Hamerops (fan palm)
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The Chamaerops fan palm is part of the Arecaceae family. However, in a room culture, the bush, as a rule, has a height of no more than 150-200 cm. The shape of the spectacular leaf plates is fan-shaped, the length of their petioles can reach 100 cm.
The trunk surface is covered with characteristic brown fibers. Yellow bisexual or unisexual flowers have no decorative value. Berry fruits can be yellow or orange. Fibers of sheet plates are used to make bags, mats and ropes. This plant is native to the southern part of France, as well as the Mediterranean. Under natural conditions, it forms hard-to-pass thorny thickets.
The perennial plant Hamerops is characterized by an average growth rate. In indoor conditions, flowers on a palm tree are not formed.
Brief description of cultivation
- Temperature... In the warm season - from 25 to 27 degrees, and in the winter months - no warmer than 15 degrees.
- Air humidity... In the summer, it is necessary to systematically moisten the bush from a spray bottle.
- Illumination... A large amount of bright light is needed, while the direct rays of the sun are necessary for normal development.
- Watering... Moisten the soil mixture abundantly and systematically, as soon as its top layer dries out.
- Substrate... Optimal composition: humus, turf soil and sand (1: 1: 1).
- Top dressing... During intensive growth, 2 times a month.
- Transfer... Held in the spring and only when needed.
- Reproduction... By root suckers and by seed method.
- Care features... Large adult palms get sick for a long time after transplanting.
Home hamerops care
For a home hamerops to always be spectacular and have lush foliage, it needs to be properly cared for. Moreover, you need to be especially careful about the choice of location and lighting.
The flowering of such a palm tree is observed in spring or summer. The flowers are rather inconspicuous, so they do not represent any decorative value.
Branchy relatively short inflorescences appear on the bush, which reach no more than 25 centimeters in length. Small yellow flowers are part of the cob.
The optimum temperature for hamerops in the summer is from 24 to 26 degrees. From the beginning of September, a gradual decrease in the temperature in the room should begin. In order for the plant to survive the winter well, the room should be no warmer than 15 degrees. In winter, conduct frequent airing of the room where the palm tree stands. Moreover, in the warm season, it can be transferred to the street (to the garden or to the loggia).
In the summer months, the plant needs daily moisture from a sprayer, for this they use well-settled non-cold water. Regularly, once every 7 days, it is recommended to wipe the foliage surface with a damp soft cloth or sponge. In the winter months, the bush is moistened only if the room is warmer than 20 degrees.
Such a plant needs a lot of bright light at home. That is why it is recommended to choose a southern windowsill to place a hamerops. The palm tree, which was purchased not so long ago, should be accustomed to bright lighting gradually.
During the growing season, which is observed in spring and summer, the soil mixture in the pot should be moistened abundantly and systematically. Watering is carried out immediately after the top layer of the soil mixture dries up. A gradual reduction in watering should be started in September. With cold wintering, watering the hamerops is carried out no more than twice a month. Remember that the plant is watered with soft water, the temperature of which is slightly higher than room temperature.
The plant has a developed root system, and therefore a tall pot made of ceramics or durable plastic is used for planting it. There must be several drainage holes at the bottom of the container.
During the first 2-3 years, growing such a room crop requires a substrate consisting of equal parts of humus, sand, turf soil and peat. The more mature the palm tree is, the heavier substrate it needs. In this regard, it is recommended that during subsequent transplants, a gradual replacement of sand with clay or loamy soil is carried out.
If desired, you can buy ready-made soil mixture for palm trees in a specialized store.
In spring and summer, the palm tree needs regular feeding, which is carried out with a frequency of 1 time in 15 days. For this, a solution of the mineral complex is used. With a cool winter, the plant does not need feeding.
Chamerops should be transplanted in the spring, while increasing the size of the container constantly. Please note that an adult palm reacts extremely negatively to trauma to the root system. That is why very large bushes are not transplanted, but simply replaced with the upper layer of the substrate.
This plant is not allowed to be cut. Some time after injury to the top of the palm tree dies. If necessary, remove old leaf plates that have begun to turn yellow.
The dormant period of the plant is not pronounced. During the winter period, it does not stop growing. To prevent the bush from stretching and protect it from pests, the palm tree is placed in a room where the air temperature is about 15 degrees.
Growing from seeds
The hamerops palm is quite easy to grow from seed. Before sowing the seeds, they are kept in warm water for some time, in which a growth-stimulating agent is dissolved. Fill a plastic container with a fertile, loose peat-based soil mixture. Instead, you can use a versatile seedling growing medium.
During sowing, the seed is buried in the substrate to a depth of no more than 20 mm. The crops are covered with a transparent film from above and removed to a warm place (from 25 to 28 degrees). It takes 1 to 3 months for seeds to germinate. Crops need to be systematically ventilated and moistened.
When the seedlings appear, they should be rearranged in a place with good lighting. The appearance of fan-shaped leaf plates on seedlings does not occur immediately. The beginning of their development is observed only after the 7 or 8 real leaf is formed.
HOW TO GROW PALMS FROM SEEDS ✿ HAMEROPS ✿ NANOROPS RITCHIE ✿ PALM MAZARI
Reproduction by side shoots
An adult palm develops lateral processes over time. If necessary, they can be used for breeding. The branches of the processes are carried out during the spring transplantation of the bush. Particular attention should be paid to the state of the root system. If the root system is weakened, then the process may not take root, and this will lead to its death.
In favorable conditions, a small number of lateral processes are formed in the palm. To stimulate their growth, the surface of the substrate in the container is covered with a layer of sphagnum. If the surface of the soil mixture is wet all the time, then dormant buds awaken at the base of the plant.
For planting shoots, a mixture of peat and perlite is used. Thanks to the loose soil mixture, the development of the root system is accelerated. After the lateral process starts to grow, you should start feeding it with a solution of the mineral complex.
As the root system of the bush develops, it is transplanted by transferring it into a larger pot. In the second or third year of growth, during transplantation, the substrate begins to be mixed with clay. If you cannot prepare the soil mixture yourself, then you can buy a ready-made soil mixture designed specifically for cultivating palm trees.
If the indoor hamerops is not provided with proper care, then problems may arise with it:
- Drying of the tips of the leaf plates... This situation is most often observed with excessively dry air in the room. Most likely, the palm tree is not often moistened enough from the sprayer, or it is located near a working heating device. Move the shrub to a location with better conditions as soon as possible. And also do not forget to moisten the foliage every day from a spray bottle with soft water, the temperature of which is close to room temperature.
- Brown specks form on the foliage... This happens if the room is cold, and at the same time liquid stagnates in the pot on a regular basis. In order to save the plant, first you need to let the substrate dry well in the pot, and then be sure to revise the watering regime.
- Rot has appeared on the root system... If you have not made a drainage layer at the bottom of the container or do not drain the accumulated liquid from the pan for a long time, then this can cause the palm tree to rot. To prevent the plant from dying, it is transplanted into a new slightly moistened soil mixture as soon as possible. Do not forget to use a sharp knife to remove any darkened and rotted areas on the root system.
- Yellow foliage... This is due to the fact that the plant is experiencing an acute lack of moisture or nutrients. Correct the mistakes in the care, and the palm tree will be able to recover.
- The foliage turned brown... In most cases, this is due to the fact that rot has appeared on the roots. Transfer the hamerops to the new mix as soon as possible.
- Pests... Most often, scale insects, mealybugs, spider mites and whiteflies settle on a palm tree. To get rid of them, treatment with special chemicals should be carried out.
Thanks to the room hamerops, the air in the room will become cleaner, as it provides cleaning from dust and oxygenation. If you water a palm tree abundantly and systematically, then it is able to maintain a favorable level of humidity near itself. This plant is endowed with mystical powers: it is able to attract powerful streams of energy that help in promotion.
Indoor palm tree: types, names, rules of care and photos
Today there are about 20 varieties of palms that are adapted for growing at home. They are quite popular for their large size and spectacular appearance. Such a plant can decorate almost any room. What are the types of indoor palms with photos and names? The rules for caring for plants are further in the article.
How to care for a room palm
Almost all indoor palms require the same maintenance conditions. Most palms like spacious rooms, so even if the plant is still small, you don't need to place it next to other indoor flowers, as it is, in fact, a lone plant.
Like all indoor flowers, palms require proper lighting, sufficient air humidity and a comfortable temperature for normal growth and development.
Any palm tree will feel good in a bright room. It will even be better if the sunlight is slightly diffused, as many palms like shading from the direct rays of the sun. Palm trees should not be placed in a dark room or in a dark corner of the room, as there it will quickly wither away.
The optimum temperature for palm trees depends on the origin of the species. So, palms of tropical origin, even in winter, prefer a rather high air temperature, but palms of subtropical origin feel better at cool temperatures.
Palms do not react well to cold drafts, and they also painfully tolerate the cooling of the soil in a pot. Therefore, it is better not to put the pots on a cold windowsill or cold floor.
- how to water a palm tree
In the summer, you need to water it daily, in the winter, the palm needs moderate watering. Watering frequency is mainly dependent on air temperature. The hotter it is in the room, the more often and more generously the palm tree should be watered, but do not overmoisten the soil, as palm trees do not like this. The soil should always be slightly damp, but not damp. In winter and summer, it is recommended to spray the palm leaves, as due to the dry air in the room, they can lose their appearance. Spray should only be done with warm water and preferably on both sides of the leaves.
To prevent the attack of such pests as thrips, aphids and others, you need to wipe the leaves from time to time with a damp sponge. In this case, you can use not only clean water, but also a solution of green soap, a decoction of chamomile. If the solution is of weak concentration, it may not even be wiped off the leaves.
Like other indoor plants, palms should be fed. Young or transplanted palms do not require feeding for the first six months. Adult plants are fed during the period of active growth (from March to September) once a week. You can feed it with the usual fertilizers for flowers, which are sold in any flower shop.
Young palms up to 3 years old should be replanted annually. The need for a transplant can be determined by the tightness of the pot. Palms over 3 years old should be replanted every 3-4 years. Palm trees do not like transplanting, so it must be done very carefully, trying to damage the root system to a minimum. From the old pot, the palm is transplanted into a new, more spacious one. Transplanting a palm tree is no different from transplanting other indoor plants.
As a soil, both purchased mixtures for palm trees and self-prepared ones are suitable. The ratio should be as follows: 2 parts of humus-leaf soil, 2 parts of clay-sod, 1 part of rotted manure, 1 part of peat, 1 part of sand and some charcoal. A thick drainage layer is a prerequisite.
In the first 2 weeks after transplanting, you should water the palm very carefully, without flooding it, otherwise the roots may rot.
Palm cultivation can be done in several ways, but the most common is seed cultivation. You can find out how to grow a palm tree from seeds in another article.
Hamerops. Growing problems
- Stopping plant growth
occurs when there is a lack of minerals in the soil.
- Brown spots on foliage
talk about excessive watering, watering with hard water or a sharp drop in the temperature of the content.
- Leaf tips dry
in conditions of too dry air and insufficient watering.
- Yellow foliage
occurs with insufficient watering.
- Brown leaves,
if they are not lower, it indicates that the plant is rotting, which indicates waterlogging of the soil.
- Foliage dries
in case the air is too dry.
Hamerops Squat, or European fan palm
Monotypic genus of fan palms. The only species is Chamaerops humilis, a short, multi-stemmed tree with a crown of fan-shaped leaves with thorny petioles.
The only species of this genus of palm trees that grows in continental Europe. It is found mainly in Malta, in the coastal regions of Spain and Portugal, in central and southern Italy, in some regions of the Mediterranean coast of France, as well as in northwest Africa (in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia).
This palm tree is a low shrub and grows in extreme conditions on sandy and rocky soils, mainly on the coast, on coastal rocks, on hillsides and in gorges at altitudes below 1000 m above sea level.
Sometimes these dwarf palms form large colonies, but in areas subject to severe erosion and practically no vegetation, they grow scattered.
Unpretentious slow-growing fan palm.
Ideal for home keeping due to its size: the height of an adult hamerops does not exceed 1-2 m, even in nature it rarely grows above 5 m.
The trunk of the plant is covered with tough reddish-brown fibers (low trunks form offspring from the axils - young branches).
Leaves are densely collected at the ends of the shoots, fan-shaped, split into 1/3, rounded. The petiole is up to 90 cm long, laterally with claw-shaped sharp spines, a reticular dissected sheath.
The inflorescence is short, rarely exceeding 25 cm in length, branched cobs up to 25-40 cm in length.
Flowers are bisexual and male, on the same or on different peduncles, small, yellow. Fruit with a fleshy coarse fibrous pericarp.
The plant requires good lighting.
During the growth and development of the palm, the temperature should not fall below 25-27 ° C, in the fall the temperature should be slightly reduced, and in winter it should not fall below + 6-8 ° C.
The room where the plant is kept must be ventilated every day.
In the spring-summer period, the chamerops is watered abundantly, as the upper layer of the substrate dries up, with soft, settled water
From autumn, watering is reduced to moderate, in winter it is watered carefully, especially with a cool content, however, the earthen coma should not be allowed to dry out .. Young plants are transplanted in the spring once every 2-3 years, adults - once every 4-5 years
In the interval between transplants, it is necessary to annually remove the surface layer of the earth (in a pot or tub) and add fresh soil instead. The best time to transplant is spring or summer.
Young plants are transplanted in spring once every 2-3 years, adults - once every 4-5 years. In the interval between transplants, it is necessary to annually remove the surface layer of the earth (in a pot or tub) and add fresh soil instead. The best time to transplant is spring or summer.
Hamerops are characterized by abundant formation of lateral processes, but they are not suitable for reproduction. When transplanting an adult bush, you should carefully get rid of new offspring without damaging the root system of the plant.
Earthen mixture for young hamerops consists of turf soil, compost, humus soil and sand in equal proportions. With age, the sand content in the mixture is reduced by adding heavier (loamy) sod soil.
For planting, use heavy turf soil, humus, peat and sand (2: 2: 2: 1).
When transplanting, the plant is provided with good drainage.
To accelerate seed germination, scalding or careful filing of the shell is practiced, then the seed is soaked for a day in a solution of stimulants.
The seed mixture is optimal on the basis of coconut, or a special palm soil (sold in stores). The main thing is that the earth is neutral, loose, moisture-absorbing and light; river sand can be added to the planting mixture.
The bone is planted horizontally, sprinkling on top by 1-2 cm.
The substrate is moistened, covered with a film (or slightly moistened moss) and put on germination.
Temperature 25-32 ° C will speed up the process, constantly monitor soil moisture.
Pests of the trachycarpus plant
Due to too frequent and abundant watering, black or gray rot may develop on the trachycarpus. Also, sometimes its foliage turns yellow or brown specks form on its surface. If the plant is struck by a fungal disease, then it can be cured with a fungicide solution. However, many growers believe that it is much easier to provide a palm tree with the correct watering regime than to try to heal it later.
The plant can also suffer if it is placed in the darkest corner, as well as exposed to a draft or direct sunlight on a hot summer day. If there are very few nutrients in the soil mixture, then this will cause the appearance of yellow foliage, as well as slow growth of the bush. Also, the foliage turns yellow if the room is too hot or when the bush is watered with hard water.
Lush large foliage of palm trees is a kind of "delicacy" for sucking harmful insects. So, scale insects, thrips, mealybugs, aphids or spider mites can settle on the bush. All of them bite through the foliage and suck the juice out of it. To get rid of uninvited guests, purchase a special product in the store designed to destroy arachnids or insects that live on indoor flowers.
For example, you can buy such effective insectoacaricidal agents as: Akarin, Aktellik, Fitoverm, etc. It is recommended to treat the plant with chemicals on the street, as they can harm not only insects, but also humans. If scale insects or mealybugs have settled on the bush, then before processing they are removed from the foliage by hand.
Why do trachycarpus leaf tips start to darken?
In principle, the reaction of trachycarpus to damage by pests and diseases is typical: the tips of the leaves dry out, and then the leaves die off completely. Take a closer look at the plant, think about whether it was properly looked after, if yes, these are pests. If you did not flood the palm tree, did not let it dry out, and the air in the room is not dry, pests cause the problem.
When infested with spider mites or other pests, urgent insecticide treatment is required. To disinfect leaves from infections, Neem oil treatments are effective: apply it to the leaves in the evening, and in the morning gently wash with a soft cloth so that the leaves of the plant do not experience oxygen starvation.
Trachycarpus is resistant to diseases as such. Difficulties with improper care may occur:
- If the root system was damaged during transplantation, the trachycarpus will stop growing.
- From waterlogging of the soil, the root system will begin to rot. You can try to save it with an emergency transplant: cut off the rotten parts, treat the roots with the fungicide phytosporin, use a fresh substrate, and disinfect the container. Most of the time, the palm dies, so stick to watering in moderation.
- When the air in the room is dry or the temperature is high, the tips of the leaves begin to dry out.
It happens that trachycarpus is not purchased in a flower shop, but is brought from warm countries. Together with the plant, its pests "migrate": mealybugs (white worms that leave secretions in the form of cotton balls), thrips (brownish hardly noticeable insects, they can be recognized by the presence of black dots on the leaves), aphids (greenish or gray insects, visible to the unarmed eye), scale insects (dark tubercles-growths will appear on the petioles and leaves) or spider mites. If parasites are found, treat with an insecticide immediately!
Trachikarpus at home growing and care
Trachycarpus have a fairly large number of pests. Among them are the main ones: scale insects, aphids, thrips, mealybug. Plants grown from seeds or purchased in stores are less susceptible to pests.
Infected "complete set" usually are plants that have grown from self-seeding and dug out together with the ground, where the pests live for the first time.
Home care for hameropsis
Lighting and location selection
Loves bright light and prefers to grow in sunny places. This palm tree is recommended to be placed near the window opening located in the southern part of the room. Ventilate the room regularly.
Hamerops is not picky about temperature. It is not harmed by a sharp change in temperature. In the spring and summer period, it feels best when the air temperature is from 20 to 26 degrees. In winter, it is recommended to move to a cool place (6-8 degrees). If the room at this time is too warm and low humidity, the leaves will begin to dry out.
Air humidity is not very important for the plant, but in the hot summer months it is recommended to systematically spray it with settled, soft water. In winter, when kept in a cool room, the palm is not sprayed, but only sometimes dust is removed from its foliage with a damp cloth.
How to water
In the summer, watering should be abundant, and in the autumn-winter period, it should be reduced. It is a drought tolerant plant.
You need to fertilize a palm tree from spring to autumn 2 times a month. For this, mineral fertilizers are used. In winter, feeding is carried out once a month.
In winter, there is a dormant period (plant growth stops). For this period, it is recommended to move it to a well-lit and cool place. Watering should be moderate.
Transplantation of young hamerops is carried out in the spring time 1 time in 2 or 3 years. Adult plants are subjected to this procedure only if absolutely necessary. The palm tree is quite negative about the transplant, so it is recommended to carefully transfer it into a large container, while not destroying the earthen coma. Repotting is best in the spring, but you can do it in the summer months after flowering is over.
In natural conditions, it prefers to grow on rocky and sandy soils. Therefore, the palm tree does not need to be planted in heavy soil that does not dry out for a long time. She also needs good drainage.
For young plants, a soil mixture consisting of humus and sod land, compost, and sand, taken in equal proportions, is suitable. An older plant needs to reduce the amount of sand, and add heavier (loamy) sod soil to the substrate.
Can be grown from seeds that germinate 2-3 months after planting. Side shoots are not suitable for vegetative propagation. It happens that adult plants give rise to offspring, which sometimes root successfully. They need to be carefully separated during the transplant.
Root worms, scale insects or spider mites can settle. If in the summer the plant was moved to fresh air, then before returning to the room it must be treated with insecticides for preventive purposes.