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Features of fertilization of floral ornamental plants

Features of fertilization of floral ornamental plants


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To make the flowers fragrant ...

Viola

The set of flower ornamental plants grown in the open field is very diverse. They are conventionally divided into three groups: annuals, or annuals, biennials and perennials, each of which has its own characteristics of nutrition and fertilization.

Annuals

Annuals - Plants that achieve ornamental value, form seeds and cultivated for one year are called annuals (annuals). They consume nutrients throughout the growing season.

For instance, aster from the beginning of development to budding, it forms a large vegetative mass, which requires a lot of nitrogen. In addition, phosphorus and potassium, trace elements are also needed for development. Ammonium nitrate is used at the rate of 45-60 g per 1 m². In this case, half the dose is applied before planting, the rest is distributed over two dressings - at the beginning of budding and before mass flowering.

In the second feeding of annuals (before mass flowering) potassium salt is added to ammonium nitrate at the rate of 20-25 g per 1 m². Do not increase the dose of fertilizers, especially nitrogen fertilizers, as this can cause excessive tillering.

Turkish carnation

Biennials

Biennials include plants that achieve decorative value in the second year of cultivation. In the first year, these plants develop a bush in the form of a root rosette of leaves, in the second, flowering shoots bloom profusely and form seeds.

Biennials hibernate directly in the open field and do not require digging for storage in a warm place. They need to lower the temperature to stimulate further flowering and fruiting. The most common biennial plants in floriculture are viola, carnation, bells, mallow, daisy, foxglove, forget-me-not.

Usually biennials are grown as seedlings, but if conditions permit, it is better to sow them directly in open ground. Until the emergence of seedlings, the crops are kept under a film, constantly monitoring the soil moisture. Water as needed. If the seedlings turned out to be thickened, you need to plant them more freely. The timing of transplanting biennials to a permanent place is late summer-early autumn or April-May. Before the cold weather begins, the plants will get stronger and take root well, which will help them easily overwinter. For the winter, it is advisable to mulch biennials with humus or peat in a layer of up to 5 cm. This will protect them from freezing in snowless winters, and from bulging in spring frosts.

In early spring, top dressing is carried out with full mineral fertilizer. Two additional dressings are required: 20 g of superphosphate, 8-10 g of potassium chloride and 15 g of ammonium nitrate per 10 liters of water (for 2-3 m² of plantings).

Tulips

Perennials

Bulbous flowers (tulips, daffodils, hyacinths and lilies) are the most popular of perennials. They are distinguished by the shortest growing season, and without fertilizing these plants, it is impossible to obtain high-quality flowering and full-fledged bulbs.

Tulips - their bulb is renewed annually, that is, replaced by a new one. The root system is poorly developed and consists of thin adventitious roots, devoid of root hairs. Roots are formed in autumn, and the bulk is at a depth of 15-20 cm. Due to the fact that the growing season of tulips is very short (60-75 days), they are most responsive to the natural fertility of the soil, as well as to pre-planting fertilization. In autumn, at the beginning of rooting, along with nitrogen, they need enhanced phosphorus and potassium nutrition. In the spring, in the budding and flowering phase, the need for phosphorus and potassium increases even more. The onset of the budding phase is accompanied by intensive growth. At this time, the spare nutrients contained in the mother bulb are intensively spent on the formation of aboveground organs and the growth of daughter bulbs. The introduction of phosphorus and potash fertilizers during this period against the background of nitrogen fertilizers is the main condition for early flowering and obtaining high-quality large bulbs. The most important period for tulips is from budding to flowering. At this time, the content of assimilable forms of phosphorus and potassium in the soil should be approximately twice as much as nitrogen.

Tulips are very hygrophilous. Therefore, top dressing will have a positive effect if it is carried out on well-moistened soil. Mineral fertilizers applied to dry soil will do nothing but harm.

A month before planting the bulbs, apply on 1 m²: humus - 8 kg, 40 g of ammonium nitrate, 30 g of superphosphate and 25 g of potassium salt. If the soil is dry at this time, then watering should be carried out before fertilizing. The next year, in the spring, tulips are fed with mineral fertilizers four times. In the first top dressing immediately after the snow melts and in the second in the budding phase, add 20 g of ammonium nitrate, 10 g of superphosphate and potassium salt per 1 m². In the third top dressing (during flowering) give superphosphate 10 g and potassium salt 20 g. The fourth top dressing is carried out immediately after flowering - 20 g of ammonium nitrate and potassium salt per 1 m².

Daffodils

Daffodils - bulbous plants blooming in early spring. Unlike tulips, their bulbs do not die off, but grow throughout the growing season. From the appearance of the first shoots to the formation of buds, the vegetative mass of daffodils grows rapidly. In this regard, they assimilate the largest amount of nitrogen. As the budding phase approaches, nitrogen consumption decreases, while phosphorus and potassium intake increases. In autumn, before planting large bulbs, it is advisable to apply a complete mineral fertilizer at the rate of: ammonium nitrate 30 g, superphosphate 15 g, potassium salt 10 g per 1 m². In the same doses, they are added to three subsequent dressings (before flowering, during and after flowering), always with sufficient soil moisture. In the second year, the effectiveness of fertilizing increases. The best time for the first feeding is the beginning, the second is the end of April. You will need ammonium nitrate 20 g, superphosphate and potassium salt, 10 g per 1 m² in each of the dressings. However, the highest decorative effect is promoted by top dressing in the third year of life based on: ammonium nitrate 50 g, superphosphate and potassium salt, 20 g per 1 m².

Hyacinths - bulbous plants, the period of active growth of which lasts 3-3.5 months. They prefer permeable soils with a high humus content. For planting in the fall, before digging in the soil, humus, sand and peat are introduced, as well as mineral fertilizers at the rate of 60-80 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium salt per 1 m². The latter can be replaced with wood ash (200 g per 1 m²). It is better to use nitrogen fertilizers in the spring as a top dressing per 1 m²: 20-30 g of ammonium nitrate dissolved in 10 liters of water. The second time they feed when buds appear - 60 g each of ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium salt, the third - during flowering and the fourth - immediately after it ends, at the rate of 40 g of superphosphate and potassium salt.

Lilies very demanding on the supply of nutrients throughout the growing season. It is best to apply humus; it is advisable to apply mineral fertilizers in the second and third years of life in the ratio: 1 part nitrogen, 2 parts phosphorus and potassium. In the second year, it is recommended to apply full mineral fertilization three times during the growing season. In the third year, three additional fertilizing is also carried out with full mineral fertilizer. The first time they feed when leaves appear, the second - in the budding phase and the third - during the period of mass flowering.

Victor Pesochny
Photo by Olga Rubtsova


Irrigation devices and accessories

At home, vegetables are watered, as a rule, from small watering cans with long noses... A strainer on them is used only when watering seedlings for watering grown plants it is more convenient than a watering can without a strainer.

And personally, I liked this vessel more (a hybrid of a jug and a watering can)). It is good because it is convenient to pour water into it, and it is easy to add top dressing if necessary.

Additional procedure - spraying... For her, you need a spray bottle that finely sprays water. Spraying is needed for plants that require high humidity for normal development. However, in winter in our homes the air is so dry that others will not refuse a small shower.

And the spray bottle is also indispensable when you need to water tiny seedlings, for which even weak trickles of water from a fine sieve of a small watering can turn out to be excessive. In a word, a useful device.

If the home garden is large enough, you can use automatic or drip irrigation systems - purchased or made by yourself. The use of such devices saves time, and most importantly, it allows you to maintain an optimal level of soil moisture in the planting tanks.

What is a hydrogel, and how it can be useful to us

As I admitted at the beginning of the article, watering my home garden is the most difficult task for me. In the eternal troubles, I often miss the moment when it would be worth picking up the watering can. Automatic systems are not my option (for several pots for 3-4 months a year, I am not ready to buy expensive devices). Therefore, I was looking for a simple but effective solution. Found it!

Caring for plants in your home garden greatly simplifies hydrogel... It is a neutral polymer substance that can easily hold a large volume of water and give it to plant roots as needed. The introduction of the hydrogel into the soil really allows the plants to be watered less often, while they develop better, since they receive moisture in the amount they need.

The hydrogel is produced in the form of colorless granules, often of irregular shape (do not confuse with aqua soil, having a geometric - spherical, cuboid or other - shape and often painted in different colors: it is used mainly for decorative purposes). There is also a powdery substance - it is intended for the preparation of a "talker" in which the roots of plants are dipped during transplantation or before transportation.


The hydrogel can be added to the soil both dry and after preliminary soaking (the latter is preferable: absorbing moisture, the hydrogel greatly increases in size, and it is difficult to calculate the volume of the required substrate). Aqua soil, in turn, is used only after soaking and does not mix with the soil - it is beautiful in itself.

It should be borne in mind: you should not expect an immediate effect from the introduction of a hydrogel... It does not moisturize the soil - it delivers moisture directly to the roots of plants that take time to grow through the swollen granules. Therefore, at first, you will have to water as usual. But then you can hardly worry - even if you had to leave home for a few days, the pets will not suffer from thirst.

You can soak the hydrogel not in water, but in a solution of a suitable complex fertilizer - then the plants will be able to draw from this source not only moisture, but also the necessary additional nutrition. In general, I am happy with this decision.

Well, 6 smart devices for growing greenery on the windowsill can generally get rid of problems with watering - they themselves choose the necessary mode and provide the plants with everything they need. The owner only has to harvest the crop))

Share your secrets and findings - how do you water your home garden, what did you come up with so that your pets do not suffer from thirst?


Features of mosaic disease

Mosaic, penetrating into the plant, affects its tissues at the cellular level. Because of this, chlorophyll is partially destroyed, and the level of carbohydrates also decreases, as a result of which tissue sections begin to die off.

To understand that the culture is affected by mosaic disease, conduct a thorough examination. The first symptoms of the disease:

  1. Irregularly shaped spots of various sizes and colors are formed on the foliage: whitish, yellowish or deep green. Due to these spots, the structure of the sheet plate begins to deform.
  2. The plant begins to grow and develop very slowly, its water exchange is disrupted. As a result, young shoots, stems and foliage dry up.
  3. On the surface of the fruit, marks of a brown tint are formed, rot appears on them, and they can no longer be used for food.

The bush is affected by the virus after it comes into contact with a diseased plant or if it has mechanical damage (for example, it was injured when diving). Sucking pests such as aphids, bugs and ticks also contribute to the spread of the disease. And also animals, birds, wind, as well as raindrops, which contain the smallest particles of the affected plant, can become involuntary carriers of the mosaic. Also, mosaic pathogens are often found in the ground in the root area of ​​the plant, since it is there that you can find the remains of foliage affected by this viral disease.

The disease develops very actively at high air humidity and in warmth (from 20 to 25 degrees). In addition to tobacco, mosaics are affected: cucumbers, cabbage, peas, potatoes, tomatoes, beets, soybeans, beans, as well as berry, fruit and ornamental crops.


Growing seedlings of perennial and annual ornamental plants

Over the years of work as an agronomist-florist, I have accumulated considerable experience in agricultural technology, even for a professional crops. To write this article on growing seedlings of perennial and annual ornamental plants, I was prompted by the questions that colleagues and amateur flower growers often ask me.

Recommendations are general, but effective

I would like to start with simple but effective rules for growing almost any flower seedlings.

When sowing seeds or further picking flower plants, in order to prevent blackleg disease and to prevent root rot, biological fungicidal preparations containing the Trichoderma harzianum strain can be used. It is most convenient to use those that come in pill form. One pot with a diameter of 15-17 cm requires 3 tablets (1 tablet per 300 ml of soil). These funds are absolutely harmless to humans and do not stay in the plant.

The tablet should be placed in the upper part of the pot at a depth of no more than 5 cm, but not less than 1 cm, just where the roots of young plants will develop. The drug starts working within 3-5 days and retains its protective properties for up to 1.5 months. Its action is based on the fact that the mycelium of the Tnchoderma fungus, penetrating into pathogenic fungi, gradually dissolves them from the inside. As a result, the normal microflora of the soil is restored.

Difficulties often arise with sowing small seeds such as tobacco, petunia, lobelia, primrose. These seeds should be sown over the surface without sprinkling soil on top. In order for the seeds to receive enough moisture and swell, you can sprinkle the container with the crops with snow, lightly tamping it, with a layer of about 1 cm. The snow will melt, the seeds will be saturated with moisture and sink a little into the soil.

Seeds of large plants, such as dahlias, nasturtium, sunflower, zinnia, are best wrapped in a damp cloth before sowing (there should not be too much water so that the seeds do not rot) and hold on a battery for germination. The seeds will hatch in 2-3 days, and after that, sowing can be carried out in separate pots or large cassettes.

If the soil in the seed box with seedlings is dry and has moved away from the walls of the container, you should not immediately spray the soil heavily over the entire surface. Better to put the box on the pallet first and shed the edges.Moisture will evenly pass to the center, and young seedlings will not fall.

The first feeding of seedlings should be done no earlier than a pair of true leaves (following the cotyledons) appear, and no more than 1/3 of the full dose of fertilizer should be used. Special fertilizers for seedlings or potassium nitrate are best suited (full dose - 20 g / 10 L of water). It is necessary to carry out top dressing on a leaf using a sprayer, preferably on a sunny day, so that nitrogen is absorbed.

For the germination of seeds of many plant species, light is not important. But it is necessary for all crops when the cotyledons appear. Plants like snapdragons. begonia, balsam, petunias, tobacco, especially need light in the initial stage of growth.

Phlox, cyclamen and catharanthus sprout in the dark. The seedlings need the maximum amount of light in the last stages, when the laying of flower buds begins. Lack of light during this period leads to a weak and later flowering. In addition to lighting during this period, a certain length of the day is also important for some plant species. Long-day species (ageratum, antirrinum, tuberous begonia, petunia, verbena, violet) lay buds with a day length of 14-16 hours, and short-day ones (salvia, erect marigolds, zinnia) - less than 10-12 hours.

For each plant species, there is an optimum substrate temperature required for seed germination. It should be emphasized that it is not the ambient temperature that is important, but the substrate.

So, a high (about 25 °) temperature is needed for ageratum, begonias, balsams, vervains, coleus, lobelia, petunias, salvia, tobacco, cellosia. At a temperature of about 22 °, antirrinum, aster, carnation, dahlia, calendula, cosmos, levkoy, pelargonium and marigolds germinate well. A temperature of about 19 ° is suitable for phlox, primroses, viols.


Mineral fertilizers

It is very easy for people who are not versed in agricultural chemistry to get confused in all these names. Complex mineral fertilizers specially designed for flowering, ornamental shrubs and fruit plants will come to their aid.

Typically, these fertilizers also contain nitrogen. It is necessary for the assimilation of other macro- and microelements. Make sure that its amount does not exceed 10%, and preferably 6%.

Superphosphate - the main supplier of phosphorus. Potassium saturates plants with fertilizers such as potassium phosphate, potassium sulfate, potassium humate.

Top dressing with these mineral fertilizers is carried out only after good watering:

  • dissolve potassium sulfate in water (1 tablespoon per bucket) and immediately water the plants
  • 10 tbsp Dilute superphosphate in 10 liters of water and leave for 3 days, remembering to stir from time to time. Dilute the resulting concentrate with water in a ratio of 1: 9 and only then water the plants
  • you can mix these dressings - pour 1 liter of concentrated superphosphate infusion into a bucket with diluted potassium sulfate and water immediately. You do not need to store this mixture for more than 15 minutes. to avoid the action of a chemical reaction.

For foliar feeding in August, you can use the following remedy: dissolve 100-150 g of superphosphate in a bucket of water and sprinkle on the leaves of the plant.

Foliar dressing allows you to quickly make up for the lack of one or another element in plant nutrition


Growing lilacs

Hello dear readers!

On this April day, I would like to tell you about the cultivation of lilacs in my personal plot.

I will not dwell here on the wonderful decorative properties and dizzying aroma of this plant, since the advantages of lilac are well known to everyone. I'll start right away with the main topic of the article.

For lilacs, you need to choose a place protected from the wind, warm, well-lit place. Lilacs are very demanding on soil fertility. The best reaction of the environment for the growth and development of this culture is close to neutral. On acidic soils, the bushes grow poorly and do not tolerate too much moisture.

On heavy soils, the size of the planting pit must be made at least 60x60x60 centimeters, and on fertile soils, these dimensions can be reduced. The hole must be filled with the top layer of soil and added to it up to 10 kilograms of any organic rotted fertilizers. It can be compost or humus.

Depending on the purpose of the planting, as well as on biological and varietal characteristics, the distance between plants may vary. So, when planting in groups, plants are planted at a distance of 2 meters, when planting in rows - 2.5 meters, and if you want to grow large standard varieties, then the plants must be placed at a distance of at least 5 meters from each other.

The technology of planting lilacs is no different from planting other decorative shrubs and trees. The soil in the pit is poured in the form of a mound and the root system is spread along this mound in all directions. Then the hole is covered with earth, after which it is pressed tightly to the roots. After compaction of the soil, the root collar should be 4 - 5 centimeters above the soil surface. A deeper or, conversely, too shallow planting oppresses the plants, which often causes their death.

After planting is complete, within a radius of 0.5 - 0.6 meters around the plant, you need to pour an earthen roller, 18 - 20 centimeters high. Thus, a hole is formed, which should be watered abundantly and mulched with a layer of 6 - 8 centimeters. For mulch, you can use peat, humus or sawdust.

In summer, weeds should be removed, all wild growth from grafted plants, loosened up the soil and, as always, fight diseases and pests. Unfortunately, you can't get away from them. In subsequent years, standard measures for the care of lilacs are carried out: watering, caring for the soil, pruning and shaping a bush, feeding, combating diseases and pests.

Bush formation and lilac reproduction

The bush needs to be formed with a height of 10 - 15 centimeters, leaving 5 - 6 evenly spaced skeletal branches. This is done by short pruning in the spring of one-year-old. After planting, the seedlings are immediately cut off each of 5 - 6 of the first order, leaving 3 - 4 pairs of buds to get branches of the second order. Here you need to cut out weak shoots inside the bush.

Pruning in subsequent years consists of cutting out the broken, dry and fattening branches that develop inside the crown, as well as the annual removal of wild growth that forms below the graft site.

By the way, about grafting: when lilacs are propagated by grafting to the wild (stock), a part of a varietal, cultivated plant is grafted in the form of a bud or a cutting. Plants formed after grafting exist on the roots of the rootstock for their entire life. Such plants are called so - "grafted", and those lilacs, which are propagated by layering or cuttings, are called "own-rooted". They live on own, adventitious roots. "Own-rooted" lilacs have many advantages over "grafted" ones. It is more viable and decorative, can live up to 25 years, in contrast to the "grafted", the maximum life cycle of which is limited to 15 - 17 years. When caring for "own-rooted" lilacs, there is no need for systematic removal of wild growth, especially at a young age, in contrast to the "grafted lilac" (wild growth can drown out cultural grafts at a young age). Also, "own-rooted" lilacs are appreciated when laying uterine plantings, since in the future you will not experience problems either when harvesting cuttings or when separating shoots, all planting and cuttings will be varietal.

In the formation of a bush, the correct cutting of inflorescences is of great importance, especially in the first years of flowering. You can often see when they cut off, even worse, they break off the brushes of inflorescences together with a one-year growth, and sometimes with a two-year growth. After such "events" the lilac will bloom only in a year. Correct cutting of inflorescences - along with part of last year's branch, and on the part that remains, at least two developing shoots must be present., On the upper part of which flower buds are laid in the second half of summer. With such a correct cut of the inflorescences, the bush will bloom again the next year.

It is recommended to normalize flowering in the first 2 - 3 years of lilac life, so that the plant grows and develops better. For this, part of the flower buds is removed. Sometimes this is done in adult bushes to "support" and strengthen the plant. It also enhances growth, and in the future also flowering, removal of faded fruit panicles immediately after flowering.

Carrying out the cultivation of lilacs, caring for the plant consists in removing weeds, loosening, mulching the soil, maintaining it in a constant wet state in the near-stem circle and behind the projection of the crown. Lilacs need moisture not only in spring and summer, but also during autumn root growth. To do this, in September - October, you need to carry out abundant (it is also called "podzimny") watering. 3 - 5 buckets of water are consumed per square meter of the trunk circle, depending on the age of the lilac and the texture of the soil.

Lilac is responsive to organic (peat-compost, humus, etc.) and mineral (nitrogen, potash, phosphorus) fertilizers. All these fertilizers, both organic and mineral, except for nitrogen fertilizers, are applied for digging the soil in the fall. For lilacs, the fertilizer rates per square meter of the trunk circle are as follows:

- organic fertilizers - 2 buckets

- potassium sulfate - 2 tablespoons

- superphosphate - 3 tablespoons.

You can use granular fertilizer "Agricola for flowering plants" (100 grams per bush)

As for nitrogen fertilizers, they are given in top dressing:

- before the beginning of the growing season (at the end of April)

- at the beginning of the growth period of shoots and leaves (in May).

You need to add 1 - 2 tablespoons of urea per square meter of the trunk circle.

Lilacs can be affected by late blight, bacterial wilting, spotting. To prevent this, it is necessary, after cutting the flowers, to spray the lilac bushes with 1% Bordeaux mixture or copper oxychloride (for 5 liters of water - 20 grams).


Watch the video: 10 Growing Orchids Tips You Should Know. Best Fertilizer for Orchids to Bloom. iKnow


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