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San Marzano tomato

San Marzano tomato


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San Marzano

The San Marzano tomato is grown mainly in the Campania region, in particular in the cities of Naples and Salerno and, a little less, in that of Avellino. This tomato has a sweet and sour taste that makes it suitable for consumption raw or cooked in the form of sauce. The fruit of the plant of this type of tomato looks like an elongated, uneven cylindrical berry, of a very bright red color; the pulp is compact and does not contain many seeds, while the skin is very thin and easily detachable. Very resistant and more marketable hybrids have become widespread on the market today.


Environment and exposure

The San Marzano tomato prefers a warm-temperate climate and exposure in a sunny area sheltered from the wind. This tomato should never be exposed to temperatures below twelve degrees, the optimal ones range from twenty-one to twenty-three degrees. Typically this type of tomato is grown from the spring to the end of the autumn season.


Ground

One of the main characteristics of the cultivation of this tomato is that it is carried out only on flat land, naturally rich in volcanic material, organic substance and elements such as potassium and phosphorus; fundamental thing will be the good possibility of bringing water.


Sowing and transplanting

The sowing of the San Marzano tomato can start from the seedbed, in this case it must be done in the months of January and February, or in the open field, here the most suitable months are March and April. The seeds must be buried at a depth of about one centimeter and at a distance of about one meter between the rows.

The transplanting of young seedlings can be carried out from early April to early May.

Cultivation in the open field requires support for the seedlings.


Watering

Even the San Marzano tomato needs water supplies, especially during the initial growth period, but not excessive, it is essential that they are administered constantly. A greater water intake, but always constant and not exaggerated, must be made during the period in which the fruits begin to swell.


Fertilization

Fertilization is a very important operation in the cultivation of San Marzano tomatoes. This plant needs essential nutritional elements for its correct development; we will add small quantities of nitrogen several times from the transplant phase throughout the cultivation cycle. Phosphorus and potassium will be administered in the case of large and extensive crops. Calcium and magnesium can be helpful in preventing berry rot.


Collection and conservation

Generally, the San Marzano tomato harvest takes place from August to September-October; it must be done by hand, very delicately, when the fruit has reached the right ripeness and is red in color.

After harvesting, the tomato can be stored in the refrigerator for ten days; in the case of canned peeled tomatoes, after opening they must be kept in the fridge in a glass container; if instead we want to prepare peeled tomatoes, we will have to peel them and let them blanch for a short time in water and vinegar, then put them in glass jars and sterilize.


Diseases and parasites

There are many diseases and pests that can target the tomato plant, here are some and possible remedies:

Rust: this disease affects the leaves and fruits and manifests itself with the appearance of dark-colored spots on the leaves, causing them to turn yellow. Tomatoes will also be sprinkled with dark cars. Being caused by a fungus, proceed with the administration of fungicides and eliminate the infested parts.

Verticillium: This disease is also caused by a fungus. Affected plants have yellowing and dry leaves. Proceed immediately with the elimination of damaged plants.

Other diseases can be: gray leaf mold, downy mildew and septoria.


Variety

Among the San Marzano tomato varieties, we can mention:

San Marzano Adamo: this variety is very resistant to the attack of apical rot, the pulp is very tasty. It has a very bright red color.

San Marzano Cirano: the fruits of this variety can reach a length of twenty centimeters, their pulp is very good and tasty.

San Marzano Scatolone: ​​this plant produces fruit in abundance, of consistent length and hollow inside; they are particularly suitable for consumption in salads and can be eaten green or red, that is, when fully ripe.


San Marzano tomato: Ownership

The San Marzano tomato is used a lot in the kitchen to prepare salads, sauces or dried and pickled.

In addition to being very useful in the kitchen, the tomato can help us feel better thanks to its antioxidant properties, vitamins and beta-carotene.



San Marzano Tomato Seeds

The San Marzano tomato it is known and appreciated all over the world for its characteristics, which are enhanced by the transformation into "bald". It has a typically sweet and sour taste, an elongated shape of the berry, a bright red color, a scarce presence of seeds and placental fibers, a bright red skin that is easy to peel.

Online sale of San Marzano tomato seeds , available in the following formats:

  • Sachet of 5-10 grams

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Sale of San Marzano Cabbage Tomato Seeds, available in the following formats:

  • Sachet of 5-10 grams


Compared to the Roma tomato, San Marzano tomatoes are thinner and more pointed. The flesh is much thicker with fewer seeds, and the taste is stronger, sweeter, and less acidic. [1]

The San Marzano vines are indeterminate, and have a somewhat longer season than other paste tomato varieties, making them particularly suitable for warmer climates. As is typical of heirloom plants, San Marzano is an open-pollinated variety that breeds true from generation to generation, making seed saving practical for the home gardener or farmer.

Amy P. Goldman calls the San Marzano "the most important industrial tomato of the 20th century" its commercial introduction in 1926 provided canneries with a "sturdy, flawless subject, and breeders with genes they'd be raiding for decades." [2] Though commercial production of the San Marzano variety is most closely associated with Italy, seeds for the variety are available worldwide. [ citation needed ]. It is an heirloom variety. [3] Canned San Marzanos, when grown in the Valle del Sarno (valley of the Sarno) in Italy in compliance with Italian law, can be classified as San Marzano tomato from Agro Sarnese-Nocerino and have the EU "DOP" emblem on the label.

Most San Marzano tomatoes sold commercially are grown in Italy, though they are produced commercially in smaller quantities in other countries. Because of San Marzano's premium pricing, there is an ongoing battle against fraudulent product. On November 22, 2010, the Italian carabinieri confiscated 1,470 tonnes (1,450 long tons 1,620 short tons) of improperly labeled canned tomatoes worth € 1.2 million. [ citation needed ]

San Marzano tomatoes, along with Pomodorino del Piennolo del Vesuvio, have been designated as the only tomatoes that can be used for Vera Pizza Napoletana (True Neapolitan Pizza). [4]

San Marzano tomatoes originate from the small town of San Marzano sul Sarno, near Naples, Italy, and were first grown in volcanic soil in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius. One story goes that the first seed of this tomato came to Campania in 1770, as a gift from the Viceroyalty of Peru to the Kingdom of Naples, and that it was planted in the area of ​​San Marzano sul Sarno. [ citation needed ]

In the United States, San Marzano tomatoes are the genetic base for another popular paste tomato, the Roma tomato. The Roma is a cross between a San Marzano and two other varieties (one of which was also a San Marzano hybrid) [2] and was introduced by the USDA's Agricultural Research Service in 1955. [5]


Tomato Tomato San Marzano

San Marzano is an Indeterminate Mid-Late 70 day tomato. Indeterminate, 82 days. Large plants with good disease resistance. Plum-shaped fruits are 5-6 ounces, with thin skin and very meaty flesh A fabulous producer of meaty dry tomatoes with thin skin and few seeds. San Marzano produces 2 1/2 - 3 ounce tomatoes. San Marzano is traditionally renowned in Italy as one of the best paste cooking tomatoes. It's a vigorous bush type plant. You can stake or cage this variety. If staking space 18 "apart. If caging or leaving to sprawl, space 24" apart. 1 gram packet, approx. 250 seeds.

As explained by Paolo Arrigo, Franci Agent in the UK: The San Marzano may be the most famous tomato variety on the planet, thanks to its long history of cultivation around Naples and its use in sauces, Margherita pizza, and the traditional Neapolitan ragu ( meat sauce). It is widely considered to be the best flavored tomato for sauce. Despite its immense popularity, San Marzano tomato has been added to the Slow Food Ark of Taste, which represents varieties in danger of extinction. The reason it has been listed is that during the past 20 years, commercial farmers have switched from the delicate San Marzano to new hybrids that can withstand mechanical production. The decline in large-scale production has reduced demand from farmers who grow the seeds. But if home gardeners continue to request San Marzano, its future is more secure. Fortunately, the demand for San Marzano is very strong among gardeners who value flavor above all else. Tomato lovers are grateful to Franchi Sementi for supplying top-quality seeds with excellent germination.

Here is additional information about San Marzano tomatoes from the Slow Food Ark of Taste listing as mentioned by Paolo Arrigo:


Cultivation and production of the red king of Agro Sarnese-Nocerino

The San Marzano DOP tomato has a very specific area of ​​cultivation, actually 3:

  • province of Salerno: Agro Sarnese-Nocerino
  • province of Naples: Acerrano-Nolano
  • province of Avellino: Montoro Inferiore, Montoro Superiore.

All these territories possess lands very much fertile of volcanic origin, described in a positive and intense way even by the ancient Romans: deep soils, soft, rich of sources is with underground aquifers, not counting the mild climate is favorable to agriculture (in fact to allow the San Marzano DOP tomato to grow perfectly, a temperature that never goes below 12 ° is necessary).

Care, dedication and attention, this is what the San Marzano DOP tomato from Agro Sarnese-Nocerino, but also many many rules:

  • the cultivation of the San Marzano PDO in the greenhouse
  • any form of forcing in cultivation (as well as in harvesting) is prohibited to avoid any type of alteration of the biological cycle
  • there collection of the San Marzano DOP tomato it must be done strictly by hand, in a scaled way.

There sowing of the San Marzano DOP tomato happens between May is April, so you can take advantage of the first warm temperatures, while the collection is carried out between end of July and the end of August, for about 20 days at regular intervals.

THE fruits, after harvesting, they are placed in plastic crates and transported to the place where the packaging will take place, also according to precise rules: they must be placed in containers of glass or band tin plated, all regularly labeled is numbered so that it can be tracked down is recognizable, showing the logo of the Consortium for the Protection of San Marzano Tomatoes from Agro Sarnese-Nocerino.

Choose the San Marzano DOP tomato for one's own preparations it means choosing quality, nature, tradition is passion, means selecting a unique product in the world to guarantee dishes with an unmistakable taste. Perfect Flavor he knows, for this we use San Marzano DOP tomato for ours pizzas, giving you a journey of taste with every bite.


San Marzano tomato - garden

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Pizza menu

Stuffed

mozzarella, ricotta sheep's milk, Napoli salami, extra virgin olive oil

Stuffed filling

milk cream, cooked ham, champignon mushrooms, extra virgin olive oil

Stuffed with escarole

escarole, capers from Pantelleria, anchovies of Cetara, black olives, extra virgin olive oil

Pizza margherita

San Marzano tomato, milk cream, basil, extra virgin olive oil

Margherita with buffalo

San Marzano tomato, mozzarella cheese buffalo mozzarella DOP, basil, extra virgin olive oil

White with raw ham

milk cream, Parma ham, extra virgin olive oil

Neapolitan

San Marzano tomato, extra virgin olive oil, garlic, oregano

Capricious

San Marzano tomato, milk cream, cooked ham, champignon mushrooms, black olives, extra virgin olive oil

4 seasons

San Marzano tomato, milk cream, cooked ham, champignon mushrooms, black olives, extra virgin olive oil

Ortolana

milk cream , peppers, aubergines, courgettes, potatoes, extra virgin olive oil

Devil

San Marzano tomato, milk cream, Napoli salami, chilli, extra virgin olive oil

Mushrooms

San Marzano tomato, milk cream, champignon mushrooms, extra virgin olive oil

Würstel and chips

milk cream, w ü rstel, french fries *, extra virgin olive oil

White rocket and cherry tomatoes

milk cream , rocket, cherry tomatoes, extra virgin olive oil

Salami

San Marzano tomato, milk cream, Napoli salami, extra virgin olive oil

White with cooked ham

milk cream, cooked ham, extra virgin olive oil

Broccoli and sausage

milk cream, broccoli, sausage, extra virgin olive oil

White potatoes and cooked

milk cream, potatoes, cooked ham, extra virgin olive oil

White potatoes and bacon

milk cream, potatoes, bacon, Parmesan Cheese, extra virgin olive oil

White potatoes and sausage

milk cream, potatoes, sausage, extra virgin olive oil

Four cheeses

fior di latte, parmesan cheese, emmenthal, gorgonzola, extra virgin olive oil

White cooked cream and corn

milk cream, baked ham, cream, corn, extra virgin olive oil

Marinara

San Marzano tomato, Pantelleria capers, anchovies of Cetara, black olives, oregano, extra virgin olive oil

Bianca

milk cream, basil, extra virgin olive oil

Baked ham

San Marzano tomato, milk cream, cooked ham, extra virgin olive oil

Ham and mushrooms

San Marzano tomato, milk cream, cooked ham, champignon mushrooms, extra virgin olive oil

Pizzone Margherita

San Marzano tomato, milk cream, basil, extra virgin olive oil

Pizzone various flavors

Marco

mozzarella cheese buffalo mozzarella DOP, cherry tomatoes, asparagus, Parmesan Cheese, flakes of Grana Padano, extra virgin olive oil

Europe

San Marzano tomato, mozzarella cheese buffalo mozzarella DOP, cherry tomatoes, Parmesan Cheese, basil, extra virgin olive oil

Pizza with escarole

milk cream, escarole, capers from Pantelleria, anchovies of Cetara, black olives, extra virgin olive oil

Sicilian

San Marzano tomato, milk cream, Eggplant A Mushroom, Parmesan Cheese, basil, extra virgin olive oil

Potatoes and porcini mushrooms

milk cream, potatoes, porcini mushrooms *, Parmesan Cheese, extra virgin olive oil

Binge

San Marzano tomato, mozzarella, ricotta sheep's milk, cooked ham, Napoli salami, champignon mushrooms, black olives, extra virgin olive oil

Pizza of the Gods

half pizza: San Marzano tomato, milk cream, salami Napoli, emmenthal, Parmesan Cheese, extra virgin olive oil

half calzone: milk cream, cooked ham, champignon mushrooms, extra virgin olive oil

White with pesto

mozzarella, pesto (basil, Pine nuts, pecorino cheese, garlic), Parmesan Cheese, extra virgin olive oil

Gorgeous

milk cream, cooked rocket, cooked ham, Parmesan Cheese, extra virgin olive oil

Roman

San Marzano tomato, mozzarella, anchovies of Cetara, oregano, extra virgin olive oil

Tartar

San Marzano tomato, Parma ham cut into chunks, Parmesan Cheese, pepper, extra virgin olive oil

White ricotta and cooked

mozzarella, ricotta sheep's milk, cooked ham, extra virgin olive oil

Lasagna

San Marzano tomato, mozzarella, ricotta sheep's milk, Napoli salami, extra virgin olive oil

Cheese and pepper

mozzarella cheese DOP buffalo buffalo from Campania, pecorino cheese Roman, Parmesan Cheese, extra virgin olive oil

milk cream, beads of mozzarella cheese buffalo mozzarella DOP, extra virgin olive oil

Tonia

provolone DOP buffalo buffalo from Campania, milk cream, pumpkin flower, Parmesan Cheese, diced bacon, pepper, extra virgin olive oil

Pizza with Nutella

Nutella (sugar, cocoa, hazelnuts, milk, lecithin, vanillin) grains of hazelnuts, powdered sugar

Ambrosia

Nutella (sugar, cocoa, hazelnuts, milk, lecithin, vanillin), powdered sugar

Pizza of the day

ingredients selected by the pizza chef every week


Index

The Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) "Pomodoro San Marzano agro sarnese-nocerino" is reserved for tomatoes that meet the conditions and requirements established by the rules of the Production and Processing Regulations of the Protected Designation of Origin "Pomodoro San Marzano dell ' agro sarnese-nocerino ".

The protected designation of origin (PDO) "Pomodoro San Marzano from the Sarnese-Nocerino area", without any other qualification, is reserved for peeled tomatoes obtained from plants of the San Marzano ecotype.

This quality of tomatoes is also called "Red Gold of Campania".

According to some theories, the first San Marzano tomato seed arrived in Campania in 1770, as a gift from the viceroy of Peru to the king of Naples. It was planted in the area corresponding to the current municipality of San Marzano sul Sarno, where it took root thanks to the fertility of the volcanic soil.

In the United States of America, San Marzano is considered the genetic basis for another type of crop, the tomato variety "Roma" [3] (in turn considered a hybrid [4]).

The industrial transformation process of the San Marzano tomato began around 1926.

The original "San Marzano" cultivation was destroyed by a virus, and therefore officially canceled from the variety catalog in 1991.

The varieties currently admitted for agricultural production by the DOP production specification, which retain part of the genetic heritage of the original variety, are the KIROS (formerly "Selezione Cirio 3"), the "San Marzano 2" and the ecotypes related to this type. including the "20 SMEC 3", obtained from the selection work within a project funded by the Campania Region and entrusted in the period 1995-1997 to the Consortium for Applied Research in Agriculture (CRAA).

KIROS represents the cultivar reference point for the production of San Marzano, in fact covering almost all agricultural production.

Lines obtained as a result of genetic improvement of the San Marzano ecotype can contribute to the production of this tomato as long as both the improvement and the cultivation take place within the territory as defined in article 3 and have characteristics that comply with the standard described. in article 5 of the same disciplinary document.

Article 3 of the specification indicates that the tomato obtained from the San Marzano ecotype or from improved lines, to take advantage of the protected designation of origin (PDO) "Pomodoro San Marzano from the agro sarnese-nocerino" must be produced by farms and processed from industrial companies both falling within the territorial areas defined as follows:

  • The area is included in the northern area of ​​the province of Salerno, with offshoots in the Vesuviano and Avellinese. All the municipalities are included in the Agro Nocerino Sarnese and neighboring areas and are interested, for the part of the plain and as a utilization, in the irrigated or irrigated arable land. The hilly or low-relief part is naturally excluded, as it is not irrigated.

The San Marzano tomato is produced in the part of the Agro Nocerino Sarnese that extends into the Sarno plain which is covered for the most part by pyroclastic material of volcanic origin.

The soils of Agro Nocerino Sarnese are very deep, soft, with a good amount of organic substance and a high quantity of assimilable phosphorus and exchangeable potassium. The hydrology of the territory is very rich due to the presence of numerous springs and abundant water tables at different depths. Water for irrigation is generally derived from wells that are fed directly from the water table.

Regarding the climate, Agro Nocerino Sarnese is affected by the beneficial influence of the sea. The thermal excursions are not noticeable and if the thermometer falls below zero, the hail does not remain there for long. It is quite rare. The prevailing winds are the Maestro from the north and the Sirocco from the south. The rains are abundant in autumn, winter and scarce or almost nil spring in summer. Although the rains are lacking in the summer months, the relative humidity of the air remains quite high, the transplant is usually carried out in the first fortnight of April, but it can last until the first ten days of May.

According to the law, the fruit must be harvested exclusively by hand, in a gradual manner, when they reach complete ripeness, and takes place in several stages.

The harvested fruits must be arranged and transported in plastic containers, whose capacity is about 25 kg. For transport to the processing industry, the berries arriving at the company and / or collective collection center can subsequently be transferred into individually identified crates that do not exceed 2.5 quintals.

Adversity Edit

Like others cultivar of tomatoes destined for industrial processing and the canning industry, the production of San Marzano has undergone a serious crisis over time, with drastic drops in production from the 1980s to the 2000s [5], due to the attack on crops by of different viruses. The most dangerous of them is associated with the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-Cucumber mosaic virus), which does not even allow its cultivation on a large scale due to the too high risk of crop damage, with losses that can reach an incidence of up to 100% of agricultural production [6]. Another threat is the spotted wilt virus (TSWV-Tomato spotted wilt virus), or Tospovirus, and the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV-Cauliflower mosaic virus) [5] [6] .


Video: How to Grow San Marzano Tomatoes


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