begin to rot, and will be poorly stored.

It is difficult to notice the problem, especially if it is hidden underground, at the initial stage. But onions are a smart plant. It will signal an unhealthy condition with yellowing or lodging of the feather and other signs, thanks to which an experienced gardener will be able to determine the cause of the disease.

Onions are ill due to the fact that the rules of agricultural technology are not followed. Not according to the rules, the grown plant is weakened, and cannot protect itself from the effects of fungi attacking it. Fungal and viral infections on garden crops are different - there are about 50 varieties. They can attack onion plants, both in greenhouse soil and when grown in the garden.

  • Powdery mildew
  • Gray (neck) rot
  • Yellow dwarfism
  • Mosaic
  • Rust
  • Fusarium.

Powdery mildew

If onion diseases are ranked by harmfulness, powdery mildew can be put first of them. Peronosporosis on the onion feather is considered the most serious lesion. The following types of onions are especially susceptible to peronosporosis:

  • batun
  • slime
  • onion.

If the summer is rainy, and the humidity is kept at around 80% for a long time, the infection of onion plantings with powdery mildew is practically guaranteed.

The first sign of powdery mildew disease is a dirty yellow coating on the feathers of onions. To prevent infection, it is necessary to disinfect all bacteria living in the soil and seeds.

  1. Before planting, the soil in the garden bed is treated with a special agent that prevents the spread of fungal infection. Do not use harsh chemicals, it is better to use drugs from the series Baikal EM.
  2. The soil is fertilized with fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus. You should not give nitrogen-containing fertilizing directly for planting, it is better to do this during the autumn soil preparation, adding humus.
  3. The bulbs, as a pre-sowing preparation, are disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate (soak for an hour, the solution is of medium intensity, saturated pink).
  4. When planting, the distance between the bulbs is 10 cm, the row spacing is 20 cm. In thickened plantings, the risk of fungal infections is higher.

If you overlook the onset of the disease, and it entered the main phase, affecting more than half of the onion plantings, there is nothing left but to use fungicides.

The following drugs are used for processing, according to the instructions:

  • Fitosporin
  • Baktofit
  • Planzir
  • Phytocide M
  • Trichodermin
  • Alirin B.

If signs are found at the initial stage, you can try to get by with folk remedies and countermeasures.

  1. Stop watering and do not feed temporarily.
  2. Remove the formed bulbs from the soil and send to dry.
  3. Unformed, affected by the fungus, remove.
  4. Treat all plantings with a decoction of garlic.

To prepare the broth, unpeeled heads, weighing 600 g, are crushed and immersed in a ten-liter container filled with hot water. Next, you need to boil everything over low heat for about three hours. Dilute the resulting concentrated broth in half with water and water the soil on onion plantings weekly.

Gray rot

This fungal disease affects the neck of the onion head and the peri-neck scales. The penetration of the disease to the plant occurs through the soil. Gray rot spreads rather quickly, especially during rainy weather and mechanical damage to the bulbs, as well as when they are simultaneously damaged by pests.

The main period of mass destruction of bulbs by the fungus of gray rot is pre-harvest. As a result, the bulbs lose keeping quality and rot in storage.

In order to prevent rot on the onion crop, in the second half of the growing season, it is necessary to start spraying the soil with fungicides of the triazole class, which destroy the spores of the fungus.

Onion rust

It belongs to fungal diseases and quickly spreads throughout the planting area.

Typical signs include damage to the leaves, which develop yellow-brown spots. It spreads over the entire leaf, then the leaf dies off.

You can fight the disease by regularly spraying with fungicides. Also, the period of mass growth is carried out by spraying with the preparation "HOM" (in the composition - copper oxychloride). 40 grams of the drug is dissolved in 10 liters of water. A week later, repeated processing is carried out with the same composition.

To make the solution better settle on the leaves and form a protective film, add a few tablespoons of liquid, non-perfumed soap to it. Processed leaves should not be eaten.

Fusarium

This fungal disease is characteristic not only of garden plants, but also of bulbous flowers. It manifests itself in the following signs:

To protect the onion from fusarium, it is necessary to cultivate the soil, seed and timely removal of diseased plants.

  1. Onion sets are pickled for 20 minutes, just before planting with a 3% suspension of the fungicide TMTD (full immersion).
  2. The soil can be treated with Quadris fungicide, which in parallel will protect it from gray mold and powdery mildew.
  3. From folk remedies for prevention or at the initial stages of the disease (the tips of an onion feather turn yellow), an ash infusion or a decoction of field horsetail is used.

Yellow dwarfism

A common viral disease that is difficult to treat, therefore, preventive measures are the most effective.

When infected, the plants significantly lag behind in growth, then the growth and development completely stops, the feather turns yellow, the bulbs are not formed.

The aphid virus, which is the main vector of the disease, is spreading. Therefore, yellow dwarfism is directly related to the presence of pests on the onion, which must be disposed of in time.

Mosaic

Often the mosaic virus infects onions in parallel with the yellow dwarf virus, since it is also a carrier of aphids. Earthen mites and nematodes can also be spread.

When a mosaic is damaged, leaves and stems are the first to suffer. They are deformed, acquire a mosaic color. Then the disease goes into the bulb, which becomes unfit for human consumption.

It is useless to treat plants from viral diseases. Diseases can be prevented only by sowing healthy seeds and destroying all onion pests in a timely manner.


Red thread and pink mosaic

If the lawn grass is not fed with anything or fertilization is extremely rare, the likelihood of the defeat of narrow-leaved cereals by cortical disease (red threadlike) or pink mosaic increases. These diseases of the lawn are very similar: outwardly they appear in late spring or early autumn with pinkish or reddish rounded spots. On closer inspection, you can distinguish between glued remains of the fungus on dried plant stems and threadlike red or pink branches protruding from the leaves.

As soon as the first signs of disease appear, treat the affected areas with carbendazim or another systemic fungicide

These lawn diseases are not particularly dangerous, but the appearance of the lawn deteriorates markedly due to uneven reddish spots. Pink mosaic and red threading can be prevented by good lawn care (aeration, drainage, fertilization, not cutting too short) or by using resistant types of lawn grass. As soon as the first signs of disease appear, treat the affected areas with carbendazim or another systemic fungicide.


Watch the video: Fusarium solani Lactophenol staining and slide culture


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