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Washingtonia: home care, growing from seeds, types, photos

Washingtonia: home care, growing from seeds, types, photos


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Houseplants

Botanical description

Washingtonia (Latin Washingtonia) - a palm tree named after George Washington (the first president of the United States). There are only two types of these palms - washingtonia thread-bearing and washingtonia strong, and the genus itself is part of the Arekov family.
Washingtonia palm is trees that grow up to 25 m in height and almost 1 m in diameter. But this is in its natural habitat. At the top of the trunk, fan-shaped leaves grow. Petiole up to 1.5 m long, with spines directed towards the trunk. Indoors, Washingtonia rarely blooms.
In the USA and Mexico, baskets are woven from the fibers of the leaves, and flour is made from the fruits. In Europe, this palm is cultivated on the southern Mediterranean coast. At home, Washington needs space and coolness. When the plant reaches a significant size, it is better to take it outside, if, of course, the weather conditions allow it.

Briefly about growing

  • Bloom: the palm tree is grown as an ornamental deciduous plant.
  • Lighting: bright diffused light for 16 hours a day. In winter, additional artificial lighting is required.
  • Temperature: in spring and summer - 20-24 ºC, no more, in winter - about 10 ºC.
  • Watering: in spring and summer - after the top layer of the substrate dries up, in winter watering is symbolic.
  • Air humidity: increased. During the growing season, it is recommended to spray the leaves twice a day, and wash them with a damp sponge - weekly. It is desirable to arrange containers with water around the plant. In winter, Washingtonia is not sprayed.
  • Top dressing: from spring to autumn, 2 times a month with fertilizers with an emphasis on iron. At other times, feeding is not necessary.
  • Rest period: from late autumn to early spring.
  • Transfer: in the spring and only when necessary: ​​up to 7 years - once every 2 years, up to 15 years - once every three years, and after that - every 4-5 years.
  • Substrate: four parts of sod land, two leafy, two parts of humus or peat and one part of sand.
  • Reproduction: seed.
  • Pests: scale insects, whiteflies, spider mites and mealybugs.
  • Diseases: roots can rot from improper watering or lack of drainage in the pot, from low air humidity, the tips of the leaves can dry.

Read more about growing Washingtonia below.

Washington photo

Caring for washingtonia at home

Lighting

The main misconception is that Washingtonia palm loves the sun. When growing Washingtonia, it does not need direct rays of the sun; it needs bright, but diffused light for at least 16 hours a day. It is advisable to grow Washingtonia on western or eastern windowsills. In winter or just with short daylight hours, additional lighting (fluorescent) is needed for normal growth. In the summer, it is advisable to take out washingtonia outside in a bright, but shaded place, and cover it from precipitation. The room needs to be ventilated, but do not put the tree in a draft. A lot of Washington DC light is needed throughout the year.

Temperature

In summer and spring, temperatures should fluctuate around 20-24 ° C. If the temperature tends to 30 ° C, then the plant must be transferred to a cooler room, allowed to cool, and then watered and sprayed. In winter, the temperature should be around 10 ° C. Do not be afraid, at home, the Washingtonia palm tree tolerates frosts down to -7 ° C.

Watering washingtonia

The washingtonia plant at home is afraid of both waterlogging of the soil and a lack of moisture, so you need to water this palm immediately after the topsoil dries up - this is in spring and summer. From the moment the temperature drops in the fall, the frequency and abundance of watering is reduced. In winter, the main task is not to let the earthen man completely dry out, i.e. water two to three days after the substrate dries on top. Water before watering is allowed to settle (day), and watered only with warm water.

Spraying

For the full development of Washington, high humidity is necessary, therefore, in addition to daily spraying (preferably two times), it makes sense to put a container of water next to the pot. Sometimes it will not be superfluous to wipe the leaves with a damp cloth.

Top dressing

Washingtonia at home is necessary for good fertilizer growth. Best of all - with an emphasis on the gland. They are fed in spring and autumn 2 times a month at equal intervals. The rest of the time, as well as immediately after transplanting or during illness, Washingtonia is not fertilized.

Pruning

It is advisable to cut the leaves of washingtonia even before they are completely dry - this slightly slows down the natural drying of the following leaves. If the leaves are not cut off when they are drying, then the dry leaves can no longer be cut off - they will hang beautifully around the trunk.

Washingtonia transplant

Washingtonia is transplanted only if it is really necessary, because after transplanting a palm tree needs time to "recover" and growth slows down a little. Until 7 years old, Washington is transplanted every 2 years, from 8 to 15 years old - once every three years, and from 15 years old - every four years (it is possible after 5 years). Transfer or transplanting should be carried out before summer, best of all in early spring. Since the palm tree is not a small tree, they are grown in wooden tubs. The substrate is made either from turf, leaf, humus earth and sand (4: 2: 2: 1), or in the same proportions, but instead of humus, pour peat. It is advisable to feed adult specimens with organic fertilizers during transplantation - about 5 kg. As the roots become exposed on the surface, you need to add fresh substrate.

Growing from seeds

The Washingtonia palm tree propagates by seed in the spring - March - April. Those who want to achieve success with the highest degree of probability will use only fresh seeds. The older the seeds, the less chance of germination and the longer the time frame. Before planting, the seeds must be filed (lightly) and soaked in water for 24 hours. The seeds are deepened by 1 cm into a substrate of equal parts of moss, sand and sawdust, with the addition of crushed charcoal. Sawdust must be steamed before compiling the substrate. After planting, the soil is watered, the container is covered with glass and placed in a warm place, maintaining the temperature at 28-30 ° C. If the seeds are fresh and care is correct, then seedlings will appear within two to three weeks. When the first leaf appears at the sprout, we count the week and dive the seedling into a container with a mixture of 2 parts of sod land and one part of leaf and sand. Do not worry that the leaves are not dissected - the cuts will appear on the 8-9 leaf. After a year of your efforts, the washingtonia houseplant will already have four to five leaves. You need to dive the plant very carefully! In this way, Washingtonia is grown from seeds.

Diseases and pests

The roots of Washington are rotting. This problem arises due to too frequent watering - the soil does not have time to dry out. The pot may have poor drainage and excess water is not draining out of the pot.

Washingtoni leaves are falling. Washingtonia needs high humidity, and if the air is too dry, Washingtonia begins to shed its leaves.

The tips of the leaves of washingtonia turn brown. This is the second problem caused by too low air humidity - spray washingtonia more often and place a container of water next to it.

Washington pests. Most often, Washingtonia is affected by the scale insect, whitefly, spider mite and mealybug.

Views

Washingtonia filamentary (filamentous) / Washingtonia filifera

Lives in the southern United States. In natural conditions, it grows up to 20 m in height. The trunk is straight, straight. At the top, fan-shaped leaves of green with a slight shade of gray grow. Leaves up to 2 m in length, cut into a third, form up to 80 lobes. There are long white threads at the edges of the leaves. In indoor conditions, it rarely blooms. The flowers are white.

Washingtonia strong (robusta) / (Washingtonia robusta)

Also known as Washingtonia sonorae... This species is a tree-like perennial that grows in nature up to 30 m in height. The leaves are fan-shaped and light green in color. In this species, the leaves are dissected deeper - 2/3 of the length of the leaf. The petiole is reddish. It blooms with white flowers.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of family Washingtonia
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online
  5. Indoor Plants Information

Sections: Indoor plants Ornamental deciduous Indoor trees Palms Palm (Arecaceae) Plants on B


Mesembriantemum

Mesembryanthemum is a succulent annual or biennial plant that is a member of the Azizov family. In nature, it is found in South Africa. This plant was called the mesembriantemum in 1684, from Greek this name is translated as "midday flower", because the mesembriantemums known at that time united such a feature as the opening of flowers only in sunny weather. This plant is also called "midday" or "sunflower". But in 1719, species were found that bloom only at night. According to various sources, this genus unites from 50 to 80 species.


The main characteristics of the genus

Species diversity makes it possible to choose the plant that is optimal for a particular site. Among the numerous representatives, there are herbaceous verbeiniks with:

  • erect or creeping stem
  • simple, regular, whole-edged, whorled or opposite leaf plate
  • milky white, sunny yellow or pale pink flowering
  • single axillary or paniculate spicate or thyroid flowers
  • spherical or ovoid capsule-fruit.

All representatives of the genus are characterized by abundant and long flowering. Many are also melliferous.

Verbeinik's family ties are established with Cyclamen, Millechnik, Ambilanthus and Primula.


Popular types

Breeders have created new plants based on wild crops. Among hybrids, several types of knifophy are especially popular. A brief description, characteristics of the species and varieties of an exotic plant will help flower growers make their choice.

Berry knifofia

Berry knifophyta (Kniphofia uvaria) naturally grows in one place - in the Cape province. This is the oldest (since 1707), tall, strong species, the stems grow up to 2 m. The gray-green leaves of the sword-shaped plant reach a length of 50 cm. Knifofia forms large inflorescences (up to 25 cm). The lower part is yellowish green, the upper part is coral red.

Blossoming of cnifophya is long-lasting, decorative effect is maintained for 2 months.

Hybrid knifofia

The varieties of kniphofia hybrid (Kniphofia x hybrida) were obtained using berry kniphofia.

Elegant sultans of hybrid knifofia decorate the garden for more than 2 months

Most often, flower growers pay attention to the following options:

    Variety Abendsonne with peduncles growing up to 120 cm.

This plant has a yellow bottom and a red top.

Flowers bloom from the bottom up, so the Cardinal variety cnifofia pleases the eye for a long time

From a distance, it seems that the entire bud of Bernox Triumph is the same color, in fact, the bells below are much lighter

Red-orange Indiana cnifophyta petals

The Rocket variety is planted by many gardeners against the background of conifers.

Knifofia Tukka

The plant is short, no more than 80 cm. Foxes are xiphoid, their length is about 40 cm. Unlike other species, this cniphophia has an ear of only 15 cm. It has red-yellow bells. The crown of the inflorescence is almost carmine.

The plant is resistant to many diseases, it is also considered frost-resistant. Knifofia Tukka (Kniphofia tuckii) is popular with flower growers. It is grown in the suburbs and in Central Russia. Bushes do not have to be dug out for the winter, you just need to cover them securely.

Knifofia Tukka was discovered in 1892; in its natural environment, the plant is found in southern Africa

Whitish

Whitish Kniphofia (Kniphofia albescens) can have several stems. The plant has oblong leaf blades resembling the keel of a bird. Their length ranges from 80-100 cm.

On the peduncles, the leaf blades are slightly bent, their length is about 75 cm. On each of them, the plant forms an ovoid or cylindrical inflorescence. At the base, it is wide, dense, closer to the crown, a little narrower. The buds contain whitish-green flowers. In some varieties of the species, they have a pinkish tint. Seeds of cniphophia are egg-shaped with edges, their length is 8 mm.

The color range of hard and fibrous leaves of knifophya is whitish dull green or bluish

Shaggy

The plant got its name for the villi that cover the leaf blades. Thanks to this, kniphofia looks decorative. The inflorescences are small, only 3 cm long.

The shaggy knifofia have the lower flowers of yellow color, and the upper ones are red-pink buds.

Isostolic

The variety is distinguished by linear, dull green leaf blades. The pink-yellow flowers of the knifofia resemble a bell or funnel in shape. Buds with long yellow stamens look down.

Peduncles of isostolic knifophya grow within 60-100 cm

The best varieties

There are a lot of tritoma varieties. But representatives of such species are especially popular: berry, hybrid, Tukka. In order for flower growers to be able to understand the peculiarities of knifofia, their photos and descriptions are needed.

Flamenco

Flamenco cultivar (Kniphofia flamenco) is a tall plant with red-yellow inflorescences. They are like flaming torches. Flowering begins in July, the last buds can be seen before the first frost. Knifofia Flamenco is not a hassle when planting and leaving.

Small buds of the Flamenco variety are located from top to bottom

Popsicle

Popsicke berry cnifophyta is a tall plant, reaching 1 m. The lower part of the buds is yellow. From above they are orange or coral. It all depends on the variety, soil and planting site.

Knifofia Eskimo is a frost-resistant plant, the temperature of - 22 ° C is tolerated practically without damage

Surprise

This variety has a powerful rhizome. Shoots and leaves emerge from the root outlet. The leaf blades are narrow. On a peduncle that grows up to 1 m, there is an inflorescence in the form of an ear. The buds of the cnifophyta are tubular, with protruding stamens, drooping downward. The lower part is yellowish-pink, those flowers that have not yet blossomed are creamy red.

A variety of medium frost resistance, therefore, when grown in the suburbs or central Russia, it must be dug up and removed to a cool room. Knifofia Surprise is grown on lawns, in mixborders. A great option for cutting.

Each drooping bud of the Surprise variety has a wide limb

Flaming fire

The Flame Fire variety of hybrid knifofia got its name for the bright color of small flowers. They are reddish yellow.

Martian

Tritoma Marsianka also refers to perennials. Grows up to 150 cm in height. The leaf blades are dense, leathery, reminiscent of a sword in shape. A peduncle appears from the root rosette, the height of which is about 100 cm. Long ears (up to 25 cm) of knifophya consist of multi-colored bells. Flowers are yellow-pink-red.

Each bud has a large number of long stamens, which makes the cnifophyta of the Martian variety decorative

Alcazar

Variety Alcazar (Kniphofia alcazar) is a representative of hybrid knifophy. The height of the bush is within 100 cm. Long flowering. Most flowers are observed during the period July-August. Bells in a long ear of orange-red color.

The first buds of the knifofia variety Alcazar begin to form at the end of May

Golden Skeeper

Golden Scepter is a hybrid plant. This variety of knifophya reaches 120 cm in height. Large inflorescences consist of bright yellow bells.

Knifofia Golden Skepter pleases gardeners with her appearance for a long time

Prince maurito

The medium-sized Prince Maurito belongs to the medium-sized hybrids. Knifofia reaches a height of 1.2 m. Flowers in an ear in the form of bells of a dark red or brown hue. The petals look down and slightly to the side.

The flowering of the Prince Maurito variety begins in early July and lasts until September

African guest

This is not a variety, but a mixture of different knifophia collected in one package. Plant height varies depending on the species (100-120 cm). When flowering begins, multi-colored ears rise above the bushes.

  • yellow - 30%
  • salmon - 30%
  • red 40.

Home grown from seeds African guest blend is great for cutting.

Seedlings of the African guest obtained from the seeds on the site should be placed in increments of 30-40 cm


It is a perennial or annual herb or shrub. It reaches a height of 4 m, has creeping or erect stems, a creeping root system with filamentous roots.

Whole, alternate leaves are located on petioles. They are arrow-shaped or heart-shaped, with teeth or divided into blades.

Flowers are arranged singly or in inflorescences in the axils of greenery. Their shape is funnel-shaped or bell-shaped, while the blades are poorly expressed. Opens petals in the early morning, only in clear weather.

After flowering, fruits begin to form. These are capsules containing seeds. They retain their germination capacity for 2-3 years after harvesting.


Transfer to the ground

The lumbago grown from seeds by the seedling method can usually be planted in the ground as early as August or early September. The place should be lit, but with light shade, optimally - on a small hill, excluding stagnation of water at the roots, with light and loose fertile soil. Lumbago seedlings are planted in holes at a distance of 20-30 cm from each other, without deepening the root necks.

In late autumn, the sleeping grass should be covered with coniferous spruce branches, straw or agrofibre to protect it from freezing in winter.


When to plant outdoors

Coreopsis seedlings are transferred to open ground at the end of spring, when the threat of recurrent frosts is no longer present:

  • in the middle lane - in early May
  • in the south - at the end of April
  • in the Urals and Siberia - in the last decade of May.

Attention! You should be guided by the weather conditions: sometimes May is too cold, so the transfer date is shifted to the end of the month or even to the beginning of June.

The night temperature should not drop below 10-12 ° C. In some cases, growers transplant coreopsis into a greenhouse. This can be done 7-10 days earlier than the standard deadline - for example, not in mid-May, but at the beginning of the month.


Watch the video: Full tutorial with Washingtonia Robusta Germination seeds