What fertilizers to apply when planting potatoes in the holes

 What fertilizers to apply when planting potatoes in the holes

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Potatoes are the most common vegetable in household plots; almost all Russians have experience in growing it. Good results can be achieved by using fertilizers wisely.

What fertilizers to apply when planting potatoes in the holes

The peculiarity of this vegetable is that it has insufficiently strong roots and therefore is picky about the quality of the soil. The root crop for growth and development "takes" a lot of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, so it is necessary to provide it with these substances when planting.

The use of fertilizers is the key to a good harvest, both organic and inorganic can be used. Potatoes grow best in fertile soils, where fertilization can be minimal. Depleted by frequent plantings, sandy and loamy will require more attention from the gardener.

Fertilizers will be well absorbed if you apply them directly to the hole.

Organic fertilizers

The most traditional type of fertilizer. As a rule, gardeners use manure, compost and ash.

Manure has been used as fertilizer since ancient times and consists of the excrement of farm animals. As a rule, horse and cow manure, as well as chicken manure, are used. Manure contains nitrogen, potassium, calcium, phosphorus. It is considered to be one of the best fertilizers.

Manure is considered to be one of the best organic fertilizers

Of the features of the use of manure, the following can be noted: it is extremely undesirable to use fresh manure, it can oppress plants. Chicken droppings are best used in granular form.

Compost is not inferior to manure in properties, in the conditions of a private plot, materials for its production can be freshly cut grass, weeds, foliage, etc. The content of nutrients depends on the composition, the addition of peat and manure to the compost heap increases the nutritional value.

Ash contains a large amount of potassium, calcium, phosphorus and other useful microelements, in addition, ash lowers the acidity of soils, which is also important, because potatoes do not like acidic soils.

Ash contains trace elements and lowers soil acidity

Optimal for growing potatoes is the use of organic fertilizers, they contain all the necessary trace elements in an easily digestible form. However, their use is not always possible: someone has difficulties in acquiring, someone does not use manure for aesthetic reasons. Here inorganic fertilizers come to the rescue, which are produced by industry in the form of mineral salts.

Mineral fertilizers

The full growth of potatoes is provided by such common preparations:

  • ammonium nitrate (nitrogen source) - when planting, 20–30 g per sq. meter, therefore, 5 g of the drug can be added to the wells;
  • ammonium sulfate (nitrogen source) - when planting, 30-40 g. meter is applied, then 5-7 g of the composition can be added to the holes, it is recommended to mix with chalk or lime (for 10 g of fertilizer - 13 g of lime), do not mix with ash;
  • superphosphate (source of phosphorus) - application of 3-4 g per plant when planting in holes, do not use together with ammonium nitrate.

For ease of calculation, keep in mind that a tablespoon contains 17 g of ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, 12 g of ammonium sulfate.

Photo gallery: mineral fertilizers when planting in holes

Complex fertilizers

Complex mineral fertilizers (CMF) contain two to three nutrients. By its name it is easy to understand its composition: the root "nitro", "ammo" - indicates that the composition includes nitrogen, "phos" - phosphorus, "ka" - potassium:

  • nitroammophoska: nitrogen + phosphorus + potassium;
  • nitrophoska: nitrogen + phosphorus + potassium;
  • ammophos: nitrogen + phosphorus;
  • nitrophos: nitrogen + phosphorus.

Because potatoes require both nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, choose fertilizers that contain all three nutrients.

For 1 sq. meter (4-6 holes) is applied 20 g. Nitroammofoska or Nitrofoska, it is better to give preference to Nitroammofoska, as it is a more advanced version of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer.

In addition, the industry also produces complex mineral fertilizers (CMF), which are designed specifically for this crop. The composition of the CMU is already balanced for the proper nutrition of the plant:

Table: composition of CMU for potatoes

The name of indicators%
Trace elementsPresence

The dosage for CMU, as a rule, is 5-10 g (5 - when used simultaneously with organic fertilizers, 10 - if this is the main type of fertilizer).

Photo gallery: complex mineral fertilizers for potatoes

Organomineral fertilizers (OMU)

Fertilizers began to gain popularity among gardeners, containing, in addition to minerals, humic compounds, which help plants to absorb nutrients. WMD, in addition, also have a prolonged (longer) effect.

WMD consumption can be calculated based on the fact that per sq. m randomly introduced 100 g, on the landing hole - 20 g.

Complex granular fertilizer of prolonged action, made on the basis of lowland peat, which includes humic substances, macro- and microelements

Table: what fertilizers are put in the holes when planting potatoes

Fertilizer typeDosage per well
Manure200-250 grams
Compost0.5-1 liter
Chicken droppings20 grams dry
Ash1 tablespoon
Complex mineral fertilizer (CMU)10 grams
Organomineral fertilizer (OMU)20 grams

Various combinations of fertilizer types are possible, here are some of them:

  • manure, ash, CMU or WMD;
  • compost, ash, CMU or WMD;
  • chicken droppings, ash, CMU or WMD;
  • in the absence of organic matter - CMU or WMD.

Features of fertilizers in the hopper when planting with a cultivator

When planting potatoes, amateur vegetable growers use cultivators and potato planters, which can be equipped with a fertilizer hopper. Granular fertilizers (complex or organic) are the best choice when planting with a cultivator. The metering hopper feeds the granules directly into the row, 15–20 g of fertilizer enters the soil in one planting step.

Video: planting potatoes with a cultivator with a hopper

The use of fertilizers is essential for a good harvest. What to use in his personal plot, everyone decides for himself, depending on personal preferences, soil characteristics. Approach the question of choosing fertilizers thoughtfully, and the result will not disappoint you.

Fertilizers for potatoes: features, how and when to apply

During the entire flowering period, potatoes consume mineral fertilizers very actively. The roots of the plant are weak, and the tubers grow large and numerous, which is why it regularly lacks micro and macrocomponents. In autumn, after harvesting, the land becomes depleted, and if it is not fed, then next year there will be nothing to harvest. Consider how to properly fertilize a crop outdoors.

Excellent harvests of potatoes will be after you have acquired the site and began to cultivate it. Virginia has many nutrients that potatoes need to grow.

It is impossible to grow vegetables in one area without crop rotation - the land will lose its properties

Over the years the land is getting poorer... Potatoes need fertilization at the stage of preparing the land for planting, and throughout the entire cultivation time.

When landing in a hole in the spring

This must be done directly into the nest when disembarking. A shovel of sand can be added to the prepared nest along with the feeding, then the tubers will be clean and the parasite wireworm will not harm them.

Into the nest at the same time as the sand thrown in a volume with a liter container of manure or compost... If the soil is rich in minerals, then you can add 1⁄2 liter can of organic matter. Then pour a handful of ash into the hole, mix everything thoroughly and you can plant potatoes.

If the additives are mineral, then they must be added to the hole strictly according to the instructions on the package. They can also be mixed with sand and then planted with tubers.

Types of fertilizer nitrophoska

There are several varieties of nitrophoska, based on different methods of obtaining it:

Sulfuric acid Nitrophoska is most suitable for cucumbers, but it is also able to satisfy the basic needs of tomatoes, cabbage, beans. Sulfur, which is part of it, is involved in the formation of plant proteins and acts as a fungicide that repels some pests (in particular, ticks).

Sulphated nitrophoska contains a significant amount of calcium, improves budding, and also has a positive effect on the brightness of the color of flowers and leaves of plants. Therefore, it is often used to feed home flowers.

Phosphorite Nitrophoska is especially liked by tomatoes, which, when this fertilizer is applied, give larger fruits.

Signs of a lack of nutrition

To understand which mixture you need to use for potatoes, you need to figure out which minerals and mineral compounds the plant lacks. There are such signs of a lack of nutrition:

  • A decrease in the number of leaves, slow growth, insufficient development of tops are the first signs of a deficiency of nitrogenous compounds in the soil. The tops begin to deteriorate from below. First turns white and then yellow. These factors negatively affect the starch level in the tubers, which leads to a decrease in yield. Organic nitrogen fertilizers are used to replenish nitrogen.
  • Lack of phosphorus especially affects flowering. In severe cases, the plant stops blooming. As a result, potato tubers acquire an unhealthy purple color, stop growing, shrink and become covered with small black spots.
  • An irregular shape of potato tubers indicates a lack of potassium. Small leaves that turn yellow at the edges are another sign of a mineral deficiency. Such external changes can be easily seen on healthy leaf plates.
  • Magnesium plays an important role in the process of photosynthesis, therefore, with its lack, a change in the color of the leaf plate is observed. Usually the lowest leaves are affected first. With severe starvation, the entire plant is affected.
  • Calcium starvation is manifested by a change in the color of the upper leaves. They curl, their main lobes turn pink. There is a noticeable growth retardation. Calcium supplementation reduces the risk of bacterial rot, black scab.
  • The presence of a rusty spot in the pulp of tubers is a sign of iron deficiency. Affected tubers are not suitable for consumption, but at the same time they can give a good harvest (when planted).
  • Zinc deficiency manifests itself as discoloration of the stem. It becomes gray-brown or bronze. The leaves wither and dry up, curl upward.
  • With boron starvation, characteristic cracks and a decrease in tubers are observed. The protective functions of potatoes are reduced, which leads to the development of diseases.

  • A delay in plant growth and development, a decrease in yield are signs of a copper deficiency. Very often, such violations occur on peat-bog soils.
  • With manganese deficiency, white stripes first appear between the leaf veins. Then necrotic spots appear on all leaves. Plant growth slows down, productivity decreases.

The best fertilizers for potatoes

The key to obtaining good yields is high-quality planting material and sufficient plant nutrition throughout the growing season. In this article, we will consider how to feed the soil before planting potatoes, during its active growth and after harvesting.

Fertilizer requirements

To understand what fertilizers potatoes need, you need to figure out what elements and in what quantity a vegetable consumes in the process of growth and development.

Agronomists calculated that 1 kg of tubers takes from the soil more than 10 g of potassium, about 5 g of nitrogen, 2 g of phosphorus, a little zinc, copper, manganese, boron and other microelements.

All types of fertilizers for potatoes are divided into organic and mineral. Organic matter (manure, humus, humus, etc.) has the optimal ratio of nutrients and their maximum digestibility, but correctly selected mineral preparations can give excellent results. The main requirement for the last group of nutrients is a balanced composition that meets the plant's need for all the necessary micro and macro elements.

Features of feeding

To achieve excellent results in growing potatoes, you need to strictly follow the feeding technology, the sequence of application and dosage of fertilizers. So, organic matter is recommended to be applied to the fields since autumn for better assimilation by plants in spring.

Mineral preparations are used both in dry and liquid form. It is important to strictly follow the instructions for their use so as not to harm the plants with excessive fertilizing.

Factors affecting potato yield

The qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the potato crop are significantly influenced by the following circumstances:

  1. Seed quality.
  2. Compliance with the rules of pre-planting potato processing and seed planting standards.
  3. Applying the correct planting technology.
  4. Weather and climatic conditions for growing.
  5. Soil quality.
  6. Compliance with the watering regime.
  7. Implementation of effective and safe weed and pest control measures.

When landing in a hole in the spring

Before planting the tubers in the soil, it is enriched with essential nutrients. Root fertilization is carried out at the planting stage: fertilizing mixtures are added directly to the holes. If it is decided to use organic matter, then together with the tubers, 0.7 liters of dry humus or compost mixed with 5 tbsp. spoons of ash. When agrochemicals are introduced into the wells, they usually fall asleep in 1 tbsp. spoon of nitrophosphate and 100 g of bone meal.

Organic fertilizers

Almost all organic fertilizers are waste products of living beings (plants, animals, bacteria), therefore they are also called biological fertilizers. Organic not only provides vegetable crops with a complex of nutrients, but also improves the structure of the soil. However, each type of biofertilizer has its own nuances of use.

Manure and its derivatives

Potato manure is a storehouse of micro- and macroelements. It loosens the soil, stimulates the formation of a fertile layer, and helps to increase the yield of vegetables. What manure for potatoes is better to use? The most suitable are cow and horse, they are also the most affordable.

Usually, organic matter of animal origin is introduced simultaneously with the autumn or winter digging of the soil, embedding it in the ground to a depth of about 40 cm.This event is especially important for northern latitudes: during the decomposition process, biological fertilizing releases heat, which heats up the seeds planted in spring and sprouted seedlings. When plowing manure, its application rate is 400 kg per hundred square meters. At the same time, it is recommended to fertilize the soil in the potato field with potassium sulfate and superphosphate. Autumn application of manure can be replaced by sowing siderates.

Overripe manure is also introduced when planting potatoes. Before planting seed, 150 g of fertilizer is placed under each tuber.Planting is not fed with fresh organic matter, since parasites and pathogens may be present in it, and evaporating ammonia compounds have a detrimental effect on beneficial soil bacteria.

It is not recommended to apply manure to the soil annually: this can lead to a deterioration in soil fertility. The optimal frequency of application is every 3-5 years.

Chicken droppings

Due to the high concentration of nutrients and fast action, the substance in question is a popular means for feeding potatoes. It can only be used in diluted form. The optimal proportion of the solution is 1 part of droppings and 15 parts of water (you can make the infusion even weaker so as not to burn the plants when feeding). At least 1 liter of the nutrient composition is poured under each bush.

Green manure

Instead of manure, rotted and fermented plant mass is used as fertilizer for potatoes. Any available greens are suitable for preparing such a top dressing (you can take weeds after weeding or cut grass).

Green fertilizer is prepared like this:

  1. All the grass, together with the soil remaining on the roots, is loaded into a barrel (you can add a couple of handfuls of urea there).
  2. The container with the future fertilizer is poured to the brim with warm water.
  3. Leave the mass to infuse under the film for 2 weeks.

The resulting fertilizer for potatoes can be applied at planting without diluting. The recommended dosage is 1 liter of product per well.

Mineral fertilizers for potatoes

Not all gardeners like to use industrial fertilizers for potatoes when planting, fearing the poisoning of the future crop by "chemistry". However, it is possible to "feed" the land with manure so that the level of nitrates in the harvested vegetables will be prohibitive. Strict adherence to the norms and recommendations for the use of mineral complexes allows you to grow a healthy and useful harvest.


This mineral fertilizer is most often used when planting potatoes. This agent is especially effective on alkaline soils. The rate of its introduction is 1.5 kg per hundred square meters.

Some gardeners add urea to feed potatoes directly at planting, in this case, the rate will be 1 small handful for each hole.

You should not put the tubers directly on the fertilizer: it is better to first sprinkle it with soil and only then send the planting material to the hole.

Ammonium nitrate

The most economical option among mineral dressings allowed for annual use. This product can be purchased in granules for further preparation of nutrient solutions or in a mixture with fungicides for pre-planting soaking of seed.

Ammonium nitrate for potatoes is used adhering to the following application rates:

  • 20 g pellets per well where the soil is severely run down or depleted
  • 10 g for each tuber, if the land on the site has long been developed and maintained in good condition.


One of the representatives of the group of nitrogen fertilizers suitable for potatoes. It contains nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, and sulfur in a form accessible to plants. Correct use of the product helps to strengthen the root system of plants, heap formation and accelerated growth of tubers, and also reduces the likelihood of damage to planting material by fungal infections.

Azofoska for potatoes is added as an independent top dressing or added to mineral mixtures. It is recommended to introduce it in the spring during planting directly into the holes (the norm is 3 g per 1 tuber).


Among all phosphorus-containing dressings, superphosphate is the best for potatoes. It contains in the optimal ratio sulfur, calcium, phosphorus and other elements that contribute to the active growth of potato tops, as well as stimulate the accumulation of nutrients in the tubers.

The consumption rate of the drug for the developed fields and gardens is 2 kg per 1 hundred square meters.

It is not recommended to use superphosphate for potatoes when planting in a hole together with other dressings: it acts much more efficiently alone.

Wood ash has been one of the most common fertilizers for a good potato crop for many decades. It can improve the quality of the soil on which vegetables are grown. This natural dressing is applied to the soil in dry form and in aqueous solutions, independently and in combination with other fertilizers. To increase the yield of potatoes, ash is poured into the holes in the process of planting seeds. The consumption rate is 5-10 kg of dry matter per 1 hundred square meters (about 200 g per well). Such feeding can be combined with the introduction of potassium chloride and ammophoska.

Complex fertilizers

Whatever fertilizer is applied under potatoes in spring or at other times of the year, it must necessarily contain all the necessary nutrients in the correct ratio for vegetable crops. The best option that fully meets this requirement is complex feeding. The most effective for potatoes are:

  • Ammofoska is a three-component preparation containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Increases the yield of potatoes and their keeping quality.
  • Nitrophoska and nitroammofoska are complex multicomponent fertilizers, the formula of which includes compounds of ammonium and potassium nitrate, calcium chloride, superphosphate, etc. They have not only nutritional, but also fungicidal properties.
  • Complex fertilizer for potatoes (manufacturer - Buysky Chemical Plant) is a prolonged-release top dressing, including, in addition to the main elements, humic compounds that protect tubers from excessive accumulation of nitrates. Helps to increase potato yield and nutritional value.

How to feed potatoes after planting?

Upon completion of planting work, they proceed to the next stages of caring for vegetable crops. After the potatoes have risen, they begin to feed it. In order for her to grow actively and quickly, she needs to get a sufficient amount of nitrogen. However, it is important not to overfeed potatoes with nitrogen fertilizers, otherwise the seedlings will develop vigorously, but all the strength of the plant will go to the tops, and not to the formation of tubers.

Root and foliar fertilizers

Top dressing of potatoes can be done in two ways: under the root and on the leaf. Root fertilization is carried out before hilling vegetable bushes. Immediately before feeding, the soil is slightly loosened so that the nutrients reach the root system of the plants faster, and after planting it is watered abundantly with clean water.

The lack of nutrition is also compensated for by foliar fertilization. Top dressing performed by this method quickly and effectively restores the reserves of nutrients, activating important metabolic processes, which accelerates the growth of roots and increases the yield of vegetables.

Foliar dressing of potatoes is performed by spraying the bushes twice a season:

  1. After flowering - with preparations containing manganese and boron, to improve the taste characteristics of the future harvest and to exclude the appearance of voids and cavities in the tubers.
  2. 3-4 weeks before harvesting - a universal agent containing phosphorus to accelerate the ripening of tubers.

Nutrient solutions are prepared based on the following fertilizers

  • Urea: dilute 100 g in 5 liters of water, add 150 g of potassium monophosphate and 1 teaspoon of boric acid to the solution.
  • Superphosphate: 100 g per bucket of water.
  • Humate + 7: 1 g per 5 liters of water.

Foliar top dressing is performed after weeding the ridges in the evening hours in order to prevent burns on the tops.

Methods of application to the soil

There are two methods of fertilizing and fertilizing potatoes: by spreading and by the local "focal" method. In the first option, the nutrient mixtures are scattered over the ground manually with the most strict observance of the recommended dosage, after which the soil is treated (by digging and loosening) and watered.

Local application of dressings is carried out depending on the technology of planting in rows or holes. It consists in adding fertilizers to the soil. In the process of manipulation, foci are formed, saturated with fertilizing mixtures.

Before fertilizing potatoes, it is imperative to study the theoretical side of the issue: to deal with the timing of application, the sequence of dressings, dosages of drugs. Only in this case, you can count on getting a tasty and healthy harvest of potatoes.

Frequency of dressings

For the development of potato bushes and the formation of a large number of fruits, plants need a constant supply of nutrients. During the growing season, fertilizing of potato bushes is carried out several times:

  • spring application of minerals and nutrients. Agrochemicals are scattered over arable land before cultivating the land to restore overall soil fertility after the previous year's harvest
  • fertilizing a planting hole or furrow. At this point, the foundation is laid for the growth of young plants.
  • feeding young sprouts. Additional nutrition accelerates the development of potato tops
  • feeding potatoes during flowering in July stimulates the formation of tubers
  • top dressing at the end of summer increases the yield and increases the starch content in the tubers.

Spring fertilization

During the rapid spring growth, young plants consume a lot of nitrogen. Manure is considered its best supplier, but the maximum return from arable land is obtained with the simultaneous laying of organic and mineral fertilizers. Many recipes for spring feeding have been developed:

  • for 1 sq. m of arable land is brought in a bucket of humus, 2 tbsp. nitrophosphate and 0.2 l of ash
  • when plowing green manure under potatoes, additionally add 20 g of ammonium nitrate and potassium sulfate
  • a bucket of cattle peat litter and 20 g of nitrophoska, ammonium nitrate and potassium sulfate are scattered per square meter of the ridge
  • a bucket of humus is introduced under the potatoes, 20 g each of ammonium nitrate and potassium sulfate, 40 g of superphosphate and 450 g of dolomite flour.

Also, micronutrient fertilizers are added to the feeding mixtures, which help the potatoes to assimilate the main chemical elements that increase immunity and protect against diseases.

On a note! Organic fertilizers have a long assimilation period, therefore, mineral feeding is used for fast-growing early-ripening potato varieties.

Fertilization during planting

Placing agrochemicals in a planting hole is the most economical way to provide plants with substances for a quick start. Chemicals are placed in a hole or planting furrow, sprinkled with soil, then the planting tuber is laid.

Recipes for feeding potatoes when planting:

  • when using ecological farming, 2/3 liters of humus and a handful of ash are poured under each tuber
  • when using agrochemicals, 1 tbsp is placed under the root. nitrophosphate and 0.5 cups of bone meal
  • when using Kemir's complex fertilizers, 20 g of granules are placed in each well.

After germination

The first feeding is carried out 7-10 days after the emergence of shoots. At this time, nitrogen supply is necessary for the development of tops. To feed the potatoes after sprouting, the site is fertilized using the following means:

  • urea is a necessary fertilizer for potatoes after planting. 2.5 tbsp is poured into 5 liters of water. l. granules. The solution is filtered and applied with a sprayer to the leaves of the potato. Foliar application of nitrogen fertilizers - good feeding of potatoes after planting
  • cow dung. In 100 liters of water, 5 kg of cow dung and 0.2 kg of urea granules are diluted. The composition is poured into 200 potato bushes. Particularly effective is feeding potatoes with this solution before flowering.
  • bird droppings. In 10 liters of water, dissolve 2 tbsp. l. litter. The solution is poured into 20 bushes. It is good to feed the potatoes with such a solution before flowering.

On a note! Fertilizing potatoes after planting before flowering is healthier with organic compounds. In their composition, nitrogen is in a form that is easily assimilated for plants.

Top dressing of potatoes during flowering

The second time agrochemicals are applied to feed the potatoes during flowering in the middle of the growing season before hilling. During this time, plants begin to form and grow tubers. To increase the yield and active growth of tubers, agrochemicals containing potassium and phosphorus are introduced into the soil.

To feed the potatoes before hilling, 30 g of potassium sulfate and double superphosphate are dissolved in 20 liters of water. The solution is applied at the root of the plants.

Third feeding

It is carried out three weeks before harvest. Additional nutrition increases the yield of plants and improves the keeping quality of tubers. For this, a mixture of 20 liters of water, 0.5 kg of manure and 60 g of superphosphate is induced. After mixing, the solution is poured into the furrows between the potato rows.

  • Wrong dosage. This leads to an excess of trace elements in the tissues of the plant and its disease.
  • Dry granules are not embedded in the soil. As a result, the nitrogen evaporates and the fertilizer loses its effectiveness.
  • Improper storage of the drug leads to the loss of its properties.
  • Application of nitrophoska in the fall.
  • When applied to the hole, there is no protective layer of soil between the roots and the preparation.

When can nitrophoska be used in the garden?

Throughout the summer cottage season, from digging the soil to the formation of fruits. But the most effective remedy in the spring and early summer.

Can I use a flower cleaner?

Yes, including home.

How to apply fertilizer to be effective?

In the spring, scatter it over the area before plowing or digging the ground, lay it in the holes and grooves when planting crops. In summer, liquid formulations for root and foliar are prepared from nitrophoska.

Watch the video: See What Happens When You Add Epsom Salt to Your Plants


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