Top dressing of grapes root and foliar - what and how to fertilize?

 Top dressing of grapes root and foliar - what and how to fertilize?

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If, when planting grape seedlings, fertilizers were immediately introduced into the soil, in the next three or four years, grape feeding will not be required. For adult bushes, for good fruiting, certain microelements are needed, which are not always enough even in fertile soil.

What nutrients should soil for grapes contain?

In the photo grapes

Grape plants thrive and bear fruit best in nutrient-rich soil. But over time, the content of useful trace elements in the ground steadily decreases, and without fertilization, the soil becomes depleted. Under such conditions, the grape yield deteriorates markedly, the bushes grow poorly, suffering from drought and frost.

It would seem that it is enough to feed the grape bushes several times per season. complex fertilizersand the plants will come to life again. However, in grapes, the need for different nutrients varies depending on the growing season. And if you want to succeed in viticulture, you should definitely figure out how certain microelements affect grapes, at what time they are especially needed for plants, and how they should be introduced into the soil.

Video about proper feeding and fertilization of grapes

Nutrients for grapes:

  • Nitrogen. It is responsible for the growth of green mass (leaves and shoots), therefore, the main part of nitrogen fertilizers is applied in spring, at the very beginning of the growing season of grapes. In summer, the need for nitrogen decreases, since August, nitrogen fertilizers become harmful to grape bushes, since the untimely rapid growth of greenery will interfere with the maturation of wood. Introduce in the form of urea or ammonium nitrate.
  • Phosphorus. The vineyard is most needed at the very beginning of flowering: thanks to phosphorus fertilization (superphosphate), inflorescences develop better, berries are tied and clusters ripen.
  • Potassium. Closer to autumn, it is very useful to feed the vineyard with potassium chloride, as it accelerates the ripening of vines and fruits, and also prepares plants well for winter.
  • Copper. Promotes an increase in frost and drought resistance of shoots, enhances their growth.
  • Bor. The introduction of boric acid into the soil helps to increase the sugar content of the grapes and accelerate their ripening. In addition, boron stimulates pollen germination.
  • Zinc. Thanks to this microelement, the yield of grapes increases markedly.

In the photo phosphate fertilizer

Calcium, magnesium, sulfur and iron are also beneficial for grapes, but these elements are usually found in sufficient quantities in the earth. It is not necessary to additionally feed the vineyard with them.

Mineral fertilizers and organic matter - how to fertilize grapes?

You can feed grapes with single-component mineral fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, potassium salt, potassium chloride, superphosphate, etc.), fertilizers containing two or three elements (nitrophoska, ammophos), or complex fertilizers (Kemira, Florovit, Solution, Novofert, Aquarin).

But mineral fertilizers alone will not be enough: grapes need manure to fully utilize the incoming nutrients. The addition of manure improves the aeration and permeability of the soil, and also stimulates the development of microorganisms in the soil, which are needed by the grape roots for the best absorption of microelements. In addition, rotted manure provides the vineyard with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients.

Instead of manure, you can use compost as an effective and affordable tool for any gardener. Suitable for composting are food waste, tops, grass cuttings, sawdust, bird droppings and animal manure, wood ash, shredded branches and other organic debris. The finished compost is rich in nutrients no less than manure.

Photo of mineral fertilizers

Another valuable organic fertilizer is poultry manure. It also contains the most important elements for grapes in a highly assimilable form. A week and a half before use, bird droppings are diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 4, and before direct application to the ground, an infusion is made, diluting with water 10 times more. One grape bush consumes half a liter of infusion.

Well, instead of potassium chloride, which can harm the vineyard due to the high chlorine content, it is better to use ash. It will provide grape bushes with not only potassium, but also phosphorus. The most useful is sunflower husk ash.

Top dressing of grapes - terms and methods of introduction

To feed the root system of grapes, grooves about 40 cm deep should be dug around each bush at a distance of at least 50 cm from the stem. Through such grooves, the main roots of plants absorb nutrients much more efficiently, especially if you combine top dressing with watering the grapes.

In the photo, feeding grapes

When to fertilize:

  • in spring, before opening the bushes after wintering, superphosphate (20 g), ammonium nitrate (10 g) and potassium salt (5 g) are dissolved in 10 liters of water - this portion is enough to water one grape bush;
  • a couple of weeks before the grapes begin to bloom, they are fed with the same aqueous solution;
  • before the grapes ripen, the land in the vineyard is fertilized with superphosphate and potash fertilizers (no nitrogen is applied);
  • after harvesting the fruits, the grapes are fed with potash fertilizers to increase the winter hardiness of the plants.
During spring feeding, you can use slurry instead of mineral fertilizers: 1 kg of solution is consumed per square meter of planting.

Once every three years in the autumn months, the vineyard should be fertilized with manure with the addition of ash, superphosphate and ammonium sulfate. The fertilizer is distributed over the surface of the earth, after which a deep digging is done. If on a site of sandy loam soil, it is worth applying fertilizers for digging in a year, then on sandy soil - annually.

Foliar dressing of grapes for a better harvest

Through the leaves of grapes, nutrients dissolved in water are remarkably absorbed. Therefore, in addition to the usual root dressing, it is advisable to carry out foliar dressings - on the leaves. This will help the plants grow better, produce maximum yields and tolerate winter frosts well.

Regardless of the fertilization of the root system, the grape foliage is sprayed for the first time with a solution of trace elements before the appearance of flowers to prevent their shedding and to increase the ovaries, the second time - after flowering, the third time - when the grapes are ripe. With the last two sprays, nitrogen fertilizers are excluded from the top dressing.

Video about fertilizing grapes

For foliar dressing, you can use solutions of micro- or macro-fertilizers, which are easy to find on sale in a large assortment. A water infusion of ash mixed with fermented herbal infusion of herbs is also suitable.

Spraying the foliage should be carried out on calm days in the morning or evening, or in the daytime in cloudy weather, so that the plants do not get burned under the sun, since the solution remains on the leaves in the form of small droplets. For the best absorption of trace elements, you can add 3 tablespoons to the nutrient solution. Sahara.

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Top dressing of grapes in spring - the best fertilizers and the timing of their introduction

Top dressing of grapes in spring is necessary, since when planting in well-fertilized holes, the seedlings have enough nutrition for two to three years, after which the soil must be enriched. Consider the most effective chemical fertilizers, as well as the best folk remedies that will help you grow and harvest an excellent harvest.

Chubushnik (Latin Philadelphus)

Sometimes semi-deciduous shrub. More than 70 species are known. For the sweet aroma of flowers, it is mistakenly called jasmine. Loves sunny areas, the number of flowers decreases in the shade, and the plant turns noticeably pale.

The grapes need basic dressing, which is applied every few years, and additional - annually applied in spring and autumn.

Fertilizing grapes - when and how to fertilize? - garden

Fertilization is a very important and complex operation in providing the grape plant with nutrients.
The main nutritional organs of the plant are leaves and roots. The main function of the leaf apparatus is the assimilation of carbon from the air, photosynthesis, the root system provides the plant with water and assimilates nutrients from the soil. Roots absorb mineral elements necessary for nutrition from the soil: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, sulfur, microelements: boron, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, copper, chlorine and some organic substances, such as salts of humic acids. In the root system, absorbed inorganic compounds are converted into organic ones - amino acids, proteins, sugars, fats. When feeding on micro - and macroelements, the vital processes of the plant are activated: the synthesis of chlorophyll ensures the growth of the assimilation surfaces of various plant organs (leaves, shoots, roots, fruits). Mineral nutrition conditions largely depend on the content of these nutrients in the soil.

A grape plant, growing in one place for many years, absorbs a large amount of these elements from the soil for its development, for the construction of plant tissues, for the formation of various organs: shoots, roots, leaves, buds, fruits.

During the growing season, the plant absorbs nutrients with different intensities and selectively according to individual phases of development: the intensity of nutrient absorption increases from the beginning of flowering to the ripening of the crop. The last stages of the growing season are characterized by an increase in potassium intake.

When fertilizing vineyards, it is necessary to take into account the correct combination of nutrients, depending on the need for them during a certain growing season.

Of course, there cannot be universal recommendations and recipes for top dressing for any vineyards with a variety of types and varieties of soils, their chemical content, water regime with a variety of varieties and ages of grape bushes. One thing is clear: how much nutrients the plant has taken from the environment, so much of them must be replenished. So how many fertilizers, mineral, organic, microelements should be applied when feeding? What is the optimal ratio between them?

Vinogradar A.L. Dmitriev in the book "Ideal Vineyard" with serious justification recommends to determine the doses of mineral fertilizers in dressings to take into account the ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in a grape plant (N: P: K = 3: 1: 2), determined by scientists of the Research Institute. V.E. Tairov. The author, having processed the results of research in the field of vineyard fertilizers, came to the conclusion that to obtain 1 kg of harvest, an adult grape bush needs 6 g of nitrogen, 2 g of phosphorus and 4 g of potassium (according to the active ingredient).
Note. The active substance is the amount of pure substance in the fertilizer, expressed in%.

Knowing the yield of a grape bush, it is easy to determine how much nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is removed from the soil, i.e. how much fertilizer should be applied to the soil. With an average annual yield of 10 kg, a grape bush needs 60 g of nitrogen, 20 g of phosphorus and 40 g of potassium, i.e .:

- ammonium nitrate (N-34%) - 60: 0.34 = 176.5 g

- superphosphate (P2O5-20%) - 20: 0.2 = 100g
- potassium sulfate (K2O-50%) - 40: 0.5 = 80g.

But it is impossible to limit oneself only to mineral dressings. The soil requires not only the restoration of the chemical content, but also the improvement of the structure and microflora, and this requires organic fertilizers: humus, compost, peat, bird droppings, etc. Under the influence of organic matter, sandy soils become more bound and moisture-consuming, while clay soils, on the contrary, reduce their density and become more structural. Organic fertilizers are complete fertilizers, they contain all the nutrients that plants need. Manure of various farm animals is used as the main organic fertilizer. Manure is introduced under the grapes only in a rotted state, in the form of humus. The content of nutrients in humus depends on the conditions of its storage. If during the storage period it was not washed out by rains and melt water, then it retained nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients. It is enough to add 6-8 kg of humus under the bush to restore the nutrient medium depleted during the season. Usually humus is introduced in autumn with deep embedding (digging) into the soil.

In small garden plots and vineyards, compost can be the main type of organic fertilizer - the most effective, cheapest and most affordable form of complete fertilization. For its preparation, all types of waste of plant and animal origin are used: food waste, waste of fruits and vegetables, manure and droppings of domestic animals and birds, feces, mowed grass and weeds, vegetable tops, sawdust and chopped branches of cut trees and shrubs, sawdust and shavings, green shoots, leaves, wood ash, any organic household waste.

To lay the compost, you need to prepare a platform with three interconnected walls approximately 1 m high.You can determine the area of ​​the compost box according to your capabilities and needs, but most likely your compost box will be at least 1 x 1 m.Of course, the ideal option is a stationary structure with concrete floor, with reliable durable walls, with two compartments (Fig. 1).

But there may be a composting chamber and a temporary structure with walls made of wooden panels or from old slate and other materials. In this case, it is necessary to tamp the area under the compost bin and cover it with a thick layer (20-30 cm) of sawdust or straw, so that in the future it will be easier to shovel the compost. You can put and pour any organic matter into the compost heap, except for bones and animal fat, and you should also not fill up the tops of diseased plants (late blight of tomatoes, fungal diseases of grapes) there, they must be removed from the garden, buried or burned. The compost heap can be filled in random order with periodic sprinkling of earth, sawdust, straw and watering with water, slurry, solutions of feces or bird droppings. It is advisable that the heap be covered with a film, this provides a greenhouse effect and a quick overheating of the compost and protects it from being washed out by rains and volatilization of some nutrients. If you shove a heap at least once during the season, i.e. transfer to the next compartment, then the compost will be ready by autumn. Ripe compost is a dark, homogeneous, crumbly substrate without an unpleasant odor. Like manure, it has all the nutrients it needs. It is introduced in the same way as humus in the fall, 6-8 kg for each bush with digging.

Poultry manure is a very valuable organic fertilizer. It contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in an easily assimilable form. The nutrients from poultry droppings are very quickly absorbed by plants. Bird droppings are used for root dressing after dry garter and 5-7 days before flowering, instead of mineral dressings.

For fermentation, bird droppings are diluted 4 times with water. Fermentation is carried out for one to one and a half weeks. Before applying to grape bushes, the manure infusion is diluted 10 times. For one feeding of the bush, 0.5 liters of diluted infusion is enough. Feeding with bird droppings should be combined with watering the vineyard.

In recent years, serious attention has been paid to microbiological methods of soil restoration. More than ten years ago, EM was created in Japan - a technology that has gained recognition in many countries of the world and is beginning to be mastered in Russia. EM (effective microorganisms) is a drug created using a special technology, in which a large number of anabiotic (beneficial) microorganisms that live in the soil are grown: photosynthetic bacteria, lactic acid, yeast, etc. Interacting in the soil, they produce enzymes and physiologically active substances that have a positive effect on the growth and development of plants.

Properties of this drug:

  • accelerates plant growth
  • accelerates fruit ripening
  • converts organic waste into efficient compost fertilizer
  • restores natural soil fertility
  • dramatically reduces the content of toxic elements
  • improves the taste and presentation of the grown products
  • increases the shelf life of the crop in its natural form.
The EM preparation is produced in Russia by the LLC "EM - TECHNOLOGY" enterprise in Ulan-Ude under the brand name "Baikal EM - 1" in the form of 30 ml bottles and is available in retail trade. How the drug is used is described in detail in the instructions attached to each package.

When and how should you fertilize?

Fertilization time is of great importance and, as a rule, it is necessary to apply several fertilizer elements at once. The combined application of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers is much more effective than their separate application to the soil. It is better to apply nitrogen fertilizers together with phosphorus fertilizers in spring and in the first half of summer, potassium is well absorbed in the second half of summer. Organic fertilizers should be applied in the fall, while reducing the amount of nitrogen fertilizers in the spring of next year by half. To ensure the effectiveness of fertilizing, fertilizers must be applied to a depth of 40-60 cm, in the zone of the location of the main roots in a radius

1 m. The most convenient way of applying fertilizers in liquid form is through drainage pits (Fig. 2) for irrigation.

As drainage pipes (1), you can use asbestos-cement or plastic pipes with a diameter of 80-100 mm, a length of 50-60 cm.Drainage pits (2) in size

50x50 cm are dug to a depth of 70-80 cm, covered with

30 cm with gravel or crushed stone. A plastic film is spread over the gravel, on which a drainage pipe is installed in the center of the pit. The upper end of the pipe should rise approximately 10 cm above ground level. Thus, the prepared drainage pit is filled with soil selected from it to ground level. It is possible to use such drainage pits for many years for fertilizing and for simultaneous deep watering of grape bushes.

Foliar dressing (spraying on leaves).

Nutrition can enter the plant not only through the roots, but also through the leaves. When foliar feeding, nutrients are absorbed by plants very efficiently, quickly and completely. Foliar dressing is combined with spraying against mildew and oidium. Foliar dressing is carried out on a cloudy day or in the evening, after sunset.

Foliar dressing recipes.

  1. First foliar feeding. Insist 200 g of superphosphate for a day in 3 liters of water in a glass container. On the day of foliar feeding, dissolve 30 g of ammonium nitrate or 50 g of ammonium sulfate, 100 g of potassium sulfate, 10 g of boric acid and 100 g of copper sulfate in a separate bowl. Drain the superphosphate solution from the sediment, mixing with a solution of the remaining components. Simultaneously prepare a solution of 100 g of lime in a separate bowl. Pour milk of lime into the mixture of solutions of all components until neutral, which can be determined with the help of litmus paper or a new iron nail (if the acidic nail solution becomes rusty). Then the prepared mixture of solutions is diluted to 10 liters.
  2. The solution for the second foliar feeding is prepared in the same way as the first, only boric acid and Bordeaux mixture are excluded from it. The solution is brought to a neutral reaction by adding baking soda. The second foliar feeding can be carried out with an aqueous infusion of mullein. One part of the mullein is diluted in 10 parts of water and infused for three days, after which it is filtered and used for spraying. Such a solution is not only a foliar feeding, but also a biological means of combating powdery mildew.
  3. With the third foliar feeding, the nitrogen-containing component is also excluded from the solution.
  4. Recipe for the fourth foliar feeding. 200 g of superphosphate is infused during the day in 3 liters of water. 450-500 g of wood ash is also infused in 3 liters of water during the day. The solutions drained from the sediment are mixed, brought to a neutral reaction with baking soda and diluted with water to 10 liters.
Foliar feeding with microelements.

Foliar dressing with a weak solution of trace elements is carried out once a season, the next day after the first foliar dressing.

To prepare the solution, any composition of trace elements is used in accordance with the instructions attached to the package.

For the convenience of carrying out all types of feeding A.L. Dmitriev compiled tables, one of which we will use with minor changes.

Top dressing Timing Fertilizer rate
Ammonium nitrate Superphosphate Potassium sulfate
Humus or compost Autumn, once every 2-3 years
1st feeding After dry garter 90 g 100 g -
2nd feeding 5-7 days before flowering 40 g 30 g 80 g
1st foliar feeding 2-3 days before flowering 30 g 200 g 100 g
Foliar feeding with microelements The day after foliar The composition of the solution of trace elements according to the instructions
2nd foliar feeding Immediately after flowering 30 g 200 g 100 g
3rd feeding 5-6 days after flowering 40 g 30 g 30 g
4th feeding At the end of the day 30 g 30 g
3rd foliar feeding At the beginning of maturation 200 g 100 g
5th feeding 30 g 30 g
4th foliar feeding 200 g 450-500 g wood ash

Fertilization rates are given for one grape bush with a planned yield of 10 kg. The norms of superphosphate and potassium sulfate have been doubled in comparison with the calculations, since half of these fertilizers are not assimilated by plants.
Norms for foliar dressing are given for processing

You can read more about fertilizing vineyards in the book by A.L. Dmitrieva "An ideal vineyard or how to get a ton of fruits from a hundred square meters", (Volgograd publishing house, 2001).

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What substances should be fed to grapes

To help the plants develop properly, let's try to figure out how to feed the grapes, and what nutrients they need.

  • Nitrogen - stimulates the growth of foliage and young shoots, is necessary in the spring, at the end of the growing season it is harmful to grapes, as it delays the ripening of berries and wood, which protects the vine from the cold in winter.
  • Phosphorus is necessary for grapes for the formation of inflorescences, ovaries and ripening of berries, therefore, it is introduced before flowering. Due to the prolonged decomposition period in the soil, phosphorus fertilizers for grapes are also laid in the fall, so that by the beginning of the growing season the plant will receive this macronutrient in full.

Grapes do not tolerate chlorine well, therefore, when choosing mineral fertilizers, pay attention to the absence of this element in the composition of impurities.

Grape feeding scheme

How to determine what the plant lacks

Many summer residents do not think about what needs to be added to the soil and throw everything "on the knurled", boxes of nitrate, ammonia, orthophosphoric mixtures, potassium and the like. But is this always beneficial, and is it worth it so thoughtlessly to trust your intuition when choosing one or another component? In fact, you can seriously harm the plant if you oversaturate the soil with various unnecessary components. For example, excess nitrogen will not do any good and can burn the roots and leaves of the plant if overdosed.

There are several methods for determining the "diet" for a vine. The most time-consuming, expensive, but also the most effective method is laboratory analysis of soil and grape juice. You will need to bring soil samples and a few ounces of vine sap for further analysis. Of course, it would be more correct to hire a team from the laboratory to come and use a drill to take all the necessary samples at a depth of 150 centimeters, but such a call can cost you quite a lot. You can also limit yourself to the analysis of the topsoil. Such an analysis gives an accuracy of up to 85% and you will surely know what and when to add to the ground so that the roots receive everything they need for growth and development this year. Held about once every 2 years.

The second, less costly and less effective method is to determine the condition by the appearance of the leaves. You can learn a lot from it, especially if you have some kind of gardening experience. The complexity of the definition lies in the fact that the color, shape and other indicators can change when exposed to diseases or a lack of several components at once. The color of the leaf plate is also greatly influenced by temperature and moisture, with a lack of which they can turn yellow. That is why gardeners try not to trust this method and resort to more accurate analyzes that allow excluding diseases, temperature conditions and other factors.

The third method is also laboratory and very accurate. Unlike the first option, this does not require a lot of time and money. All you need is to collect healthy leaves from other bushes and from the one that you do not like in appearance. In the laboratory, they will make a detailed analysis of the juice and will tell you exactly what the plant lacks or what is in excess of the norm in the soil. Thus, you do not have to analyze the soil itself, you will give the plant only what it urgently needs at the moment. Leaf analysis can be done once every couple of months in order to track changes and accurately calculate the required proportion of fertilizers.

Mineral elements are not enough for grapes. For good fruiting, he needs organic matter. It not only makes it possible for beneficial microorganisms to develop in the soil, but also improves its aeration, which contributes to better assimilation of mineral microelements. It is best to use bird droppings. It contains all the substances necessary for grapes, and in an assimilable form.

If poultry droppings are not on hand, compost can be used. It is easy to prepare compost yourself by building a compost pit on the site and putting food and plant waste there.

Practical use

So, as you can see, feeding the grapes is very important for the gardener who wants to get a good harvest from the available grape bushes. In practice, if the soil is more or less fertile, you do not need to do so many dressings, two or three are enough. It all depends on the state of the bush and its fruit congestion. The gardener should observe the bush and apply fertilizer only when it is really necessary for the quality development of the bush. Usually, two dressings are done: before flowering and after harvest. It is during these two stages that the grape bushes most of all need the maximum amount of nutrients.

Watch the video: How to trellis grapes: build a trellis, prune a vine