Detailed description of the cabbage variety Slava
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Cabbage is one of the most common agricultural crops. Currently, there are several varieties of this vegetable. Each variety has its own advantages and disadvantages. Today the most popular species is considered to be Slava cabbage. And this is not surprising, its cultivation and yield characteristics are several times superior to other crops.
Description and characteristics of the Slava variety
Slava is one of the old, mid-season varieties of white cabbage. The plant was obtained in the last century, at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Vegetable Breeding. The author was EM Popov, who, when crossing foreign samples, bred two subspecies of the Slava variety: Gribovsky 231 and 1305. In 1940, these varieties were zoned into all regions of Russia, where, due to their positive qualities, they gained great popularity.
The general characteristics of this variety are density, juiciness and yield. Heads of cabbage are attractive, rounded or slightly flattened. The outer leaves are light green in color, with a slight waxy bloom, wavy along the edge. The internal structure of the forks consists of crisp white leaves. Each subspecies is perfectly used both fresh and processed. They differ only in the following indicators:
- Gribovsky 231. The ripening period of this subspecies falls on 100 - 110 days, after germination. The average weight of a fork is about 3 kg. Productivity from 1 sq. m. reaches 9 - 10 kg.
- Glory 1305. Forks of this variety form 2 weeks later than their subspecies. However, their weight is about 9 kg. The yield is also higher and reaches 12 kg. from 1 sq. But here it is worth noting that Glory 1305 forks are less dense and less well stored.
Cabbage of this variety is also famous for its taste and useful properties. Its fruits contain a large amount of vitamins and minerals.
Keeping heads of cabbage is no more than 4 months. Therefore, most of the crop is often used for fermentation.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Initially, breeders tried to develop a vegetable crop for the regions of Russia, where non-chernozem soil predominates. But thanks to the endowed qualities, the vegetable is cultivated in all regions of the Russian Federation. Here is a description of the main advantages of the variety:
- frost resistance;
- consumer qualities;
- unpretentiousness to the soil;
- resistance to cracking;
- good transportability.
Despite such a mass of positive qualities, the plant still has its drawbacks. Negative qualities include: instability to the root keel and not long shelf life of fruits.
Planting timing of seedlings
You can grow Slava cabbage in a seedling and seedless way. In the first case, the seeds of the plant are sown in boxes in early April. To implement the seedless method, seeds are planted in open ground in the third decade of April.
Regardless of which method is chosen, it is recommended to prepare the seeds before planting. It is carried out according to the following scheme:
- For 10 - 15 minutes, the seeds of the plant are placed in water at a temperature of 55 - 60 ° C.
- Then, they are dipped in cold moisture for 1 minute.
- Then the seeds are poured for 12 hours with a solution prepared from 10 liters of water and 12 grams. potassium humate.
- After this time, they should be dried and placed in a cool place at a temperature of 1 - 2 ° C.
A day later, they are ready for landing.
As a rule, Slava cabbage is more often planted in seedlings. For this purpose, earth is poured into prepared boxes, 5 - 6 cm deep. Having tamped it well, it is disinfected with a manganese solution. After 3 days, grooves are made in the boxes at a distance of 3 cm, 1 cm deep. Further, in 1 cm steps, seeds are sown, which must be sprinkled with earth and watered with a drip method. Then, before the first shoots appear, the boxes are placed in a warm place, with a temperature regime of 18 - 20 ° C. As soon as the first shoots appear, the container is transferred to the windowsill, which should be well illuminated by the sun's rays and have an air temperature of 10 - 12 ° C.
If you lose sight of the temperature regime, the cabbage sprouts will instantly stretch out, which in turn will lead to deformation and death of the plant.
After the seedlings have 5 strong leaves, they are transplanted into open ground.
Soil requirements for planting
Slava cabbage can grow on all types of soil. But, according to the recommendations of experts, the best yield indicators are possible on fertile loamy soils, with a close location of groundwater. The best option is considered to be the pH of the acidity of the earth - 6.7 - 7.4.
It is advisable to plant cabbage in the places where it grew before:
Bad predecessors are:
It is also not recommended to plant cabbage on the same site every year. The interval between plantings should be 3-4 years.
Variety care after planting
Many novice vegetable growers, when transplanting cabbage, make irreparable mistakes, which, as a result, lead to the formation of a flower shoot. To avoid this, it is categorically impossible to allow:
- dense planting of seedlings;
- shading of the landing site;
- excess moisture.
In order for a vegetable crop to develop correctly in open ground, it is necessary to carry out agrotechnical work in a timely manner. Care includes:
- Watering. Cabbage is a moisture-loving culture, so it should be irrigated at least 7 - 8 times a month.
- Loosening. In order for the plant to receive a sufficient amount of oxygen, after each watering, it is necessary to mulch the soil.
- Hilling. This procedure will promote the formation of root shoots, due to which the vegetable will receive more nutrients.
- Top dressing. To obtain additional microelements, nitrogen fertilization is recommended 2 weeks after planting. During the formation of forks - phosphorus and potassium minerals.
But, despite the observance of all agrotechnical works, various diseases can also lead to a decrease in yield or its complete absence.
Diseases and their prevention
To reduce the risk of plant death, it is necessary to carry out disease prevention in a timely manner. The following table will help to correctly identify the disease in the initial stages and find out the measures to combat it.
|Name of the disease||Symptoms||Prevention and control methods|
|Cabbage keel||Different types of growths are formed on the root of the plant.||Before disembarking, the landing site is treated with lime, in a ratio of 1 kg. by 4 sq.m.|
|Peronosporosis||Spots of yellow and gray appear on the tops of the leaves, and white bloom on the underside.||For prevention, soil is disinfected. In case of illness use the drug "Fitoftorin".|
|Fusarium||The leaves of the plant turn yellow and dry out completely.||Infected plants are removed by the root, and the planting site is treated with benzimidazole systemic fungicides.|
Insect pests are often the causative agents of infection. Therefore, when they first appear, the plant is treated with chemicals.
Harvesting and storage rules
Fruit ripening occurs gradually. The cabbage harvest begins at the end of July and lasts for 2 weeks.
Damaged and cracked forks are used for fermentation, whole fruits are left for storage.
The vegetable culture is stored in the cellar in the following ways:
- hanging from the ceiling;
- laying in a checkerboard pattern on clean dry boards;
- placing in lattice boxes.
Regardless of the method chosen, before sending the heads of cabbage to the cellar, they must be well dried and wrapped in clean paper.
It is not recommended to wrap the plant with food or plastic wrap, as in this case condensation will occur, which will contribute to its rotting.
On average, fruits are stored for about 3-4 months. To increase the shelf life, the temperature in the cellar should be kept close to 0 ° C, and the air humidity should be at least 90%.
Having considered all the positive qualities, planting methods and cultivation features, you can independently make sure that Slava cabbage is not a whimsical plant. Subject to all the recommendations, this vegetable crop is able to please every vegetable grower with a rich, tasty and healthy harvest.
Cabbage variety Slava: description, photo, characteristics, planting and care
Traditional cuisine is unthinkable without cabbage. Russian cabbage soup and Ukrainian borscht, sauerkraut or stew, in salad or pies - it is good in any dish. And the presence of nutrients, vitamins and trace elements in its composition makes it indispensable for our diet. One of the representatives of this tasty and healthy vegetable is the Slava cabbage variety, a description of which will be provided in this article. Also, advice will be given on sowing seeds, planting in the ground, caring for cabbage during the growing season, harvesting and storing it.
A well-known species grown by gardeners in different climatic latitudes is white cabbage. The vegetable is rich in B vitamins, carotene and ascorbic acid. From the developing rosette of bright green leaves, a rounded head of high density weighing up to 3.5 kg is gradually formed, in some species - up to 5 kg.
There are many varieties of white cabbage, differing in terms of planting and ripening. Most of them are frost-resistant and have a long shelf life, which allows you to consume a healthy vegetable all winter. This variety is versatile, suitable for stewing, boiling, baking, fresh consumption, pickling and pickling.
Heads of white cabbage varieties of early dates are harvested at the end of June. They are used in fresh vegetable salads, borscht, cabbage soup. Early ripening varieties are not stored for a long time and are not suitable for winter harvesting. For fermentation and long-term storage, medium-late and late varieties are usually used.
The most common varieties and hybrids that give a high yield are presented in the table:
Late varieties of cabbage are more suitable for winter harvesting. The leaves of the heads of cabbage are denser and drier than those of the early and mid-late varieties. It is harvested until the first severe frost. Even at sub-zero temperatures, it does not lose its excellent taste and good keeping quality. The heads of late cabbage are more elastic, in a fresh state it can lie until the next harvest, provided it is stored correctly.
Cabbage variety Slava 1305
Slava 1305 is an old, time-tested variety of White cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata) of medium ripening. Obtained by specialists of the Gribovskaya Vegetable Breeding Experimental Station (now the All-Russian Research Institute of Breeding and Seed Production of Vegetable Crops) by selection from a sample of foreign origin. Zoned in 1940. Approved for use in all regions of the Russian Federation. Suitable for commercial production. Author - E.M. Popov.
From the emergence of mass shoots to harvest, 100 - 130 days pass. This cabbage enters the stage of technical ripeness a week earlier than the variety Belorusskaya 455 and ten days later than the variety Slava Gribovskaya 231. It is advisable to harvest after several frosts, at the end of October, so that the cabbage is more juicy and sweet. However, you should not delay cleaning, because this cabbage is prone to cracking. To avoid cracking the heads of cabbage at the moment when they have already reached a large size, you should slightly turn the plant in a circle or tilt it towards the ground.
The leaf rosette is raised, of medium size. The leaves are round, finely wrinkled, whole or indistinct, medium-sized, grayish-green, with a waxy bloom of medium intensity, the edge of the leaf is strongly wavy. Heads of cabbage are dense, round or flat-round in shape, medium and large, weighing 3 - 5 kg on the cut - yellowish-white. The inner stump is of medium length, the outer one is short. The yield of marketable heads of cabbage is 570 - 930 c / ha, maximum - 1250 c / ha.
This variety is recommended to be used fresh, and it is also considered one of the best for fermentation. His heads of cabbage are juicy and sweet, but they are not stored for long - for three months (approximately until January). The chemical composition is as follows: dry matter 8.6 - 11.1%, total sugar 4.4 - 5.6%, ascorbic acid 27 - 44 mg / 100 g of raw material.
Advantages of Slava 1305 cabbage: high yield, unpretentiousness, inexpensive seeds, excellent taste and amicable ripening of heads.
The disadvantages include: tendency to cracking, susceptibility to keel, fusarium wilt and vascular bacteriosis.
Heads of mid-late cabbage are denser, flavor characteristics are higher than those of early and medium varieties. They are less picky about growing conditions than their earlier counterparts.
Symphony loves good watering and sunshine. It is grown on an industrial scale. Symphony cabbage grows well on fertile, soft soils, with a neutral acidity level. Requires a lot of light and good, abundant watering.
Resists fusarium fungus well. It is a versatile variety designed for different types of processing. It is not recommended to store until spring without special conditions.
It is a reliable old variety of cabbage, known since 1961. In Russia, this vegetable is classified as a mid-late one. Cabbage Gift is not demanding on the soil. It is planted in sunny areas, not under trees. Even in a small shade, the heads of cabbage grow loose, and the leaves - small. Requires good watering, especially at the end of summer when the forks are being laid. It has persistent immunity, but preventive measures are taken without fail, as it can be affected by the keel.
Cabbage Podarok possesses high taste characteristics and is versatile in use. Usually the crop is harvested in late summer, early winter. But if the cabbage falls under a slight frost, then in winter preparations it will be even tastier. Has a long shelf life - 6-7 months (until February-March). Due to the fact that the leaves of this variety are thin, excellent cabbage rolls are obtained from them.
The density and size of the head of cabbage depends on the ripening time. The longer the period, the denser and larger the forks will be.
Secrets of agricultural technology
When growing white cabbage Slava, two methods are applicable: seedling and non-seedling. But it is the seedling that has gained the greatest popularity, since as a result the forks have time to ripen even in the northern regions of the Russian Federation.
But whichever method you choose, the first step is seedbed preparation. It is carried out either by seed producers (it is written on the package), or it is performed independently. First, the seeds are immersed in hot water (50-65 degrees) for a few minutes. Then they are placed in a 10-liter solution of water with potassium humate (10 g) for 12 hours, after which the seeds are dried and hardened at a temperature of 2 degrees Celsius. After a day, you can go directly to the landing.
The optimal time for planting in the ground is early-mid April. It is best to focus on daytime temperatures of 13-18 degrees Celsius. The seeds are lowered to a depth of 1.5 cm at a distance of about 7 cm from each other.For better development, the plant needs an area of 25 cm. Therefore, seedlings are thinned out as needed.
After the appearance of two true leaves, the first feeding is carried out. A mixture of superphosphate, ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride is prepared at the rate of 6g, 5g and 2g per 1 square meter, respectively.The composition is scattered between the plants, and the bed is watered. After a week, the operation is repeated.
A month later, when the sprout height reaches 15 cm, the cabbage is planted in open ground according to the 60x60 cm scheme. The bed is preliminarily watered abundantly with water. Cabbage Slava loves abundant watering (she needs up to 15 liters per 1 sq. M). Watering is stopped a month before the planned collection of forks. Loosening and hilling are performed as needed. To prevent the earth from hardening, you can loosen it after each watering. In this case, weeds and the resulting crust are removed.
The second stage of feeding is carried out during the formation of heads of cabbage. The same composition is used as in the early stage, but with the addition of wood ash in an amount of 50 g per 10 liters of water. The procedure is repeated after 3 weeks.
Diseases, pests and control of them
The information provided will allow you to successfully fight various diseases and pests of the Slava cabbage variety. The general principle of plant treatment is this: it is easier to prevent any disease than to save already diseased plants.
This is a fungal disease. Thickening forms on the roots of cabbage (photo). In advanced cases, the root system rots. Plants do not develop well or, in general, die. Prevention of cabbage keel is as follows:
- careful removal of weeds, as they are often carriers of infection
- cleaning the site after the harvest is harvested. The remains of plants must not be left. They are removed and burned
- before sowing - adding lime into the soil (0.5 kg / m2)
- soil treatment a few weeks before planting with a formalin solution (0.25 l of formalin per 10-liter bucket of water)
- compliance with crop rotation. It is unacceptable to grow cabbage in the same place as in the previous year.
If diseased plants are found on the site, they must be destroyed.
Like cabbage keela, this disease is fungal in nature. The root part of the plant leg turns black and thinner (photo). As a result, the plant dies. Prevention of black leg is as follows:
- avoid thickening of plants, too abundant watering
- before planting seedlings in the ground - spill it with a solution of potassium permanganate 1.5 g / 5 l of water per 1 "square".
If diseased plants are found, they must be immediately dug up and destroyed. Helps prevent the spread of infection Trichodermin (for 5 liters of water, 100 g of the drug) or Previkur (1.5 g / 1 liter of water).
The disease manifests itself as yellow spots on the leaves of plants. A whitish bloom appears on the bottom of the cabbage leaves. Keeping the seeds in warm (50 degrees) water for half an hour before planting helps to prevent the disease. The following remedies help to fight the disease:
- spraying cabbage with a solution of copper sulfate
- pollination of plants with crushed sulfur three times during the growing season.
If signs of downy mildew appear, the infected plants should be removed.
Leaves of plants affected by aphids become colorless and curl up.
Parsley and dill are attractive to ladybirds, whose larvae quickly deal with the pest.
The insect larvae eat the cabbage inside and out. Prevention is timely weeding of the crop, as well as the use of covering materials (spunbond, lutrasil) for plants, which protect well from insect pests.