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Creating a garden bed of spicy plants and salads

Creating a garden bed of spicy plants and salads


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How I created a decorative vegetable bed

I had a dream: to create a decorative vegetable garden on my site, on which vegetables, and spicy herbs, and salads, and flowers would grow.

But my husband did not take this venture seriously, considering it another whim. I was happy to have the opportunity to realize my project, which had been nurtured for three years.

And so I started to implement it. I really wanted this venture to yield results and to avoid disappointment at the end of the season, so I tried to think through everything to the smallest detail.

First, I decided on the assortment of plants, and then I had to thoroughly think about how to group them so that the proximity of different cultures was favorable, so that they did not suppress each other. I had to study their biological properties. The choice of plants also depended on their decorative effect. When I finished their selection, the name of the garden came by itself - kitchen... True, judging by the name, the kitchen ridge should be located closer to the kitchen. The ridge assigned to me was at a considerable distance from it. But this did not change the essence of the ridge.

Spicy herbs and salads became the basis of the ridge. My favorite basil has become the "soloist" among the herbs. I have been working on its varieties for several years. I added salads to the basil, here I tried to take into account not only their usefulness, but also the color, as well as the decorativeness of its leaves.

The ridge also needed verticals to give it color. In this role I played sweet corn.

I began to think: what would look beautiful against the background of these verticals. And the choice fell on the Swiss chard beet, and I decided to plant two varieties: with both red and green leaves. And in the center between them I decided to sow cucumber grass. This choice turned out to be very successful. In the past cool summer, four chard plants formed spectacular bushes and became an object that attracts attention to this ridge. The red chard was especially beautiful.

And this is what the final assortment of crops on the ridge was: parsley, dill, coriander, marjoram and savory. Pak choy cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli also hit it. The plantings of nasturtium and perilla fit well into this ridge. The latter, with its luxurious purple-red leaves, very enlivened and supplemented light green salads and vegetables in the garden.

The kitchen bed turned out to be quite large: its size is 6 m in length and 1.5 m in width. It was located from north to south in a sunny place. It was high - it was raised 50 cm above the ground. Good drainage was laid at its base.

The soil for the plants did not have to be specially prepared, they got it after the watermelons, and we always lay good nutrition for this culture. In addition, the previous autumn, after removing the watermelons, we sowed it with rye. Under the snow, the ridge went green, and in the spring the rye was 30 cm high. True, we put the green mass of rye from this bed in another warm ridge in the spring.

There were almost no weeds on the future kitchen bed, so preparing it for planting did not require much labor. They loosened the top layer of the soil a little - and the ridge is ready. Thus, an almost perfect start was ensured for the plants planned for planting: a sunny spot in a garden bed with fertile soil, loose as fluff. And the plants themselves were pre-sown for seedlings, which guaranteed a more rapid onset of the decorativeness of the beds.

The first inhabitant of it was sweet corn, which we planted in early June along the entire length of the ridge from the eastern side. Corn of the Creamy Nectar variety was sown on seedlings in early May in separate half-liter sour cream cups, and by early June its seedlings were ready for planting in open ground.

But, as it turned out, we hastened with this operation, because from 7 to 8 June there was a severe frost in our area. And although the plantings were covered with covering material, in the morning there was almost nothing left of the plants on the surface of the ridge. I tried to treat each of them with a stimulant "Ribav-extra", watered the corn, or rather, what was left of it, under the root with this drug.

Several days passed, the processing did not give a result, so I decided to replace corn with beans. And in between, she sowed seeds of climbing fiery red beans of the Winner variety. I decided that these beans are an annual liana, and in the future they will form a decorative fence for me here.

The spring frosts have passed, strong healthy seedlings have grown. It was a warm, windless evening in mid-June, and I began to create my own kitchen bed. Everything turned out to be a very exciting business, because it was already a creative work: I, as an artist, created a decorative picture using colorful plants. And the garden was my canvas. I was provided with an approach to her from all sides, and since she was high, I hardly had to bend over.

With such a mixed and compacted planting of crops, a lot had to be taken into account: both the fact that some of them could occupy a significant area by the end of the season, and the peculiarities of their root system. Therefore, I planted lettuce, the roots of which are close to the soil surface, to the chard, which has deep roots. This was necessary so that during the growing season the plants did not compete with each other for water and nutrients. In addition, chard bushes grow strongly over the season, but salads growing nearby will gradually go to the kitchen.

As a result, there was such an assortment of plants on the kitchen bed: two red and two green chard bushes; borage cucumber bush; Pak Choi cabbage of Prima and Swallow varieties; broccoli cabbage of the Tonus variety; cauliflower of the Alrami variety; salads of varieties Northern Blush, Lollo Rossa, Emerald Lace, Ballet, New Year's, Delightful, Pearl Jam; basilicas of varieties Ginnovez, Troll, Tempter, Thai Queen, Clove aroma; Pervenets coriander, savory and garden marjoram. I also planted leafy parsley of the Rialto and Titan varieties, as well as the Mulatka perilla. This herb is also referred to as the "Korean spice herb." There was also a place on the ridge for two varieties of nasturtium - Alaska and King Theodore.

Both varieties of Pak-choy cabbage, after planting in the ground, began to quickly form a raised rosette of leaves. We began to eat this cabbage as soon as it managed to grow ten leaves. Later they began to rip off whole rosettes. Its leaves and petioles are delicious. However, at the beginning of July, some of the plants went to the spit, and we removed them from the garden. This type of cabbage is good as an early summer and autumn crop. But the garden bed did not suffer from the decline of some plants, because the vacant space was occupied by neighboring crops.

Having suffered from the freeze, our sweet corn did not disappear at all. After treatment with a stimulant, she recovered and began to throw out her spectacular leaves, quickly build up vegetative mass. But since I hurried to sow beans between the corn, these plantings turned out to be thickened. It was a pity to throw away the beans, and we left them, allowing us to fight for our existence with our neighbors. I must say that she survived and gave a crop, of course, less than it should be. The beans bloomed tirelessly throughout the season and formed long 30-centimeter pods until the end of September. We also got sweet cobs from corn plantings, albeit with a delay and not in the same amount as in previous years.

Cauliflower gave a good harvest. The Alrami variety turned out to be very early ripening, it has a beautiful, almost vertical rosette of leaves. The cabbage head was formed white, dense, weighing 300-400 grams. And these heads were tied very amicably. And their taste deserves the kindest words.

Broccoli also turned out to be early ripening, quickly formed heads, and when we cut off the top ones, another layer formed on the side branches. It also bore fruit in early September. From this ridge we also got a very good harvest of parsley, basil, lettuce and Swiss chard. All season we cut fresh herbs from our kitchen ridge to the table.

In a word, we made sure that such decorative beds decorate the garden, creating a bright juicy spot on it, and the crops growing on them provide a continuous conveyor of vitamin greens, replacing each other.

Special care of the kitchen bed was not required, since all the plants on it are unpretentious. And since the past summer turned out to be rainy, there was almost no need to water it. Despite the fact that the bed is high, we watered the plants on it only after planting the seedlings, and then one more time over the summer.

While our vitamin crops were growing, all care consisted only in loosening the soil. Once a season, I weeded out annual weeds in the garden bed. We do not have perennials on such warm beds, since we prepare them very carefully for planting and select all the roots of perennial weeds.

There were also problems. The frost created them for us, and the period when the years of butterflies began and cabbage pests appeared was also dangerous. We fought with them with ash, dusting cabbage bushes with it. As a result, none of them suffered. It was evident that neighboring plants also helped us, frightening off pests with their spicy smell. And the cold rainy weather was probably compensated by the height of our ridge and the warm soil in it.

I want to say that not all plants felt comfortable in the garden. Nasturtium and three parsley bushes competed with each other. This discomfort continued until the nasturtium grew and covered its competitors with its leaves. The bushes began to wither, completely weakened, and I had to remove them. And the nasturtium was glad that it had emerged victorious, it had grown even more in breadth. Then I learned that parsley and nasturtium are bad partners.

And in the fight for a place in the sun for coriander and parsley, parsley emerged victorious. The coriander began to slow down its growth, turn pale, wither. It was evident that the parsley did not like such a neighbor either. I removed the coriander bushes from the ridge. And parsley, having won its place, immediately began to intensively increase the rosette of leaves. This suggests that it is necessary to more carefully select neighbors. For example, basil does not like marjoram, although the marjoram itself does not experience a negative effect from such a neighborhood. Cucumber herb doesn't like parsley, but parsley is neutral about it.

And yet this ridge has become a decoration of our garden. Of course, it is still far from a true ornamental garden, while only an option has turned out. More precisely, a touch in writing this fascinating picture. This season there will be another project. I would like to make it more expressive and attractive. After analyzing what worked and what did not work, I will add more strokes from flowers to my "picture", maybe I will add some decorative elements, I will work with the form. And what the kitchen garden will look like in 2009 - time will tell.

I advise all readers to also try to create interesting compositions of decorative beds this season. Believe me, this is a very exciting experience.

I wish you all good luck and success!

Galina Romanova, gardener,
Prize-winner of the competitions "Summer Season - 2008" and "Envy, Neighbor - 2008"


Popular spicy herbs

Agastakhis wrinkled

Agastakhis wrinkled, or Polyglass wrinkled, or Tibetan Lofant, or Korean mint (Agastache rugosa) - anise flavor for delicious salads and teas! It is called “northern ginseng” for its ability to strengthen the immune system! Used in cosmetology to preserve the elasticity and youth of the skin!

Perennial herb of the Yasnotkov family. The aboveground part is used fresh for making salads and tea. Lofant is also an excellent honey plant and has unique medicinal properties. The advantages of this spicy herb include its simplicity and ease of cultivation. Lofant is propagated by direct sowing of seeds in open ground or through seedlings. The minimum planting pattern is 25x25 cm. Plants must be covered for the winter.

Anise ordinary

Anise ordinary, Aniseed thigh (Pimpinella anisum) Is an annual, thin and shortly pubescent plant. The root is thin, fusiform, taproot. Stem up to 30-50 cm high, erect, rounded, furrowed, branched in the upper part.

Medicinal annual herb from the Umbelliferae family with an erect, branched stem, up to 60 cm high, covered with a short downy. The leaves are alternate, the lower ones are whole, long-petiolate, rounded-reniform or cordate. The flowers are small, white, in complex umbrellas. Blooms from June to September. Prefers sunny areas, sandy loam or loamy soils.

The ripe fruit of anise is used, which contains an essential oil. Anise fruit preparations delay putrefactive and fermentative processes in the intestines, relieve abdominal spasms, inhibit the development of microbes in the renal pelvis and bladder, have expectorant and diuretic properties. Anise fruits are brewed like tea.

Basil

Basil (Ocimum) - belongs to the family of mint herbs, is used as a seasoning for many dishes. Fresh basil has a bright aroma that can be described as a cross between licorice and cloves. Most varieties of basil have green leaves, but opal basil has a beautiful purple color. Other types of basil, such as lemon basil and cinnamon basil, are so named for their respective aromas.

Strongly branched plant with tetrahedral stems from 30 to 60 cm high. Its leaves are oblong-ovate, sparsely toothed, green or purple up to 5.5 cm long. At the ends of the stems, basil throws out inflorescences in the form of tassels, consisting of several flowers. Their color can be different: pink, white, white and purple.

Basil is widely used as a spice both fresh and dry. As a spice, it is more appreciated fresh.

Mustard salad

Mustard salad, or Leaf mustard - a variety of Mustard (Brassica juncea) Is an annual cold-resistant early maturing plant. Within a month, she develops a large rosette of large leaves, original in color. The flowers are small, yellow, collected in a spike-shaped inflorescence, the fruit is a pod.

Young leaves of mustard leaf are used fresh for preparing salads and as a side dish for meat and fish dishes, in boiled form, as well as salted and canned. Mustard is a relative of arugula, but is more like watercress in early maturity. Mustard leaf stimulates appetite, enhances the secretion of gastric juice and bile, has anti-inflammatory and antiseptic effects.

Mustard greens, in which ascorbic acid and rutin (vitamins C and P) predominate in the natural complex of vitamins, is an excellent antiscorbutic agent that prevents untimely aging of the walls of blood vessels, their loss of elasticity and the deposition of cholesterol plaques on the inner wall of blood vessels.Because mustard greens stimulate appetite, it should not be included in a weight loss diet.

Oregano

Oregano, or Oregano (Origanum) Is a genus of herbaceous plants of the Lamb family (Lamiaceae), includes 45-50 species. Perennial herbaceous plants or shrubs, 30-75 cm high. Rhizome glabrous, often creeping. Stem tetrahedral, erect, slightly pubescent, glabrous in the upper part. Leaves are opposite, petiolate, oblong-ovate, whole-edged, pointed at the tip, dark green above, gray-green below, 1-4 cm long.

This herb has a strong aroma. Traditionally used in Greek and Balkan cuisine. It goes well with cheese, fried fish, and is also suitable for flavoring vegetable oils.

Harvest: Leaves are plucked as needed. Outdoors from June to November, at home all year round.

Hyssop

Hyssop, blue St. John's wort (Hyssopus) Is a genus of plants of the Lamiaceae family. Perennial strongly odorous spicy herbs or shrubs with linear or oblong leaves.

Drought-resistant and winter-hardy shrub. Forms a bush 50-60 cm high and up to 60-70 cm in diameter, with erect branchy shoots. Shoots from below are lignified: the first year they are green, later they acquire a grayish-brown tint. Leaves sessile, without petiole, small, green. The flowers are blue. The taste of stems, leaves and flowers is bitter and spicy.

In cooking, mainly dried leaves of the upper third of the plant are used. Young stems, leaves and flowers, fresh and dried, are used to flavor meals and snacks. In folk medicine, hyssop is used for angina pectoris, gastrointestinal diseases. It promotes digestion, stimulates appetite.

Hyssop infusion is recommended for the elderly as a fortifying drink. Possesses bactericidal properties. Harvesting: when grown for seasoning, it is harvested throughout the summer: from a plant intended for medicinal purposes, the stems are cut off before flowering. At the same time, the upper part of the stems is cut off and the collection is dried in the shade. Store in a cool, ventilated area.

Chervil ordinary

Openwork chervil, or Butenel-leaved kupyr, or ordinary chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) - An annual plant 15-50 cm high with a fusiform root. Stems are straight, shortly pubescent, branchy almost from the base, swollen at the nodes. The leaves are triangular, three times pinnately dissected.

It has a sweetish aniseed aroma, a spicy sweetish taste reminiscent of parsley, thanks to which it is used as a spice. It goes well with other green vegetables - tarragon, parsley, basil. In North America, ground chervil is used for grilling poultry, fish and egg dishes. It is used with hard-boiled eggs, salted omelets, fish sauces, green butter, potato soup, potato salad, spinach, poultry, fish, lamb and mutton.

Chervil dishes are a good vitamin and tonic. In folk medicine, the leaves and fruits of the plant were used for diseases of the kidneys, bladder, as an expectorant and astringent for gastrointestinal disorders. Good honey plant.

Coriander seed, Cilantro

Sowing coriander, or Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) Is an annual herb of the family Umbrella (Apiaceae), one of the most popular herbs. The stem of the coriander is erect, glabrous, up to 40-70 cm high, branched in the upper part. Basal leaves broad-lobed, coarsely dissected, with wide lobules and long petioles, upper leaves on short petioles with narrow linear lobes. The flowers are small, white or pink, arranged in complex umbrellas at the ends of the peduncles, forming 3-5 rays. Marginal flowers 3-4 mm long.

Coriander fruits are widely used as a spice for aromatization and fortification of sausages, cheese, canned meat and fish, pickles, pickles and liqueurs, are added in the baking of Borodino bread, confectionery and culinary products, as well as in the manufacture of certain types of beer.

Leaves of young vegetable coriander plants are eaten in the phases of the rosette and the beginning of shooting. The leaves have a pungent smell, they are eaten in salads, and also used as a seasoning for soups and meat dishes. Excellent honey plant. Delicate leaves are an excellent seasoning for salads, first and second courses, and the seeds are used in the preparation of marinades and confectionery. Coriander is also useful for colds and stomach ailments.

Lovage

Lovage (Levisticum officinale) Is a perennial herb, a monotypic genus of the Umbrella family. The stem is 100-200 cm high, glabrous, with a bluish surface, branched at the top. The leaves are shiny, feathery, with large obovate or rhombic, slightly incised lobes.

Frost-resistant and cold-resistant. The smell of lovage is sharp, spicy, the taste is sweetish at first, then sharp, spicy and moderately bitter. An essential oil is obtained from the plant, which is used in perfumery and cooking. Fresh stems, leaves and roots are used to flavor confectionery, drinks, marinades. Even small additions of lovage greens change the taste and give the canned food a peculiar mushroom aroma.

Green parts and roots of young plants are eaten as a spice in the preparation of green oil, salads are added to sauces, fried meat, gravy, soups, vegetables, rice dishes, cereals, poultry and fish. With the addition of a pinch of lovage, a strong meat broth acquires an exceptionally good taste, in which the taste of meat is emphasized and enhanced. Lovage is of particular importance in the diet along with dill and basil. The roots of lovage are shown in the diet for diseases of the liver, gallbladder, kidneys, obesity, rheumatism, flatulence.

Marjoram

Marjoram (Origanum majorana) Is a species of perennial herbaceous plants from the genus Oregano (Origanum) of the Yasnotkovye family. In the Middle East, it is better known as Za'atar. Stems are erect, branched, 20-45 (50) cm high, woody at the base, silvery-gray. Leaves are oblong-ovate or spatulate, petiolate, obtuse, whole-edged, gray-tomentose on both sides. Inflorescences are oblong, tomentose-hairy, from three to five rounded, sessile, ovate, short spike-shaped bundles at the ends of the branches. The flowers are small, the corolla is reddish, pink or white.

Currently, marjoram is used mainly as a spice, it is added to salads, soups, fish and vegetable dishes fresh or dried and when canning. The plant is also used for the preparation of liqueurs, liqueurs, puddings, sausages, vinegar and tea flavoring. An essential oil is extracted from the aerial part of a flowering plant. Dry leaf powder is found in pepper mixtures. Marjoram improves digestion, is indicated for flatulence, has a diuretic and sedative effect.

In medicine in some countries, the plant is used for diseases of the respiratory tract and digestive organs. The use of marjoram is indicated for the dietary nutrition of gastric patients. In folk medicine, it is known as a gastric, tonic, anti-catarrhal and wound healing agent. Together with other drugs, marjoram was used for paralysis, neurasthenia, bronchial asthma and rhinitis. The plant was used internally in the form of infusion and externally - for baths and lotions as a wound healing agent. Valuable honey plant.

Melissa

Melissa, lemon mint, honey, mother plant, swarm, bee (Melissa officinalis) Is a perennial essential oil herb from the genus Melissa (Melissa) of the Yasnotkovye family. The rhizome is highly branched. Stem branched, tetrahedral, pubescent with short hairs with admixture of glands, or almost glabrous. Leaves are opposite, petiolate, ovate to rounded-rhombic, crenate-serrate, pubescent.

It is grown for the sake of oval leaves, which, when rubbed, emit a strong lemon scent. Melissa as a spice goes well with game, veal, pork, lamb, fish, mushroom dishes. Fresh lemon balm leaves are added in the preparation of sauces, vegetables, soups of all kinds (fruit, pea, potato, mushroom). Many people like to add lemon balm to milk to make it smell better, to grated cottage cheese.

Melissa is treated for indigestion, it improves appetite, it is used for neuralgic and rheumatic pain, as a diuretic, used for depression, insomnia, migraine, and menstrual pain. nervous weakness, migraines, insomnia, general loss of strength, some forms of asthma, colds, skin rashes, pain in the heart and palpitations, colic in the stomach and liver, anemia and to improve metabolism. Outwardly - with gum disease and furunculosis.

Mint (Mentha) Is a genus of plants of the Lamb family. The genus contains about 25 species and about 10 natural hybrids. All species are highly aromatic, most of them contain a lot of menthol.

Mint is widely used in medicine, pharmacology and cooking. Most often we use it as a herb when brewing tea.

Parsley

Parsley (Petroselinum) - a small genus of biennial plants of the family Umbrella (Apiaceae). Leaves are double- or triple-pinned. The teeth of the calyx are inconspicuous, the petals are yellow-green or whitish, often with a reddish tint at the base, cordate, notched at the apex and in the notch with a long, inwardly curved lobe.

Parsley is used as a spicy herb in fresh, dried and less often salted form, leaves as an integral part of salads, and leaves and root vegetables as an addition to side dishes and soups, especially fish dishes. Freshly frozen greens fully retain their nutritional and healing properties for several months (if stored properly, up to a year).

The root vegetables of parsley are edible, but thin and coarse, so they are rarely used. In medicine (less often in cooking), parsley seeds are also used. Parsley is known for its diuretic, choleretic and stimulating effects.

Rosemary

Rosemary (Rosmarinus) Is a genus of perennial evergreen shrubs of the Lamb family (Lamiaceae). Calyx ovate-bell-shaped, two-lipped, two-split upper lip with three short teeth; lower two-toothed, three-lobed, with a large middle lobe. Two stamens, single-celled anthers. Leaves are opposite, narrowed, linear.

Rosemary has a strong aromatic sweetish and camphor scent, reminiscent of pine, and a very spicy, slightly pungent taste. Fresh or dry leaves, flowers and young shoots are used as a spice for processing fish, in small quantities they are added to vegetable soups and dishes, in salads, minced meat, to fried meat, fried poultry, to mushrooms, red and white cabbage cabbage and marinades. Gives a pleasant taste to soft cheeses, potatoes, game meat, fish and pastry.

Rosemary essential oil is used in the perfumery and cosmetic industry, leaves, flowers and young shoots - in the alcoholic beverage and bakery industries. The leaves and annual shoots of rosemary were used in folk medicine inside for amenorrhea, as an astringent, tonic for impotence, sedative - for nervous disorders in the climacteric period, pain reliever - for pain in the heart and stomach colic and externally - for neuritis, thrombophlebitis, rheumatism, mumps, parotitis as a wound healing agent. It is used in modern combined herbal preparations.

Celery

Celery (Apium) - a genus of plants of the family Umbrella (Apiaceae), vegetable culture. There are about 20 species in total, common on all continents. A biennial vegetable herb with a thick, spindle-shaped yellow-white and brownish root vegetable with a porous flesh. The leaves are shiny, dark green, the petioles of the basal leaves are long and fleshy.

All parts of this spicy herb are added to the first and second courses, salads, drinks, sauces, seasonings. The rhizome is also used in a dried form. The stems are recommended to be used instead of salt for diseases of the gallbladder, osteoporosis, kidney disease. In medicine, it is used as a diuretic. It is an aphrodisiac.

Root celery has a diuretic and tonic effect and is widely used for kidney and bladder diseases. In homeopathy, extracts from seeds, roots and leaves are used as a diuretic and cardiac remedy, as well as for diseases of the genital organs.

Thyme

Thyme, Thyme, Thyme, Bogorodskaya grass, cloth (Thymus) Is a genus of dwarf shrubs of the Yasnotkovye family (Lamiaceae). Perennial shrub up to 35 cm tall with woody recumbent or ascending stem and erect or ascending herbaceous branches. Taproot, woody. Stems are woody at the base, spread over the soil, branched, with covered hairs bent down or erect. The leaves are varied in size, venation and shape (from round or ovoid to linear-oblong), rigid, almost leathery, short-petiolate, less often sessile, entire or sometimes serrated (a constant feature in some Far Eastern species).

Young shoots of thyme have a strong, pleasant lemon aroma and a slightly bitter pungent taste. It is recommended to add thyme to fatty lamb and pork dishes. This spicy herb contains an essential oil with a strong scent. Thyme works well with peppers to enhance the flavor. It is used in the manufacture of many medicines, as well as an ornamental plant for landscaping the site.

Cumin (Carum) - genus of perennial or biennial plants of the family Umbrella (Apiaceae), of which the most famous species is Common caraway (Carum carvi). Leaves are double or triple feathery. The flowers are bisexual or partially staminate. Petals are white, pink or red, round obovate. Fruitlets are oblong, somewhat laterally compressed, ribs are obtuse.

The roots are used in cooking as a spice. Leaves and young shoots are used in salads. Seeds - for flavoring homemade baked goods, for pickling cabbage, pickling cucumbers.

Savory

Savory (Satureja) - annual plants, semi-shrubs or shrubs, a genus of plants in the Lamb family (Lamiaceae). Leaves are whole-edged or almost whole-edged, short-petiolized. Flowers 4-9 mm or 10-15 mm long, bluish-white, light purple or pinkish, collected in 3-7-flowered whorls in the leaf axils. Calyx bell-shaped, two-lipped or almost regular, five-toothed. Corolla two-lipped stamens; four anthers two-celled, separated by a stigma not very wide connected, with diverging lobes. Fruits are nuts, from round to ovoid, obtuse.

The medicinal effect of savory is antispasmodic, bactericidal, astringent. You can pick young leaves as a seasoning, but dried savory is also an excellent strong spice. Savory greens are very fragrant and reminiscent of thyme, but with pungent undertones.

Sage

Sage, Salvia (Salvia) Is a large genus of perennial herbaceous plants and shrubs of the Lamiaceae family (Lamiaceae). Leaves are simple or feathery. The calyx is bell-shaped, tubular-bell-shaped, conical or tubular; the upper lip, which does not change or slightly increases during fruiting, is tridentate. The corolla is always two-lipped upper lip, helmet-shaped, crescent or straight middle lobe of the lower lip is much larger than the lateral ones, very rarely equal to the lateral ones. Stamens 2 column filiform stigma bilobate.

Fresh and dried, the spice is used to add a piquant taste and aroma to dishes from meat, game, fish, salads, pies, and when preparing tea. It has anti-inflammatory and disinfectant effects, is used as a medicine for rinsing, compresses. All species of this genus are essential oil, a number of them entered the culture as medicinal, for example Salvia officinalis (Salvia officinalis). The different properties of essential oils in different types of sage and the possibilities of their use have not yet been studied. The most famous is Clary sage.

Tarragon, tarragon

Tarragon wormwood, Tarragon, Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) Is a perennial herb, a species of the genus Wormwood of the Astrovye family. Stems are not numerous, 40-150 cm high, erect, glabrous, yellowish-brown. Stem leaves are whole, oblong or linear-lanceolate, pointed lower leaves incised at the apex. The flowers are pale yellowish. Inflorescence paniculate, narrow, dense leaflets of the envelope are short-elliptic or almost spherical. The envelope is glabrous, greenish-yellowish, shiny, membranous along the edge.

Tarragon wormwood has a low-spicy aroma and a pungent, spicy and piquant taste. There are known varieties of salad direction, common in the Transcaucasus and Central Asia, and spicy-aromatic forms (Ukraine, Moldova). The green mass of the plant is widely used in fresh cooking as a spicy-aromatic seasoning for pickling cucumbers, tomatoes, making pickles, for pickling cabbage, soaking apples and pears. It is used as a spice in the preparation of rice dishes, boiled fish, mayonnaise, fried game, lamb. Finely chopped fresh leaves are added as a spice to poultry, eggs, light sauces, meat dishes, and all types of salads. They can be used to make green butter.


Arrangement of beds for cucumbers in the open field: photos and tips

Some of the secrets to growing cucumbers outdoors will help you grow a wonderful harvest. Here are the basic rules:

  • streams, reservoirs or other channels should not be located near the plantings
  • it is better to place the garden on a site where there are no strong drafts
  • watering and loosening should be done regularly. Since if a hard crust forms, the plant will dry out
  • vegetables in the open field require special care and special feeding
  • when harvesting, you do not need to move the branches and lashes of plants too much
  • weeding on open plantings should be done more frequently than on plantings with fencing
  • the surface of the landings is recommended to be covered with a black film.

Trellis can be used when grown outdoors

It is important to pay special attention to the preparation of the garden for cucumbers in the spring.

How to make a garden for cucumbers: design nuances

You can use different methods of growing cucumbers outdoors. In this case, special attention should be paid to its composition. The soil should be fertilized with organic matter, grass and manure. In the process of their decomposition, fertility increases. During the decomposition of organic fertilizing, the soil can warm up to 80 degrees. In this case, natural sterilization of the soil layer occurs.

For growing cucumbers, you can build a bed in the form of a ridge, simple holes, or erect raised structures.

Lazy design for cucumbers

How to make cucumber beds with a bookmark in the garden: technical features

To make beds with a bookmark, you need to dig a trench. In this case, the indentation should be equal to two shovels. Branches are laid across and sprinkled with sawdust. The following layers are composed of garden waste and straw. You can also add leaves, compost, or even newspapers. In this case, a bed for growing cucumbers with a bookmark has a layer, the thickness of which is 5-7 cm. From above, you need to pour warm water, and then distribute the composition from soil and compost. Such designs can last for five years. In the second year, you will no longer need to add compost, since nutrients are produced by themselves in the soil.

This is how the correct bookmark is made.

A bed for cucumbers with a bookmark has the following advantages:

  • liquid does not collect or stagnate
  • ease of watering
  • digging is not required in the spring.

Plants can be planted on such structures earlier than on ordinary sites. This option is not suitable for low-lying areas.

Warm beds for cucumbers in the open field: the nuances of construction

Many gardeners are interested in how to make a warm garden for cucumbers. Such structures are installed on the surface of the prepared soil. They can be used even in low areas. Film material is often used to enhance heating. This allows for a greenhouse effect.

Surface structures can be made from boxes. In this case, materials such as boards, slate or bricks are used. The bottom is covered with sand and wood waste. Then a layer of straw and organic waste is applied. After laying each component, the layers are compacted and then watered with liquid manure. Also, the bed is sprinkled with a composition of soil and compost.

Placing a warm landing on virgin soil

Thus, you can create a warm cucumber bed. The plant is planted in two rows, along the edges of the sides. This will ensure the optimal level of illumination. In the spring, such structures can be converted into greenhouses. In this case, plastic arcs are used.

Raised beds for cucumbers in the open field: interesting solutions

Warm beds often have a raised structure. They are often used in areas with humid or extremely cold climates. This option is designed for full heating of the soil, which will provide you with an early harvest. It is also recommended to raise the plantings with a close passage of groundwater. Different materials are suitable as borders. The most common solutions include slate and wood. Metal is sometimes used. Such beds can even be placed inside the lawn or on concreted areas. If you use paving stones or stone for framing, then you can get a great decorative element for your garden.

Functional version of the raised structure

If any materials are not available, then a bulk mound without fences is also suitable. You can choose any length, but the width and height should not be more than a meter.

To speed up the decomposition process, you can spill the soil with a special solution with bacteria. This procedure is performed twice a year.


Creation of a bed of spicy plants and salads - garden and vegetable garden


It is impossible to imagine our table without vegetables and potatoes. They are the most important component of the diet of both the academician and the carpenter. Vegetables - a pantry of carbohydrates, protein, organic acids, vitamins, mineral salts, enzymes, and other essential nutrients. Of particular value are vitamins, which are either almost absent or present in small doses in other products. Do not rely solely on grocery stores and markets, start your own vegetable garden. Especially if you want to have fresh vegetables straight from the garden. The secrets of growing vegetables are not that difficult. Diligence, perseverance, curiosity, ingenuity will help you overcome all difficulties and become a real vegetable grower.

So, advice from specialists and experienced gardeners.

To extend the season for the consumption of fresh vegetables, early, medium and late varieties are planted. The earliest harvests in the open field can be obtained from the cultivation of perennial crops (sorrel, rhubarb, perennial types of onions), as well as from winter sowing of carrots, beets, parsley, radishes and planting onions. Early vegetables of annual crops (lettuce, cucumbers, radishes) and onions can be grown in small greenhouses in the garden.

They accelerate the development of shelters made of film or glass without artificial heating in early spring. You can grow radishes under them. They can cover sorrel, rhubarb, onions, winter crops of beets and carrots.

Vegetable plants according to biological, botanical and economic characteristics, they are classified into homogeneous groups.

Cabbage plants. There are several varieties of cabbage: white cabbage, cauliflower, red cabbage, savoy cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and leafy cabbage. Almost all types of cabbage are biennial plants. Only in the second year, the planted stalks with apical buds give seeds. Plants of this group are cold-resistant, require increased moisture supply, although they do not tolerate excessive moisture (especially long-term), they are demanding on soil fertility. Cauliflower, Chinese cabbage and broccoli under certain conditions form seeds in the first year of life and are annual.

Mid-ripening cabbage varieties are suitable for pickling, late varieties for pickling and long-term storage. Red cabbage is unsuitable for cooking, it is used fresh for salads. Cauliflower is good for boiling, roasting, and canning.

Roots. This group includes: carrots, parsnips, parsley, celery (umbelliferae family) beetroot (from the haze family) radish, turnips, turnips, rutabagas, radishes (cruciferous family) chicory (from the aster family). All root crops form seeds in the second year of life (when planted with an intact apical bud), with the exception of radishes and summer radishes, which give seeds in the first year. Without exception, all plants of this group are cold-resistant, require high soil fertility, moisture supply (especially in the period after sowing the seeds).

Bulbous plants. In this group, onions, leeks, perennial varieties of onions (multi-tiered shallots, batun onions) coexist. All these plants are cold-resistant. Onions and garlic contain many nutrients and vitamins. Onions are grown by seeds (nigella), sevkom (small bulbs 1.5-2.5 cm, usually obtained from nigella) and a sample (3-4 cm or more).

Fruit vegetables. Cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkin, watermelons, melons (pumpkin family) tomatoes, peppers, eggplants (nightshade family). All these plants are very thermophilic and require highly fertile soils. Almost every year, in our conditions, to obtain these vegetables, it is necessary to use protective agents against frost and low temperatures.

Peas, beans and beans (legume family) also belong to the group of fruit vegetables. Unlike their neighbors, they can withstand low temperatures. Beans are somewhat more thermophilic than peas and beans.

Green vegetables. These are the familiar salad, dill, parsley, celery, watercress, coriander (do not be confused that we also included some of them in the group of root vegetables - remember the sayings about tops and roots), as well as other cultures that we almost not familiar and not cultivated in the middle lane. All of these crops are cold-resistant annuals, they are mainly sown with seeds.

Perennial vegetables. It is somehow unusual to call sorrel, rhubarb, asparagus, horseradish vegetables - but it is so. All these plants are frost-resistant, in one place they can grow from two to five years. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively.

Potatoes. It occupies a special place among vegetables, it is bred to obtain tubers. Potatoes belong to the nightshade family. Potato bushes are easily damaged by frost. Propagated mainly by tubers, but you can also propagate it by eyes, sprouts, dividing a bush and even seeds (this laborious work does not give the same effect as propagation by tubers).

Part garden plot that you allocate for vegetable crops should not be shaded. If possible, you should choose a free, well-lit area with the most fertile soil (if the soil is not very fertile, you need to patiently start creating it for many years). A common mistake of novice vegetable growers is the desire for a combined arrangement of crops, when vegetables and strawberries are placed among young apple and pear trees. As long as the trees are young, everything seems to be going well: the crowns do not shade the beds too much, there is enough light and food for vegetables. But the trees quickly gain strength, grow, and then the intermediate crops fall into the shade, their yield decreases from year to year. Indeed, most vegetable crops and potatoes do not tolerate strong shading and the presence of roots of woody plants in the soil. Therefore, one of the main rules for complex gardening and horticulture - provide a place for each crop and take into account the need to subsequently carry out a competent change (alternation) of vegetables and berries. After all, a certain culture should be returned to its original place not earlier than after three years, and even better - after four or five years. To do this, you need to draw up a clear plan for the placement and rotation of crops.

The timing of the return of crops to their original place is roughly the following: cabbage - 3 - 4 years, carrots - 3, peas - 4 - 5, celery - 3, tomatoes - 3 - 4, cucumbers - 3, lettuce - 1-2, onions - 4 - 5 years.

The yield decreases especially sharply and the quality deteriorates with permanent cultivation of cabbage, beets, peas, tomatoes, cucumbers, and potatoes.

When plants are re-grown on the same soil, a decrease in yield occurs as a result of the release of physiologically active substances into the soil, which subsequently inhibit the same culture.

The most appropriate width of the beds is 1.2 m. Between the beds, paths 0.3 m wide are left. The creation of narrower beds is a waste of the land of the garden plot, wider ones - it makes it difficult to cultivate the soil, care for plants and harvest.


We equip French beds: preparatory procedures

The first thing to do in order to get a French garden is to select and plan a site for its further arrangement.

Location of the future vegetable garden

The area should be fertile, with good lighting and a minimum of wind. To protect the site, hedges, curtains or trellises are used, tall herbaceous plants are also suitable.

Avoid placing tall beds under trees, as the shade will cause poor plant development. It will also lead to clogging of the site with fallen leaves in the fall season.

What the forms and parameters of the beds will be depends on the methods of performing agrotechnical work. If you plan to use technology, then the paths will have to be made wide enough.

It is imperative that you need to think about drainage, since stagnant moisture will harm green plantings. For a fresh and beautiful plant species, it is best to use a drip irrigation system. This will result in a quick and efficient flow of water to the roots.

French garden beds also use compact focal points such as trellises, fences, and gazebos to grow climbing vegetables, fruits and flowers. Legumes, vines, and climbing roses are just a few of the options you can include in your plan.

Soil selection

It is important to study the soil composition, compare it with the soil requirements for specific plants. It may be that some crops need black soil, while others need a mixture of several soils. In most cases, about 30% of the composition is given to the sand. This makes the mixture loose. A composition based on sand, black soil, organic matter, peat is best suited. Compost is also an important element in soil composition.

If there is a shortage of high-quality soil, you can buy it; they also make a mixture on their own.It is easy to determine the amount of soil required by the optimal thickness, it is 10-20 cm. If a loose composition is necessary, the volume increases to 30%.

Sketching

For the correct placement of all the components, it is necessary to draw the diagrams of the French vegetable garden on paper in a suitable scale. Decorate vegetable plants with different colors so that it is easy to understand the peculiarities of their planting in the future. This approach will simplify the calculation of the required number of seedlings and other consumables.

The simplest option is considered to be a rectangular shape, divided into 4 even parts using tracks. The beds themselves are made in the form of triangles, trapezoids, circles, everything converges to the central part, where you can place an element of garden decor - for example, a small statue, a bench or a fountain.

Territories in the form of circles, spirals, and a chessboard are also popular. Lanterns are often placed on the paths.

It is necessary to decide on the color scheme, draw shades (coloristics) on the leaf, and also draw the height of the crops. Do not forget about the border plantings, which will harmoniously emphasize the flower bed.


Pharmaceutical garden or kitchen garden?

In medieval Europe, they grew everywhere, these discreet wildflowers and scented herbs. It all started with them ... Over time, they began to allot small areas outside the monastery walls - on the southern slope, sheltered from the wind, so that plants for the preparation of medicines, ink and paints, as well as aromatic spices for a meager fraternal meal were always at hand.

However, the monks were guided not only by practical considerations. All the plants in the monastery garden had a symbolic meaning - as D. Likhachev wrote in his study "On Gardens", they were called "to reveal wisdom, harmony, and rhythm in the world." In the castles, "medicines and poisons" were also grown: "Particular attention was paid to fragrant herbs. Their aroma corresponded to the idea of ​​a paradise that delights all human senses, but another reason for their cultivation was that castles and cities, due to low sanitary conditions, were full of bad odors ".

This went on for centuries - everyone needed herbs. Monks conjured over their chartreuse and Benedictines, doctors were looking for a cure for all diseases, perfumers invented aromatic waters, and palace intriguers "invented" poisons ... But when lush tropical and subtropical plants flooded the Old World from all over the world, and chemists learned to synthesize medicines, beauty modest European flowers faded, and their healing properties seemed ineffective. And with sanitation, everything is somehow more or less improved. But the centuries-old empirical experience was not in vain: on the basis of many pharmaceutical gardens, whole botanical gardens have grown.

And now, in many European (and not only European) gardens, a site for medicinal and spicy herbs is necessarily allotted. Sometimes it is called the pharmaceutical garden, sometimes it is called the aroma or kitchen garden. All names are correct, because the action of these plants is truly universal. Each of them and their different parts (roots, leaves, flowers, fruits) have a variety of properties. It is not surprising that at the beginning of the 21st century, interest in them is returning. Perhaps because we are disappointed in modern medicines or simply tired of artificial substitutes ... Or maybe we also want "wisdom, harmony and rhythm."

And it’s fascinating to study medicinal and spicy herbs: behind them is a whole layer of history, symbols, proven and still unsolved properties. In addition, the range of medicinal and spicy plants has expanded significantly. Both due to the accustomed "foreigners" and due to the newly developed varieties and forms.


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