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Tarragon wormwood and medicinal wormwood

Tarragon wormwood and medicinal wormwood


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They say wormwood - bitter herb... According to legend, it was a part of ambrosia, in the view of the ancient Greeks - the food of the gods, which contained nectar, therefore, it should have been fragrant, slightly spicy, but not bitter.

This idea was reflected in the Latin generic name for wormwood - they were dedicated to the Greek goddess of the hunt Artemis, whose name arose from the ancient Greek word - artemes - healthy. The Russian name arose not at all from the word "field", but came from the words "fire" (flame), "scorch" (in the sense of burning), and was given to plants for their scorching, burning bitter taste. Wormwoods belong to the subfamily of Asteraceae of the Asteraceae family. There are more than 400 species of them in the world, but only 14 grow in Central Russia, and even less in the Leningrad region - only 7.

And only four wormwood can interest gardeners as spicy aromatic plants. Some of them are cultivated or are in the stage of domestication, while others are asked to be cultured. So, although it is said that wormwood is a bitter herb, however, the most promising spices are those that have a strong aroma, but in which, with rare exceptions, the bitterness inherent in this genus is weakened.

All the species of wormwood under consideration are in many respects similar in appearance - they are perennial herbaceous, up to 125-150 cm tall, branching shrubs of the Asteraceae family (Compositae) with a powerful woody branched rhizome; pinnately separate lower and whole lanceolate upper leaves. Let's consider these types.


Tarragon wormwood

Synonyms - tarragon, tarragon, dragoon grass and etc. (Artemisia dracunculus L.) - the most famous of the spicy wormwood. Many gardeners do not even suspect that this spicy herb is a real wormwood. Her homeland is South Siberia. In the wild, it is found throughout the southern half of Russia to the Far East. Grows along river banks, in low areas of the steppe, meadows, fallow lands. As a spicy aromatic plant, it has been known for a long time, from the first centuries of our era, it was introduced into culture in Syria. It is possible that it was she, in the minds of the ancient Greeks, that was an integral part of ambrosia. It is widely cultivated in Europe, the USA, and is very loved in the Caucasus. Grown in Russia since the 19th century.

The height of the bush is up to one and a half meters. The flowers are small, whitish or yellowish, collected in small, but numerous baskets. It is not found in nature in the North-West, but it grows well in culture. Differs in drought resistance and winter hardiness, withstands frosts down to -30 ° C. Does not freeze even in winters with little snow. It tolerates spring and autumn frosts well. Tarragon wormwood is demanding on light.

Loves loose, fertile, humus-rich, especially calcareous, soil, but the content of essential oil when grown in such conditions decreases. The soils should be fresh, but not waterlogged, it does not tolerate excessive moisture. The groundwater level should be at least 1 m. The plant begins to grow at the end of April. Leaves, except for the lowest ones, are linear-lanceolate. The flowers are whitish or yellowish, in spherical baskets, collected in narrow, dense paniculate inflorescences. Blooms, depending on the shape and variety, 70-140 days after the beginning of the growing season.

In nature, it mainly propagates by seeds, they are very small, 1000 pieces weigh 0.2-0.3 g, remain viable for 3-4 years, do not ripen in our zone. However, this is rather an advantage than a disadvantage, since during seed reproduction in plants, the aroma weakens, and bitterness appears and intensifies. Wild forms are less tasty and less fruitful.

In culture, in order to preserve positive varietal properties, tarragon is usually propagated vegetatively - by pieces of rhizomes, root suckers, dividing a bush, green cuttings; the latter two are preferred. Cuttings are cut in mid-June 10-15 cm long and rooted in dive boxes or on ridges in a loose soil mixture of humus, peat and sand (1: 1: 0.25), and then covered with polyethylene. The first time it is watered 2-3 times a day, the temperature is maintained at 15-17 ° C, periodically ventilated. Rooting takes place after two weeks. In the first decade of August, they are planted in place and watered abundantly.

The landing site is pre-fertilized. Tarragon is placed according to the scheme 60x60 or 50x70, it can be even denser - 40x40 cm, but if you do not grow it for sale, then for one family it is enough to have one or two bushes. Care - top dressing with complex mineral fertilizer, 3-4 cultivation of row spacings, 2-3 weeding in rows, watering as needed. Top dressing of adult plants consists in adding 3-4 kg of humus or compost, 2-3 tablespoons of ash and 1 tablespoon of complex mineral fertilizer under each bush annually; but does not like an excess of organic fertilizers, reduces aroma. The bushes are watered abundantly, usually every 10-12 days.

It can grow in one place up to 15 years, but as a spicy aromatic culture it is advisable to keep it for no more than 4-5 years, since, despite the high green mass, the quality of the latter in old bushes decreases; it gets rougher.

Using tarragon

Leaves and non-lignified shoots are used as a spice. They have a pungent spicy taste and are almost devoid of the bitterness inherent in almost all wormwood, their aroma resembles the smell of anise. Cutting greens in annual plants is carried out once in August, in perennials - three to four cuts per season, at a level of 10-15 cm from the soil. It starts when the plants reach a height of 20-25 cm. The plant is high-vitamin - it contains vitamin C - 70 mg%, carotene - 8.6, rutin - 170 mg%; as well as trace elements: copper, magnesium, cobalt. Fresh herbs contain from 0.1 to 0.5% aromatic tarragon oil (dry 1.65%).

Tarragon is a good preservative, so it is widely used in the food and canning industry. On its basis, the drinks "Baikal" and "Tarhun" are made, it is a part of various spice mixtures, some varieties of mustard. Fresh leaves are used as a snack or a side dish for meat, fish and egg dishes; put in sauces, soups, salads, in some types of cheese. Tarragon greens go well with lemon juice. It is used for salting cucumbers, tomatoes, zucchini, mushrooms, soaking apples, etc. Vinegar is infused on it. Leaves can be dried for future use for the winter. Fresh herbs are placed in a dish just before serving, dried herbs - 1-2 minutes before being cooked. Rhizomes harvested in autumn can be used for forcing in winter. Tarragon grows well in a pot as a houseplant.

Has a wide range of medicinal properties: it is used for tuberculosis, pneumonia, bronchitis, neurasthenia, as a general tonic, diuretic, laxative, antiscorbutic, antipyretic, stimulating appetite and improving digestion. It also has antihelminthic, vaso-strengthening, antioxidant and antitumor properties, and is indicated in the treatment of gastritis. The decoction and tincture exhibit bactericidal and fungicidal activity.

Tarragon wormwood varieties

There are not many tarragon varieties in our country, and in the world: Gribovsky 31, Russian, Yerevan, Georgian, Nezhinsky, German aromatic, Zhulebinsky Semko (new variety), French; the latter is especially fragrant. There are not many diseases and pests - it is affected by rust (especially with an excess of nitrogen and thickening); aphids, pennitsa leafhoppers, which suck juices from young shoots.


Medicinal wormwood

Artemisia abrotanum L., synonyms - medicinal, shrub, abrotanum, God's tree, lemon. The latter synonym sometimes leads to a well-known confusion, since a species of wormwood grows in Turkmenistan, which already has an official name - lemon. Medicinal wormwood is the most fragrant and soft type of wormwood. It grows wild in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the European part and Western Siberia of our country.

It grows along river banks, in meadows, pastures, glades, forest edges. Introduced into cultivation, but there are no zoned varieties. In the Leningrad Region, this is an invasive plant, it is found in the wild, or rather, in a feral state in gardens and parks, very rarely. Even in the culture in the North-West, it is not widespread, although it is a very promising spice, aromatic and decorative culture. Stems are straight, lignified at the base.

Healing wormwood is thermophilic, the growing season is very long, about 200 days, therefore, in the conditions of the North-West, not only does it not have time to bear fruit, but even bloom (just pick up the buds). This phenomenon also has a positive side - since seeds are not formed, this wormwood in our zone cannot become a weed.

Being winter-hardy, it is not damaged by frost. Her vegetation begins at the end of April and lasts until the very frost. Medicinal wormwood has been grown in one place for more than 10 years. The soil loves fertile, rich in nutrients. In nature, it mainly reproduces by seeds. But in culture, it is mainly propagated vegetatively: with green cuttings and arcuate layers, which are fixed in May and sprinkled with loose earth. By the end of summer, they take root.

Cutting is identical to that of tarragon. In the first decade of August, rooted seedlings are planted in a permanent place and watered abundantly. The landing site is fertilized before planting. Further care - weeding, loosening the soil, watering as needed. As a spice, it is harvested before budding, and as a medicinal raw material - during budding, cutting off the apical shoots at a height of 40-45 cm from the ground. Dry in the shade. Raw materials are stored in tightly closed boxes. The roots are dug up in late autumn.

Leaves and young shoots have a strong, pungent and pleasant spicy citrus aroma, almost devoid of bitterness, but when dried, it disappears completely. They are used in the alcoholic beverage industry in the manufacture of vermouths, liqueurs, soft drinks; used as a spice in cooking. Fresh young tops are put in salads, sauces, soups, meat, poultry, marinades, vinegar; occasionally in cottage cheese and mayonnaise. They also put it in confectionery: muffins, gingerbread, pies, in some types of bread. It should be remembered that wormwood, like other types of wormwood, should be eaten in very small doses.

In folk medicine, a decoction and infusion of wormwood is used very widely: for intracerebral hemorrhage, convulsions, shortness of breath, tachycardia, angina pectoris, gastrointestinal and infectious diseases, fever, acute respiratory infections, rheumatism, dizziness, tinnitus, toothache, sciatica, female and kidney diseases, as a wound healing agent for burns, frostbite, furunculosis, angina, skin diseases, as a diaphoretic, diuretic, tonic and tonic.

Roots and rhizomes are used for epilepsy and tuberculous meningitis. In homeopathy, this type of wormwood is used for exudative pleurisy, tuberculosis of the lymph nodes, anemia, scrofula, gout, hemorrhoids, as an appetite stimulant and anthelmintic agent. It is also used in perfumery, it is used to flavor clothes and repel moths and other insects. Very decorative, so one or two plants will not only decorate your garden, but also serve well for the other purposes listed above.

V. Starostin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences


The use of wormwood for cancer

In modern alternative medicine, wormwood for cancer is one of the most effective remedies. The plant has unique healing properties and positive results in treatment. Depending on the place of formation and the stage of the disease, different recipes are used in the treatment of oncology.

  1. Plant features
  2. Lungs
  3. Recipe 1
  4. Recipe 2
  5. Recipe 3
  • Liver
  • Breast
  • Prostate
  • Circulatory system
  • Stomach
  • Intestines
  • Uterus
  • Larynx and tongue
  • Kidney
  • special instructions
  • Conclusion
  • The use of wormwood for cancer


    There are many types of wormwood in the world. According to some data there are more than 250, according to others - 470. For example, there is wormwood, common, medicinal, northern, Australian, field, seaside, wilted.

    In Russia and neighboring countries, there are approximately 180 species of wormwood.

    Wormwood is found everywhere, and is most common in Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and the Caucasus. In this article, we will consider only those species that winter stably in the middle lane.

    Wormwood

    Bitter wormwood, also known as widow's herb, yemshan, wild pepper or wormwood, has a tart aroma and bitter taste. It has long been used by Russian healers for the manufacture of medicines, most often as a stomach remedy.

    Wormwood tinctures were used as a remedy against worms. Extracts, infusions and tinctures from the leaves and flowers of the upper shoots of bitter wormwood help stimulate the appetite.

    Common wormwood (Chernobyl)

    Wormwood is considered an antiseptic and cleanser, it is used most often in the form of tea for digestive disorders and halitosis. Official medicine is more interested in wormwood, however, all recommendations for the use of bitter wormwood are also applicable to wormwood.

    Dragon wormwood (tarragon, tarragon)

    Tarragon and tarragon are all varieties of wormwood and are an important element in the production of some drinks. Often included in delicious teas that stimulate the appetite. Tinctures and extracts of some wormwood are found in some wines (vermouth), as well as in certain spirits made from alcohol (absinthe).

    Steller's and Schmidt's wormwood

    These are decorative types of wormwood used in landscape design.


    How to fertilize a dill tree, and how to care for a crop?

    The plant responds well to feeding and growing on fertile soil, therefore, before planting a dill tree, for each square meter of soil, they are introduced:

    • 6 kg of organic fertilizers
    • 15 grams of ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride
    • about 30 grams of superphosphate.

    In order for the bush to have room for growth, young wormwood is planted at a distance of at least a meter from neighboring plants, except for cases when the dill tree, as in the photo, is used to organize live green borders. Here, the distance is halved and the formation of the crown and the growth of new shoots are closely monitored.

    During the acclimatization period, the plants are actively watered. Adult bushes of medicinal wormwood can easily tolerate dry periods, but do not tolerate excessive moisture in the soil. The soil under the dill tree is loosened, freed from weeds and fallen leaves, and they also do not forget to fertilize the dill tree, which needs mineral fertilizing in spring and in the second half of summer, and organic matter for plants is brought in in the fall.


    How often to water wormwood

    Ornamental wormwood is a drought-resistant plant, so frequent watering is not needed. It is enough to water the plant in the first days after planting. To maintain decorative beauty, you can water on hot summer days once every two weeks. It is recommended to pour 3-4 liters of water at room temperature under each bush.


    What types of wormwood are used as a seasoning?

    Wormwood paniculata
    In the cooking of European countries and the United States, this type of wormwood is used dried in small doses (at the tip of a knife): they season the fried meat 1-2 minutes before being cooked. Most often, the plant is used to flavor the marinade, in which the meat is kept before frying or stewing. Wormwood is flavored with minced meat, added to potato or onion soups, cabbage, spinach.

    Wormwood annual

    In Transcaucasia, young leaves of wormwood are used as a seasoning for meat dishes. In Kyrgyzstan, goat meat broth is seasoned with spice. In Mongolia, wormwood seeds are added to flour and cereal dishes, tea.

    Medicinal wormwood (god tree)

    In cooking, dried wormwood is added to fried meat, duck, goose and sauces. The plant is used to flavor confectionery, vinegar, mayonnaise, cottage cheese and salads.
    In some European countries and in the north of Russia, bread is baked with the addition of juniper berries and medicinal wormwood. In France, the branches of the plant are used to flavor clothes and keep them from moths.

    Lemon wormwood
    Raw materials are used in the production of drinks "Rassvet" and "Tonic-1", high-quality vermouth and grape wines. It is used as a flavoring agent for canned fish and vegetables, processed cheeses, and confectionery. Fruit salads, soups, meat, fish and game, seasoned with lemon wormwood, acquire a pleasant taste. Homemade drinks, including tea, are flavored with this spice.

    Tarragon wormwood (tarragon, tarragon)

    Tarragon belongs to the genus wormwood, but is absolutely devoid of bitterness and has a strong odor, reminiscent of anise.
    In industry, this culture is used for flavoring marinades, in the manufacture of cheeses from the Caucasus. Tarragon is a part of Stolovaya mustard, Tarhun soft drink, and various spice mixtures.
    Fresh tarragon leaves are used as an appetizer or a side dish to meat and egg dishes, added to vegetable salads. In Ukraine they are served with cheese and yogurt, in Belarus they are salted for the winter.
    It retains the flavor of tarragon well when dried. They are used to season soups, some types of borscht, okroshka, fish soup, etc.
    Tarragon is widely used in the preparation of second courses. In France, they are flavored with beef, in Georgia, Azerbaijan and Hungary - lamb. Piglets stuffed with offal with nuts or Imeretian cheese, dishes from the liver, heart, tongue are seasoned with the leaves of this culture. Tarragon is used to flavor vegetable and meat-vegetable dishes; hot fish dishes are seasoned with a special aroma and taste. Thus, Sevan trout acquires a special aroma and taste only when tarragon is added.
    Tarragon is a good preservative, therefore it is indispensable in homemade preparations. The substances contained in its leaves inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria. The spice helps to preserve the color of the product, increases the strength, improves the taste and smell of vegetables. It is used for pickling and pickling cucumbers, tomatoes, mushrooms, for pickling cabbage.

    Wormwood is a sigh word, a groan word, bitter, like a shackle ring, and sad, like bitterness.
    In the southeast of the Peloponnese, the ruins of the temple of Artemis, the goddess of the hunt, the moon, fertility, childbirth and healing, have been preserved. In honor of her, the Latin name for wormwood was given - artemisia - the herb of health. In the medieval poem "On the Properties of Herbs", wormwood is called the mother of numerous herbs and it is stated that "one who has tasted this plant may not be afraid of any harmful potion at all, and none of the animals will dare to touch it."

    The most famous type of wormwood is bitter, or true A. Absinthium, which is the most commonly used in cooking. Its English name wormwood (from worm - worm, worm) is explained by the fact that once this bitter herb served as an anthelmintic. Despite such a not very appetizing use, it is traditionally included in various compositions of appetizing and tonic tea, it is used to flavor aperitifs.
    As Pliny writes, during the Roman celebrations, the winner of the quadriga competition received the right to drink a sip of bitter wormwood as a reward - the ancient Romans considered health and tone to be the best reward. Indian healers were well aware of the stimulating properties of the herb, and the great Avicenna believed that a decoction of wormwood, drunk before libation, helps with a hangover and improves complexion. He was echoed by the Armenian doctor Amasiatsi, who argued that wormwood eliminates heaviness in the head and prevents a person from getting drunk quickly. Perhaps this was known in old England, where wormwood was used to prepare a special bitter wormwood ale (wormwood ale), and for the drink purl, which was widespread at that time - as the English called hot beer with wormwood, gin, spices and sugar, that kind of drug , as they believed, strengthens the body well and helps against colds - a common ailment of the inhabitants of foggy Albion.
    In the old days, this wormwood was used as a seasoning for fatty dishes (especially for fried goose).

    Lemon wormwood (Artemisia cina Berg ex Poljak). In Kaffa, the Fryazh merchants bought from the Arabs the "citrus seed" worth its weight in gold and transported it to Genoa, from where it was distributed throughout Europe. Nowadays, few people know that “citrine seed” is dried and candied flower baskets of Kazakhstani citrine wormwood. Kazakhs call this plant "darmine", which means "here is the medicine."
    Annual wormwood (Artemisia annua). An indispensable urban weed: through metal gratings, concrete slabs, near the irrigation ditch and the foundation of the house - everywhere she will find a place for herself. In Transcaucasia, young leaves of wormwood are used as a seasoning for meat dishes. In Kyrgyzstan, goat meat broth is seasoned with spice. In Mongolia, wormwood seeds are added to flour and cereal dishes, tea.

    Medicinal wormwood (Artimisia absoranum). In folk medicine, wormwood is still known as a remedy that stimulates digestion and destroys intestinal parasites. The herb is used as a spice. The spices are fresh or dried young, lemon-scented leaves, which, like the leaves of other types of wormwood, are rather bitter. Therefore, they should be added to food in small quantities and, above all, to fatty pork and lamb, fried goose or duck, as well as to give a special taste to pies, mayonnaise and salads. The French put dry twigs of wormwood in their wardrobe, believing that thereby they protect their clothes from moths and other insects. Healing wormwood is not eaten by livestock at all, and therefore it is extremely abundant in pastures and meadows.


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