ke.gardens-tricks.com
Collections

Temperature trend from 10,000 to 1,000 BC

Temperature trend from 10,000 to 1,000 BC


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


To offer you the best possible service, this site uses cookies. To learn more, read our information.
By continuing to browse, clicking on ok or scrolling the page, you consent to the use of all cookies.

OkInformation on cookies


Facebook

Extraordinary promises of God, Jesus Christ, Mary the Madonna and Saint Joseph

CROWN TO THE MOTHER OF GOD, COREDENTRESS OF THE WORLD
(To free 50,000 souls from Purgatory)

... My Son wants humanity not only to recognize ME as the MOTHER OF GOD who is the greatest honor, but also Co-redemptrix in the world.
Invoke me as much as you can in your prayers - CORREDENTRICE - and I will bestow on you many graces that are necessary for your own and for the liberation of others.

I HAVE MADE A GREAT PROMISE TO THE WORLD

There is little time and in Purgatory there are many poor souls ... They must be saved.
If a man prays with pity and with an open heart this short prayer, this insistent ejaculation: "Mother of God, Co-redemptrix of the world, Pray for us" frees every time it is recited, a thousand Souls from Purgatory. You can say this prayer anywhere - on foot or by car, in church, at home, on the street - anywhere.

- 1 Glory to the Father
- 1 Our Father
- 10 "Mother of God, Co-redemptrix of the world, Pray for us"
- 1 Hello Queen

N.B. Use a Holy Rosary crown
(A.D. 5 August 2001 - Birthday of Our Lady)

Extract from the 41st message of the MOTHER OF GOD, revealed on February 12, 1998 in Fulda (Germany) to the visionary Anna, who leads a hidden life.

… In all Holy Masses, together with my beloved Son, I pray for you, I offer myself for you. This is why my Son wants humanity not only to recognize me as MORE DI GOD, which is the greatest honor, but also as CORREDENTRESS of the world. And that's my very venerable middle name. One day the Pope will proclaim this dogma throughout the world, namely that MARY the Mother of GOD is also COREDENTRICE of the world. Invoke me as much as you can in your prayers - CORREDENTRICE - and I will bestow on you many graces that are necessary for your and the other's liberation.

… My children, at my feast, on December 8 (1997 during the feast of the Immaculate Conception of the Most Holy Virgin Mary, the world day of grace, her statue that cried tears of blood in procession to the sanctuary was transported to Ohlau. On that day 3 Hosts bled) I made a great promise to the world. There is little time and in purgatory there are many poor souls, even souls who have been suffering from ancient times - from the time of paganism. We must save them. Christians can save them through prayer, the rosary, especially the Holy Mass and through the Via Crucis. But now God has granted me immense grace, that is, if a man prays with pity and an open heart this short prayer:

MOTHER OF GOD, COREDENTRESS OF THE WORLD
PRAY FOR US
My Son frees 1000 souls from purgatory. This short prayer, this insistent ejaculation frees, every time it is recited, from purgatory a thousand souls who reach eternal joy, eternal light. Use this great grace to be able to help the souls who will compensate you with continuous prayers and will support you in this often difficult and troubled earthly life. They will urge you so much, they will be infinitely grateful to you, and you take advantage of this gratitude, beg their help. You can invoke the poor souls in purgatory, the souls already blessed and your patrons for your requests. The souls in purgatory help a lot.

My children, thank God for this grace, because not even you will go directly to Heaven, YOU too WILL ONE DAY REPAY God in purgatory for your shortcomings and so you too will one day wait for the prayers that rise from the earth. So don't waste your time. You can say this prayer anywhere - on foot or by car, to church, home, on the street - anywhere. This prayers are always accepted to free poor souls. I bless you in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit - Amen


This prayer was dictated by a soul in purgatory to the Montfortian seer Maria Simma of Sontag after receiving the charism in favor of the Souls in Purgatory. If recited with faith, it has the power to save many souls from eternal pains that every day, due to their condition of sin at the moment of passing away, are in the balance between hell and purgatory.

TO THOSE WHO RECIT IT MORNING AND EVENING AND UNDERTAKE TO MAKE IT KNOWN, THANKS ARE RESERVED WITHOUT NUMBER, EVEN WITHOUT ASKING FOR IT (You have a Father who knows well what you need, Lk. 12:30)
A sure way to make it known is to photocopy this PDF leaflet and have it found in churches, Christian communities, meeting places for prayer groups, etc. and to distribute it to family members and people of Christian faith, asking them to do so in turn. Abundant graces will also be reserved for those who do this.

PRAYER IN FAVOR OF THE DYING
FOR THE SALVATION OF THEIR SOULS


O Most Merciful Jesus, who burns with such an ardent love for souls, I adjure You, for the agony of Your Most Holy Heart and for the pains of Your Immaculate Mother, to purify with Your Blood all the sinners of the earth who are in agony and who must die today.
Agonizing Heart of Jesus, have mercy on the dying.
(3 Ave Maria)

Extraordinary promises of God, Jesus Christ, Mary the Madonna and Saint Joseph

Rosary of the Holy Plagues of our Lord Jesus Christ

It is recited using a common crown of the Holy Rosary and begins with the following prayers:

In the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Amen

O God, come and save me. O Lord, make haste to help me.

GLORY TO THE FATHER, I BELIEVE
I believe in God the almighty Father, creator of heaven and earth and in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord, who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died and was buried descended into hell on the third day rose from the dead went up to heaven, sits at the right hand of God the Father almighty from there to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, life everlasting. Amen.

1. O Jesus, divine Redeemer, have mercy on us and on the whole world. Amen.

2. Holy God, strong God, immortal God, have mercy on us and on the whole world. Amen.

3. O Jesus, through Your most precious Blood, grant us grace and mercy in the present dangers. Amen.

4. O Eternal Father, by the Blood of Jesus Christ, Your only Son, we implore you to show us mercy. Amen. Amen. Amen.

On the GRAINS of OUR FATHER we pray: Eternal Father, I offer You the Wounds of our Lord Jesus Christ.
To heal those of our souls.

On the GRAINS of the AVE MARIA please:
My Jesus, forgiveness and mercy.
For the merits of Your holy wounds.

After the recitation of the Crown is repeated three times:
“Eternal Father, I offer You the Wounds of Our Lord Jesus Christ. To heal those of our souls ".

(With Ecclesiastical Approval)

Litany in honor of the Holy Passion of Christ
1) Lord, have mercy Lord, have mercy
2) Christ, have mercy Christ, have mercy
3) Lord, have mercy Lord, have mercy
4) Christ, hear us Christ, hear us
5) Christ, hear us Christ, hear us
6) God the Father, Creator of the world, have mercy on us
7) God the Son, Redeemer of the world, have mercy on us
8) God the Holy Spirit, Love of the Father and of the Son, have mercy on us
9) Holy Trinity, one God, have mercy on us
11) O Mary of Sorrows at the foot of the cross, pray for us
12) Jesus, King of glory, you are making your entry into Jerusalem
to bring the work of our redemption to completion, have mercy on us
13) Jesus, prostrate before the Father in the garden of olives e
oppressed by the crimes of the whole world, have mercy on us
14) Jesus, seized with fear, oppressed by sadness, reduced to agony,
covered in a sweat of blood and abandoned by all have mercy on us
15) Jesus, betrayed by one of your closest neighbors and sold to
vile price like a slave have mercy on us
16) Jesus, bound, beaten, outraged dragged in front
to Anna and Caiaphas, treatise of the wicked and blasphemer, have mercy on us
17) Jesus, led before Pilate accused of being a
agitator a dangerous rebel have mercy on us
18) Jesus, appeared before Herod treated as a
mad and clad in derision with a royal purple robe, have mercy on us
19) Jesus, appeared before Herod treated as a
mad and clad in derision with a royal purple robe, have mercy on us
20) Jesus, crowned with thorns, covered in a purple mantle, outraged and mocked in various ways, finally exposed to the gaze of a whole people, have mercy on us
21) Jesus, confronted with a seditious criminal who was preferred to you, have mercy on us
22) Jesus, condemned by Pilate and abandoned to the anger of your enemies, have mercy on us
23) Jesus, exhausted by suffering and on his way to Calvary laden with the burden of the cross, have mercy on us 24) Jesus, stripped of your garments, stretched out on the ground and stretched on the wood of the cross, have mercy on us
25) Jesus, mercilessly nailed to the wood of infamy and placed in the rank of the greatest sinners, have mercy on us
26) Jesus, full of sweetness for those who want to drink wine mixed with gall, have mercy on us
27) Jesus, you pray to the Father and ask forgiveness for yours
persecutors and your executioners have mercy on us
28) Jesus, who shows yourself obedient to the Father until death and in his hands you put your spirit, have mercy on us
29) Jesus, who bow your head and breathe out of the ardor of your love for us, have mercy on us
30) Jesus, who died for us and who allows your Heart to be opened by the blow of the spear to better show us your mercy always offered, have mercy on us

Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world. Forgive us, Lord.
Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world. Hear us, Lord.
Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world. Have mercy on us.

We adore you, O Christ, and we bless you, because with your holy cross you have redeemed the world

Let's pray
O Jesus, who redeemed us by dying for love on the cross, apply to us the merits of yours
holy passion and of your death, and grant that for these merits we can obtain the extraordinary grace that we solicit from your mercy: (name it here).
We warmly pray to you, asking you to also take into consideration the pain and prayers of your holy Mother at the foot of the cross. Amen.

PROMISES of our Lord transmitted to the Servant of God Sister Maria Marta Chambon:

1- "I will accord everything that is asked of Me with the invocation of My holy wounds. Devotion must be spread. ”.
2- "In truth this prayer is not of the earth, but of the sky ... and it can obtain everything".
3- “My holy wounds sustain the world… ask me to love them constantly, because they are the source of all grace. It is necessary to invoke them often, to attract your neighbor and to impress their devotion in souls ”.
4- "When you have pains to suffer bring them promptly into My Wounds, and they will be softened".
5- "It is necessary to often repeat close to the sick: 'My Jesus, forgiveness, etc.' This prayer will lift the soul and the body".
6- "And the sinner who will say: 'Eternal Father, I offer you the wounds, etc ...' will get the conversion". “My Wounds will mend yours”.
7- "There will be no death for the soul that will expire in My Wounds. They give real life ”.
8- "With every word you pronounce from the Crown of Mercy, I let a drop of My Blood fall on the soul of a sinner".
9- "The soul that will have honored My holy wounds and will have offered them to the Eternal Father for the souls in Purgatory, will be accompanied in death by the Blessed Virgin and by the Angels and I, resplendent with glory, will receive her to crown her".
10- "The holy wounds are the Treasure of the treasures for the souls in Purgatory".
11- "Devotion to My Wounds is the remedy for this time of iniquity".
12- “From My Wounds the fruits of Holiness come out. Meditating on them you will always find new food of love ”.
13- "My daughter, if you immerse your actions in My holy wounds they will acquire value, your minimal actions covered with My Blood will satisfy My Heart".


Coronavirus, the latest news from Italy and the world

By Greta Sclaunich, Silvia Morosi and Paolo Foschi

During the night, the President of the Republic signed the "Cura Italia" dl, which was published in an extraordinary edition of the Official Gazette, distributed during the night (here the PDF of the text and here the measures explained in detail), to cope with the 'emergency. The numbers of the contagion in Italy continue to rise: in all, from the beginning of the epidemic 35713 people have contracted the Sars-CoV-2 virus and the victims are 2.978, 475 more than the day before (here the latest report released Tuesday from the Civil Protection). The government considers banning outdoor sports (here the new rules). On the international front, the latest report released by the WHO speaks of over 200,000 cases and eight thousand deaths around the world (here the map with the global trend).

Here the live news on the progress of the stock exchanges by the editorial staff of Corriere Economia.

To know more:

5.22 am - Dramatic session on the stock exchange in Seoul, Hong Kong bad
The Seoul Stock Exchange sinks on fears of the pandemic of the new coronavirus: the Kospi collapses by 9.22%, to 1,444.52 points. Trading was suspended in the late morning due to the excess of the decline, already over 7%. In deep red also Hojg Kong: -4%.

4.34 am - The Tokyo Stock Exchange goes red, badly Shanghai
After the sprint start, the Nikkei index of the Japan Stock Exchange turned negative. The Shanghai Stock Exchange is bad (-3% after the first trading phase).

4.32 am - USA, first case of contagion in Congress
Florida Republican Congressman Mario Diaz-Balart announced he tested positive for the coronavirus. He is the first member of the US Congress to be positive. The test was carried out after the deputy developed symptoms of the virus in recent days, namely high fever and headache. Diaz-Balart is now in quarantine.

2.30 am - No new internal contagion in China
For the first time since the spread of the coronavirus, China has not registered any cases of "domestic" contagion. On the other hand, 34 cases of positivity arrived from outside, the largest daily increase in the last two weeks. This was announced by the National Health Commission. According to Commission data, the positive cases arrived from abroad have thus reached 189. The data however show that the pandemic is under control in Wuhan, where the virus appeared in December, and in the province of Hubei . In the last 24 hours, 8 deaths have been recorded - all in Hubei - bringing the death toll to 3,245. There have been a total of 81,000 cases of infection in China, but only 7,263 are still sick with coronavirus.

1.44 am - Tokyo stock exchange opens higher, even oil
The first reactions of the markets to the announcement of the ECB were positive. The Tokyo Stock Exchange opened with the Nikkei index up 2.45%, while crude oil futures jumped 17.4% to $ 29.34 a barrel.

1.07 am - Argentina: Italian does not respect the quarantine, expelled
An Italian citizen was arrested in Buenos Aires for breaking the mandatory quarantine protocol for people from countries considered at risk of coronavirus infection. The man, residing in Piombino, had arrived in Argentina on 14 March with an Alitalia flight. He would have broken the quarantine on several occasions over the past three days. The immediate expulsion process has been activated. The news was released by the Nova agency.

0.55 am - Conte's satisfaction with the turnaround in Frankfurt
"Europe strikes a shot! Loud, resounding, adequate to the severity of the health emergency we are facing and the resulting economic shock. Well the ECB ": this is how Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte commented on the announcement of the ECB on the new quantitative easing ..

11.58 pm - The ECB launches Qe of 750 billion for the pandemic emergency
The ECB launches a new € 750 billion quantitative easing, with purchases of public and private sector securities. This was announced by the ECB after the emergency board of directors held via conference call. The program will continue throughout 2020.

11.51 pm - Brazil, the President of the Senate Davi Alcolumbre is positive
Alcolumbre himself announced it on Twitter. After a first negative test he was positive for the second swab. "I'm fine, I have no serious symptoms and I'm in isolation," he said.

11.34 pm - Qantas suspends all international flights
The Australian company has suspended all international flights from the end of March. At risk of dismissal there are 20,000 employees out of a total of 30,000.

11.10 pm - Emilia-Romagna, stop for bikes and walks
New squeeze of Emilia-Romagna on places of potential aggregation. With an order issued in the evening, the Region orders the closure of parks and public gardens, a measure already taken by several mayors.Furthermore, the use of bicycles and walking are only permitted for work, health reasons or necessities such as food purchases. And for motor activities such as walks or outings with pets, "you are obliged to stay close to your home".

22.40 - Gori: "Lombardy stops the hospital at the Bergamo Fair"
With a post on Facebook, the mayor of Bergamo, Giorgio Gori, makes it known that the Lombardy Region says no to the field hospital that should have been built at the Bergamo Fair. "A cold shower", writes Gori, after "the green light arrived only yesterday". The director of the Civil Protection of the Lombardy Region, he says, "asks to suspend the installation of the structure" which can be resumed when the necessary medical personnel are available ". But how? »Asks Gori.

22.25 - FCA suspends production in North America
FCA suspends production in North America due to coronavirus. General Motors and Ford, the other two American car manufacturers, have also decided to stop North American production.

22.02 - Positive Nicola Caputo, advisor to President De Luca
The former MEP of the Democratic Party Nicola Caputo, today advisor to the President of the Campania Region Vincenzo De Luca, tested positive. Caputo himself announced it on Facebook, adding that his condition is good.

21.35 - Positive Capitol employee: office closed
An employee of the Rome Capital Accounting Office tested positive. Although she was absent from work since March 6 for health reasons, the office where she is employed and the adjoining rooms were immediately closed to proceed with the disinfection.

21.24 - Positive Italian boys stuck in Dublin
A group of Italian boys who had taken a course for Ryanair flight attendants find themselves stuck in Dublin after 15 out of 17 of them tested positive. Now, they are in solitary confinement in a facility made available by the Irish authorities, in quarantine until 26 March.

21.21 - Wall Street closes sinks
Wall Street closes sharply: the Dow Jones drops 6.28% to 19,903.64 points, the Nasdaq drops 4.70% to 6,989.84 points and the S&P 500 drops 4.86% to 2,406.17 points . Meanwhile, the New York Stock Exchange has announced that it will temporarily close the floor on Monday and all trading will be electronic, as a precaution against the virus.

20.52 - 500,000 tests brought to the US from Italy
Over 500,000 swabs to carry out coronavirus tests were transported from Italy to the United States on a US Air Force plane that departed from Aviano. This was announced by the leaders of the Pentagon. The aircraft carrying half a million kits - General David Goldfein, number one of the US Air Force, quoted among others by Fox News, explained to reporters - landed on Monday in Memphis, Tennessee. The tests, he added, will now be distributed in various parts of the US.

8.40 pm - Gori to the mayors who welcome the coffins: "Thank you"
"In a tragic moment, your collaboration and closeness is commendable". This concludes the letter with which the mayor of Bergamo Giorgio Gori thanked the mayors of the cities of Acqui Terme, Brescia, Cervignano del Friuli, Domodossola, Modena, Parma, Piacenza, Rimini, Serravalle Scrivia, Trecate and Varese who agreed to to cremate in their ovens about sixty coffins that the structure was unable to manage. In the meantime, given the critical situation in Bergamo, a fundraiser was launched to help families affected by the emergency (see more here).

8.18 pm - Football Federation: "Cutting the salaries is not a tabщ"
"Cutting the salaries of players is not a tabщ": this is clearly stated by the president of the Football Federation, Gabriele Gravina, who recalls that the world of football is called "to a gesture of great responsibility by giving content to that container called solidarity". The economic burden of the coronavirus emergency on the football coffers is huge. The forced stop risks costing the A series alone a figure that is around 700 million euros - between TV rights and collections - and the clubs are studying how to contain the losses.

20.10 - The Army brings the coffins from Bergamo outside the region
Army vehicles are bringing a certain number of coffins, about sixty, from the Bergamo cemetery to crematory ovens in other regions where there are municipalities that have made themselves available to accept them.

19.50 - Iss: «Tampons? Tested in Pavia 60-70% false negatives "
The president of the Higher Institute of Health Silvio Brusaferro warns of false negatives that can emerge from swabs. «In a study in Pavia, the results were higher than 60-70%: positive people who tested negative, at least in that specific case. It is an example of the fact that the test can be used when you have data that the majority of positives are positive and the majority of negatives are negative ”.

19.23 - From Codogno to Palermo, reported
A patrol of the Municipal Police stopped a fifty-year-old man who returned from Codogno on 9 March in Palermo, in the Viale Strasburgo area. The man should have been in fiduciary isolation. This was announced by the municipal police.

19.20 - Wall Street thud, Dj-10.19%, Nasdaq -8.30%
Wall Street collapses. The Dow Jones loses 10.19% to 19,088.90 points, the Nasdaq drops 8.30% to 6,726.09 points while the S&P 500 leaves 9.19% on the ground at 2,296.42 points.

7.14 pm - Iss: not fast growth in the Central-Southern regions
"In the regions of the Center-South there is growth but it is not fast, but it must not create false illusions because only if we all behave in a certain way and avoid close contacts and keep the rules of isolation" then we can slow down the epidemic curve. This was stated by Silvio Brusaferro, president of the Higher Institute of Health, during the press conference at the Civil Protection on the coronavirus emergency.

19.12 - On May 3 possible Serie A
Paralyzed by the coronavirus, Italian football thinks about how to start again, amidst so many scenarios and uncertainties. «I believe that Serie A can resume on May 3rd, at least this is what we hope. We will then evaluate whether with doors open or closed, it will depend on the situation ”, said the minister of sport, Vincenzo Spadafora.

18.58 - WHO to Trump: "The virus has no borders"
The World Health Organization (WHO) has criticized the use of expressions such as "Chinese virus" to refer to the current Covid-19 pandemic, often used by US President Donald Trump. "We have made it clear from the beginning that this virus has no borders, it does not take into account the color of our skin or how much money we have in the bank, and it is important to be careful with language," warned the executive director for health emergencies. Mike Ryan.

18.34 - Iss: "0.8% of the dead had no pathologies"
The deceased with coronavirus are on average 80 years old, especially men, women only 30%, the age difference between those who die and those who are hospitalized are almost 15 years. The peaks are between 70 and 79 years and above all 80-89 years ». Thus the ISS president, Silvio Brusaferro. "Another element are various diseases that are often common associated with causing a lethal outcome - he adds -. Such as stroke, diabetes, cancer, hypertension. Only 0.8% of the dead do not have some pathology. Among the youngest, the deaths of the under 50s, we find people already suffering from some pathologies ».

18.25 - Gallera: "In Milan +318 cases, we need responsibility"
In the metropolitan city of Milan there are "2,644 positive cases for coronavirus, with a significant growth of 318". This was stated by the Lombard councilor for Welfare, Giulio Gallera, speaking of the coronavirus emergency. «It is a fact that must lead all Milanese to greater responsibility. The mound of Milan today was full of citizens who rode their bicycles and ran, that's not good ”. In the city of Milan, the thousand infections from Coronavirus have been exceeded, reports the note from the Lombardy Region: there are 1,091, up 127 new positives compared to yesterday.

17.52 - Trump: "President in times of war"
In the press conference at the White House on the coronavirus emergency, Donald Trump compared himself to a president "in times of war". "We are fighting against an invisible enemy and we will win," he said, after evoking the possibility of resorting to a wartime law with Korea such as the Defense production act.

5.50 pm - Georgina Rodriguez: "Distant but always united"
“In difficult moments you have to have faith and look for the positive side of things. It is a good time to reflect and value what we have. The importance of small things and being with the family ". Georgina Rodriguez, companion of Juventus champion Cristiano Ronaldo, writes it on Instagram, with whom she has been in Madeira, Portugal since last week. «Health is the most important thing, we are fine - he adds -. Courage to all those struggling with the virus, we send you our best wishes for recovery. Distant but always united ».

5.45 pm - Gualtieri: the 600 euros for the self-employed are only for March
The 600 euros for the self-employed "are not a one-off", "they are for March, then there will be an intervention in April, commensurate with the situation of individuals". This was stated by the Minister of Economy, Roberto Gualtieri, to La Vita live on Raiuno. The idea, he explained, is to "reparametrate" it to losses or income. Now, due to the need to act quickly, this was not possible, he pointed out.

5.41 pm- WHO: "Africa must wake up"
"Our best advice to Africa is to prepare for the worst." This was stated by WHO director general, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, in his briefing on Covid-19. "My continent must wake up, we have seen what happened in other countries and continents," he said, calling on all African countries to immediately cancel mass gatherings.

5.40 pm - 450 deaths in Brescia, 22 today
Cases of Coronavirus positivity continue to increase in the province of Brescia. 15% of the total deaths are resident in the Brescia area. To date, there are 3486 cases of contagion and 450 have died, of which 22 only today. The capital remains the most affected with 607 cases and 78 deaths while the country with the most positive is always Orzinuovi with 148 cases and 28 deaths.

5.32 pm - Carrefour reduces hours (and rewards employees)
Carrefour Italia announces that it has decided to reduce the opening hours of all hypermarkets, supermarkets and direct proximity shops, from 8.30 to 19 during the week, and to limit Sunday opening from 8.30 to 15.00 from March 19 to March 29 . "In this way - reads a note - we will continue to guarantee both the possibility of accessing our stores in time slots that meet the needs of citizens, and the need to protect the rest needs of our collaborators engaged in an extraordinary effort," to which an economic prize will be paid in the next few days in recognition of their precious contribution ».

17.29 - Suspicious absences in hospital, Cardarelli denies
The news of the "249 imaginary sick doctors" at the Naples Cardarelli hospital, the largest in the South, "finds no basis in the documents promptly verified" by the administrative management of the hospital. It is the same hospital company to give the news after the denunciation of the governor De Luca. «The numbers, certified and verifiable, refer to a staff of 739 doctors of which 276 are employed in the DEA Emergency Department. Of the 739 doctors committed to fighting the emergency linked to the coronavirus and all other pathologies, 33 doctors are absent due to illness - the company continues - of these 17 work in the DEA Emergency Department and another 16 are assigned to other departments welfare. It should also be noted that of the 33 doctors currently on sick leave, 4 have been suffering from serious diseases for years and 4 have been confirmed Covid positive ". "In order to protect the image of the hospital, the employees (doctors and others) who are at work with dedication and courage, the strategic management reserves the right to act in the appropriate offices against anyone who disseminates unverified news and does not correspond to the truth" , concludes the direction of Cardarelli.

17.20 - Trump suspends all evictions
The US President, Donald Trump, has ordered the suspension of all evictions and foreclosures on home loans, as part of the special measures for the coronavirus emergency.

5.15 pm - Experts and medical materials from China at Malpensa
"The plane carrying the second team of Chinese experts and medical materials on board" departed from China "has just landed at Malpensa airport". This was announced in a tweet from the Chinese embassy in Rome with the usual hashtag `# ForzaCinaeItaliaґ. The embassy also released images of the arrival of the China Eastern Airlines plane.

17.04 - Spain, 37-year-old agent dies without pathologies
A 37-year-old Spanish Civil Guard agent with no previous pathologies died after contracting the new coronavirus. Before contracting the disease, he served normally.

16.51 - Spain closes the hotels: "Tourists go away"
The Spanish authorities have ordered the closure of all hotels in the country by next Tuesday 24 March as part of the coronavirus emergency, inviting tourists to leave the country. The British edition of Metro writes it. Conversion of some hotels into temporary hospitals is also under consideration.

4.46 pm - Cuomo: "We are at war, hospital ship arrives"
A 1,000-bed hospital ship in New York Harbor to deal with the expected coronavirus emergency. "This is a war," says the governor of the state of New York, Andrew Cuomo, who quotes - translating it - the Italian saying "when there is health there is everything".

16.39 - First victim in Cuba: he is an infected Italian
First death from Coronavirus in Cuba: he is a 61-year-old Italian citizen. He is one of the Italian tourists admitted to the Pedro Kouri Institute of Tropical Medicine in Havana since 10 March. The man's condition, already suffering from bronchial asthma problems, had worsened on the night of 15 March.

16.34 - Bolsonaro: «So many deaths in Italy because so many old people. "
«Italy is a city. a country full of old people, in every building there are at least one couple, like in Copacabana, for this reason there are so many deaths. ". So the Brazilian president Bolsonaro, speaking with journalists who were pressing him on the spread of the coronavirus and on the contrast measures implemented by the government.

16.31 - Albania, curfew imposed
A "curfew" imposed in Albania by the coronavirus. Albanian Prime Minister Edi Rama announced today that circulation will be allowed only in two time slots, in the morning from 06.00 to 10.00 and in the late afternoon from 16.00 to 18.00. Furthermore, from tomorrow it will be forbidden to walk in groups or with other people alongside. A fine of about 80 euros will be imposed on those who do not respect the traffic ban. In Albania, 59 cases of coronavirus have been recorded so far. Two victims, one of which today, a 66-year-old man with previous pathologies. On the other hand, 30 people are hospitalized, three of them in intensive care.

16.24 - The identikit of the ISS: less than half of the dead women
Among the deaths from Covid-19, women are less than half of men (601 and 1402) and their age is higher than that of men (83.7 and 79.5). There are 17 deaths under the age of 50, of which 5 were under 40 and were all male, between 31 and 39 years of age, with serious pre-existing diseases. И what emerges from the Report of the Higher Institute of Health (Iss) on the characteristics of Covid-19 positive deceased patients based on data updated to 17 March.

16.20 - Casellati: "Rooms work without forcing"
"Finding ourselves in a serious emergency such as that of the Coronavirus, we need to continue the legislative activity without any forcing, or rather limitation, of our parliamentary prerogatives and also taking into account the government measures that safeguard the health and safety of all citizens ". This was said by the President of the Senate Elisabetta Alberti Casellati.

4.15 pm - Interior Ministry: "Over 1.5 million checks in a week" Over one and a half million checks ordered by the Interior Ministry and carried out in a week by the police on the containment measures of the coronavirus. In particular, there are 1,025,655 people and 527,014 commercial establishments controlled from 11 to 17 March. On the other hand, there are almost 46,000 (45,994) complaints: 43,595 for having violated the travel ban and 926 for false declarations.

04.04 - Inquiry on Cardarelli's 249 sick employees
"It is something very serious to the point that the Public Prosecutor has opened an investigation: I sent a written question to the President of Campania De Luca to find out the number of members of the health personnel of the Campania hospitals on sick leave and to find out which measures are intended to be taken against false certificates ". Thus, in a note, the regional councilor of Campania Francesco Emilio Borrelli.

4 pm - Count-Ministers Summit at Palazzo Chigi
Prime Minister Conte has convened a meeting on the emergency with the head of delegation Pd Dario Franceschini, the head of delegation of Iv Teresa Bellanova, with the Minister of Economy Roberto Gualtieri and with the head of Foreign Affairs Luigi Di Maio. In video link the deputy Luigi Marattin of Iv and Maria Cecilia Guerra of Leu, the deputy minister at Mef Antonio Misiani. Also present was Undersecretary Fraccaro.

15.50 - Rumors about the London lockdown in days
Lockdown is also coming to London, according to persistent rumors, on the coronavirus emergency front. Sources close to Labor Mayor Sadiq Khan anticipate this, also cited by the Daily Telegraph online, according to which Johnson's British government announcement should arrive over the weekend. According to rumors, the capital of the United Kingdom, where the level of contagion is ahead of other areas of the country, will be subjected to Italian-type measures.

3.46 pm - Tonight King Felipe VI's message to the nation
The king of Spain Felipe VI will speak to the nation, with a television message focused on the crisis generated by the coronavirus. The speech is expected tonight at 9pm, writes El Pais, recalling that in the afternoon the monarch will chair a meeting of the Pandemic Management Committee which includes Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez and the ministers of Defense, Health, Interior and Economic Development.

3.42 pm -Surge of cases in Great Britain: 676 in one day
A surge in cases of new coronavirus contagion in Great Britain: in the last 24 hours the new positives have been 676, bringing the total to 2,626. The increase was 34%. The death numbers have not yet been disclosed. Meanwhile, Neil Ferguson, the epidemiologist who changed Johnson's mind, is in quarantine.

3.18 pm - Honk Kong, electronic bracelet for those arriving from abroad Electronic bracelets are used in Hong Kong to monitor travelers returning from abroad and placed in preventive quarantine, to avoid the risk of contagion. The devices, local authorities said, are designed for people who are placed in solitary confinement for 14 days at home.

3.12 pm - Salvini: "2020 is a fiscal white year"
«2020 is a fiscal white year because we are facing a dramatically extraordinary year. The state cannot knock on the doors of businesses asking for what is not there. More courage is needed ». Thus the leader of the League, Matteo Salvini, live on Facebook.

15.24 - Ryanair: "Stop almost all flights from March 24"
The Irish carrier Ryanair - reads a statement released on Twitter - will suspend almost all its flights starting from 24 March, "except for a very limited number to maintain essential connectivity, in particular between the United Kingdom and Ireland".

3.19 pm - Camera, Conte's communications on the EU go off
The communications of the President of the Council in view of the next European Council, scheduled for 25 March, have been canceled in the Chamber. Communications failed, he explains, "after the cancellation of the European Council of 26-27 March". Instead, the question time with the government on issues related to the coronavirus emergency has been confirmed (also scheduled for March 25, ed).

3.17 pm - UN, 25 million jobs in the world at risk
Some 25 million jobs could be lost around the world as a result of the pandemic. И the alarm launched by the ILO, the UN agency on labor: "Workers could lose up to 3.4 trillion dollars".

3.16 pm - Spallanzani: first patients transferred to "Covid Hospital 3"
«From today the Covid Hospital 3 Casal Palocco is operational with the first 12 places available. At 6 pm the first transfers start. The spoke of the Celio Military Polyclinic is also operational ». This was highlighted by Inmi Spallanzani of Rome in today's bulletin of the Department of Health of the Lazio Region.

15.08 - Germany doubles the beds in intensive care
Germany doubles the intensive care beds equipped with special respirators to cope with the coronavirus emergency. The German health system currently has around 28,000 intensive care beds.

15.04 - Rome, positive 5 month baby in good condition
The child of just 5 months positive for coronavirus and admitted to the Bambino Gesщ Hospital in Rome "is in good condition". This was announced by the Department of Health, explaining that the Infant Jesus "is also available for a further 6 Covid-19 intensive care posts and a further 10 infectious disease posts".

14.55 - Saudi Arabia calls for a "virtual" G20
Saudi Arabia asks to bring together an extraordinary "virtual" G20 on coronavirus. Riyadh, which currently holds the presidency of the G20, is in communication "with the G20 countries to convene an extraordinary summit next week to advance a coordinated response to the Covid-19 pandemic and its economic repercussions".

14.50 - Merkel will not announce new measures on TV
Chancellor Angela Merkel will not announce new restrictive measures against the population in her speech to the nation but will inform German citizens of how the government is proceeding in the coronavirus emergency and how much "everyone must participate in this moment to slow the spread of the virus". The deputy government spokesperson Ulrike Demmer announced this.

14.46 - Trump, stop to non-essential traffic with Canada
“We will temporarily close our northern border with Canada to non-essential traffic by mutual agreement. The trade will not be affected ”: Donald Trump announced it on Twitter, adding that details will follow.

2.45 pm - Wales-Scotland schools close on Friday
Local governments in Scotland and Wales have announced the closure of all schools in the two territories as of the end of this week due to the coronavirus and as an extension of the Easter holidays. Boris Johnson's national government has not so far decreed the same for the whole of the UK.

14.41 - The Eurovision 2020 scheduled for the Netherlands has been canceled
The Eurovision song contest 2020, scheduled in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, from 12 to 17 May, has been canceled. The organizers made it known.

2.40 pm - Towards the closure of the border between Canada and the USA
The closure of the border between Canada and the United States for all non-essential movements will be arranged shortly. This is what several Canadian media reports in anticipation of an expected announcement today by Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau.

14.38 - Gravina, cut engagements in the cast? It is not a tabщ
«Cut wages? In this moment of emergency it is not a tabщ. I think we all have to get around a table. The crisis and the emergency apply to everyone and our world too must have the capacity to be united. We are called to a gesture of great responsibility ”: said the president of the Football Federation, Gabriele Gravina, on Radio 24.

2.36 pm - Pope Francis calls the bishop of Bergamo
«This morning Pope Francis called me on the phone. The Holy Father was very affectionate in showing his paternal closeness to me, to the priests, to the sick, to those who care for them and to our whole community ”. This was explained by the bishop of Bergamo, Monsignor Francesco Beschi. «He wanted to ask for details on the situation Bergamo is experiencing, on which he was very informed. He was very impressed by the suffering for the many deceased and by the detachment that families are forced to live in such a painful way ».

2.35pm - Tiffany closes all stores in the USA and Canada
"Effective immediately, we are temporarily closing all Tiffany stores in the US and Canada as well as many other locations globally to protect our team, customers and the community." This was announced by the famous jewelry house Tiffany who, through a post on Instagram, announces the closure of all stores due to the pandemic due to the Coronavirus.

2.31 pm - First field hospital operational Friday
The first field hospital set up in Italy for the Coronavirus emergency will be operational from Friday. This is the one under construction in the parking lot of the Cremona hospital, one of the most critical areas for the infection. When fully operational, the structure, consisting of 15 tents, will have 60 beds, of which 8 in intensive care and 60 operators including first and second level doctors and health professionals.

14.28 - Brazil admits lack of sufficient number of tests
The Brazilian Ministry of Health admitted in a press conference the lack of tests to confirm the coronavirus. To meet the growing demand, the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation has delivered 5.5 thousand tests and promises an extra 40 thousand in April, in addition to the other 30 thousand already made available at the beginning of the month.

2.19 pm - The doctors of Brescia: don't talk about hero coats, financed by Ssn
“The biggest public work we have is the National Health Service. And the only lesson I see coming from these dark days of emergency is that this system must be restructured, modernized, reorganized with adequate funding that has been lacking in recent decades ». Thus Ottavio Di Stefano, president of the Brescia Medical Association, one of the Lombard provinces most affected by Covid-19, at AdnKronos. «In these hours we hear that the Brescia coats have become heroes. Well, they would rather, once the storm has passed, simply be listened to actors of a great national pact ».

2.16 pm - Spadafora: «Possible absolute ban on open activities» «The general appeal was to stay at home. If this appeal is not heeded we will be forced to impose an absolute ban "on outdoor motor activity. This was stated on Tg1 by the Minister of Sport, Vincenzo Spadafora. «When we left this opportunity it was because the medical scientific community told us to leave the possibility to many people to run, even for other pathologies». And he added: «I believe that Serie A can resume playing on May 3rd. Then we will evaluate whether this will depend on the situation when the doors are open or closed ».

2.15 pm - Facebook, "bug" has blocked news on the epidemic
Due to a "bug" in its automatic spam filters, Facebook yesterday prevented users from sharing media news on certain topics, including coronavirus, on social media. The problem, also reported by users on Twitter, was confirmed by the company, which explained that it had solved it.

2.10pm - Pound Sterling falls to $ 1,182: lowest since 1985
The pound sinks and sees the lows in the dollar cross in over 30 years, in a market that does not believe in the response of the London government to the impact of the Coronavirus. The British currency lost 1.9% to $ 1,182, the lowest level since 1985, and against the euro it drops to 92.4 pence.

14.07 - Work on the field hospital in Cremona has begun
The field hospital donated by the American non-profit organization "Samaritan's Purse" is taking shape in Cremona. The structure - the first five white tents have already been erected - will have sixty beds, eight of which are for intensive care. The material, donated by the non-profit organization of the Evangelical Church, arrived from the United States last night with a flight landed at the Catullo airport in Verona.

14.05 - Over 44,000 complaints, 1 million checks in 7 days
Over 44,000 complaints and one million people checked in a week as part of the checks following the publication of the new anti-coronavirus regulations. According to data provided by the Interior Ministry, from 11 to 17 March, the police involved in the checks reported 42,933 people for non-compliance with the Dpcm and 1,095 for false declarations to public officials.

2.00 pm - Trade unions: "Miur withdraws teaching measures"
"The trade unions ask that the note containing" First operational indications for distance learning activities "be immediately withdrawn because it contains methods of organizing work that are the subject of trade union relations". Cgil, Cisl, Uil, Snals and Gilda of the school write it to the Ministry of Education. "Dealing with an emergency situation does not authorize us to bypass trade union relations and take on undemocratic tones," they comment.

13.58 - Fontana, soon unable to help the sick
"Unfortunately, the numbers of the contagion are not reduced, they continue to be high. Soon we will no longer be in a position to give an answer to those who get sick ": the president of Lombardy Attilio Fontana left here to ask everyone to" stay at home ". «Friends, I'm saying it in a polite way, but in a while we will have to change the tone because if you don't get it right, you have to be a little more aggressive in making you understand too. We are not asking you for such a sacrifice, but to save human lives. Every departure from the house is a risk for you and for others ».

13.50 - At least 80 thousand European citizens blocked outside the EU
The data, which aggregates those arriving from the 27 Member States, was released by a spokesman for the European Commission (here the map with the global trend).

13.28 - Di Maio: 800 thousand masks unlocked to Italy
The foreign minister also announced the arrival of 68 respirators from the US.

1.17pm - Great Britain, Johnson promises aid to all workers
The premier has pledged to guarantee "further measures" to protect British workers "of all kinds" forced to stay at home by the coronavirus, and reiterated that the Tory government intends to allocate "all that is needed" for workers and the system sanitary.

1.16 pm - Gori, death toll higher than the official one
Coronavirus victims in Bergamo are more than those included in official statistics, according to Mayor Giorgio Gori, who today made an inspection where Ana is setting up a field hospital to help deal with the Coronavirus emergency. There are in fact people "who are unable to be taken to hospital", he explained to Tg3 and who are not swabbed and therefore are not included in the calculation.

1.14 pm - Work is being carried out at military field hospitals in Lombardy
Two military field hospitals, one in Piacenza and one in Crema. This is the hypothesis the government is working on to find new beds to assist coronavirus patients in the most affected areas. The Piacenza hospital should be ready in 72 hours and the materials are already being transferred to the area. An inspection ordered by Defense Minister Lorenzo Guerini is still underway for the one in Crema. The plan was also discussed this morning in the operational committee of the Civil Protection.

13.08 - Stop all evictions until June 30th
This is foreseen by a rule of the Cura Italia decree (here the pdf of the text and here the measures explained in detail).

13.07 - Lombard patient transferred to Puglia dies in flight
(Michelangelo Borrillo) They were expected this morning in Bari from the Giovanni XXIII hospital in Bergamo, to be transferred to the intensive care unit of the Policlinico di Bari after the request of the Lombardy Region to be able to transport 50 patients to hospitals outside the region. But one of the two patients did not make it, he had a cardiac arrest and died during the flight of the C130 of the Air Force which landed at 5.15 on the runway of the Karol Woytjila airport in Bari: the attempts to revive him were useless. by health workers on the runway (all the details here).

13.04 - Corruption in cleaning contracts: 2 arrests
They were negotiating to exploit the Coronavirus emergency: with this accusation the Guardia di Finanza arrested an employee of the Municipality of Nichelino (Turin), and an employee of a cleaning company. Proceeding for corruption. Among the episodes investigated is the assignment of sanitation and disinfection activities of municipal buildings in relation to the health emergency. 8 thousand euros were seized in two bribes, of 5 and 3 thousand euros, for the procedures for awarding contracts for cleaning services.

12.50 pm - The deaths in Europe exceed those in Asia
In Europe the victims are 3,421 and against 3,384 in Asia, according to a count by the AFP (here the map with the global trend).

12.38 - In Bologna the swab is done by car
A swab every five minutes, twelve swabs per hour: these are the times ensured by the new way of carrying out the test experienced in Bologna since last weekend. This is, explains the Ausl of Bologna, the "drive-thru" swab, already successfully tested in South Korea and Australia, which will be replicated today in San Lazzaro, at the headquarters of the public health department: it will be performed on 50 people who will be identified by means of the plaque. Among them, many close contacts of positive cases, as well as health workers and people in home isolation potentially cured. "The activity - specifies the health company - does not replace the regular tampons carried out at the home of people in isolation by home care and public hygiene operators. To date, 284 swabs have been carried out at home ».

12.37 - In Rome a million masks and 100 thousand kits donated by Jack Ma
The shipment, arriving from the Alibaba Foundation and the Jack Ma Foundation, was announced by the embassy of China in Italy.

12.34 - Unesco: half of the world's students without school
Due to the emergency triggered by the epidemic (here the map with the global trend).

12.21 pm - Great Britain, Glastonbury festival canceled
The Glastonbury Festival, one of Britain's most anticipated musical events, has been canceled. The BBC reports it.This year, performances by pop stars such as Taylor Swift, Paul McCartney, Kendrick Lamar and Diana Ross were announced. Just six days ago, organizer Emily Eavis said she was certain that the event would be confirmed, but after the government's invitation to avoid gatherings and to respect social distancing measures, the cancellation was in the air.

12.20 pm - Doctors give themselves sick in Naples, Ricciardi: "Vigliacchi"
"As always in dramatic circumstances the heroisms and cowardice of individuals emerge, fortunately they are definitely more of the first". Thus in a tweet Walter Ricciardi, consultant for the coronavirus emergency of the Ministry of Health, comments on the news of 249 health workers (including many doctors) of the Cardarelli hospital in Naples who are ill. "They hide behind a bogus medical certificate, leaving colleagues alone to work," denounced by Ciro Mauro, director of the Emergency department of the Cardarelli hospital, on Facebook (here the article with the details).

12.13 - Entry ban in Japan for those arriving from Italy
This was announced by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, specifying that the measure also affects those arriving from Iceland, Switzerland and some parts of Spain. 14-day quarantine, on the other hand, for those arriving from other 38 countries, the European ones as well as Iran and Egypt (here the map with the global trend).

12.12 - Schnabel: EU solidarity is needed, the ECB is not enough
This was stated by Isabel Schnabel, a German member of the ECB executive committee: "Monetary policy cannot solve this crisis alone, we need a strong further fiscal policy response, ideally at European level".

11 am - The BTP - Bund spread exceeds the threshold of 320 basis points
First it broke through 300, then it rose to 322 with the Italian 10-year bond rate reaching 3%, to 2.98%, reaching the highest level since February 2019 (details here).

10.40 am - The secretary of the Federation of General Practitioners (Fimmg) of Lodi dies
Marcello Natali, 57, was a family doctor in Codogno: positive for Coronavirus, he was hospitalized in intensive care in Milan for severe bilateral pneumonia.

10.17 am - Gimbe Foundation: 2,629 infected health workers
They represent 8.3% of total cases: the processing, updated to March 17, is based on data provided by the Higher Institute of Health.

10.01 am - WHO: almost 180 thousand cases in the world
The World Health Organization today records 179,112 confirmed cases of Covid19, of which 11,526 in the last 24 hours, with 7,426 deaths (475 new). In Europe there are 64,189 total confirmed cases (8,507 in the last 24 hours) with 3,108 deaths (428 new) (here the map with the global trend).

9.48 am - Naples recalls the cholera specialist from the pension
Franco Faella is one of the most expert infectious diseases in Italy, he is 74 years old, in 2015 he retired as director of the infectious disease department of the Cotugno Hospital in Naples, where he had worked since 1970, but the ASL of Naples called him, asking him to make his experience available for setting up the department dedicated to covid 19 at the Loreto Mare Hospital in Naples (all the details here).

9.45 am - Veneto registers respirators for animals
To assess whether at least part of it can be used for humans and thus cope with the supply difficulties of new machinery. Marco Melosi, president of the National Association of Italian Veterinary Doctors, responded by inviting the heads of veterinary clinics to make respirators available.

9.41 am - Misiani: we will defend strategic companies
The reasoning that the French government is making on the defense of strategic assets "can only concern the Italian government as well". This was underlined by the Deputy Minister of Economy, Antonio Misiani, speaking at 24 Mattino. «We will do it - he answered a question on the defense of strategic Italian companies - the government already has the tools, such as the golden power. We are evaluating at the level of the presidency of the board and Mef how to strengthen these tools and defend strategic companies ». He then added that the crisis forces us to rethink industrial policy and the production chain, stemming the phenomenon of outsourcing.

9.26 am - De Micheli: I do not exclude measures beyond April 4th
"I do not exclude": said the transport minister Paola De Micheli in Agora on Rai3, answering the question whether the government plans to extend the measures beyond 3 April. "We will evaluate on the basis of the numbers - he said - these are evaluations that we will make in the next few days but I do not rule it out" (we have already spoken about the postponement of the opening of the schools: here the article with the hypotheses in the field).

9.16 am - Spanish flag projected on Tel Aviv town hall
The facade of the Tel Aviv city hall last night was illuminated with the colors of the Spanish flag as a sign of solidarity for the coronavirus epidemic with the city of Barcelona, ​​with which the Israeli capital is twinned. The Italian flag was shown on Sunday evening.

9.12 - Antitrust suspends antiviral sale
The Antitrust Authority has suspended the marketing of an antiviral drug sold for more than 600 euros and ordered the blackout of the sales site. The Authority announces it. The "generic Kaletra", which contains the active ingredients of an antiviral for the treatment of HIV infections, was advertised as the "only drug against the Coronavirus" and the "only remedy to fight it" "even if, at the state, as declared by the world health authorities, there is no effective cure to fight the virus ».

9.10 - Gallera, or curve goes down or more rigid measures
"On Sunday either the curve goes down or it will probably be necessary to consider taking a bit more rigid measures". This was stated by the Lombard councilor for Welfare Giulio Gallera on 7 Gold talking about the progress of the Coronavirus infections. "I hope that the sacrifices of many and the conscious attitude of the Lombards will be enough," he added.

9.01 - Rays, we need "close" on train arrivals in Rome
Too many people arrive in Rome by trains in the two main airports of the capital, Termini station and Tiburtina station, without adequate checks being carried out: according to what we learn, the mayor of Rome Virginia Raggi would like to ask for a "squeeze" on arrivals by adopting the measures already in place at airports, such as measuring fever. At the moment, the checks that are carried out on arrival are limited only to checking the self-certification required by the Government in case of travel.

8.26 am - Rome, from tomorrow the payment of the blue stripes will be suspended
The ordinance provides for this, which will be signed today: the restricted traffic area had already been opened in recent days.

7.38 am - IMF rejects Venezuela's request for aid
The International Monetary Fund has rejected Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro's request for five billion dollars to deal with the emergency. "Unfortunately, the Fund is not in a position to consider this request" because "there is no clarity" on the international recognition of the Venezuelan government, the IMF explained in a statement.

7.26 am - Las Vegas casinos closed for a month
The governor of Nevada Steve Sisolak ordered it: bars, restaurants and non-essential services throughout the state also closed (here the map with the global trend).

6.14 - Published the "Cura Italia" dl: rules valid immediately
The provision was signed last night by the President of the Republic and published in an extraordinary edition of the Official Gazette, which is dated yesterday even though it was published during the night. It is made up of 127 articles that confirm the implantation anticipated in recent days (here the pdf of the text and here the measures explained in detail).

5.40 am - Another 93 new cases in South Korea
Up from 84 on Monday and 74 on Sunday, but still below 100 for the fourth day in a row. According to the bulletin updated on Tuesday evening, the total number of infections rose to 8,413. Deaths amounted to 84, of which 71% made up of people over 70 (here the map with the global trend).


English variant covid, Crisanti: "Italy risks 40,000 cases a day"

The virologist in Piazzapulita: "In Great Britain they went from 10,000 infections to 70,000 a day in 3 weeks"

- (Frame)

"Within a week we risk 30,000 or 40,000 infections" per day "with the spread of the English variant of covid". Andrea Crisanti thus expresses himself on the coronavirus emergency in Italy. On February 25, it goes to the archive with a bulletin that refers to nearly 20,000 new cases out of over 400,000 swabs. "The data tell us about the activity of the English variant, which has a diffusibility not comparable to that of the original strain. I still hear about openings, they are absolutely unrealistic proposals. When we have restrictive measures, such as red zone or orange zone, contagions fall and the debate on how to reopen starts again ", says the virologist in Piazzapulita.

Covid Italy, today 19,886 infections and 308 deaths: February 25 bulletin

Covid Italy today, the data of the regions: 25 February

"We are on the rise of the same virus that created a disaster in Great Britain. It is not that everything is true in every country, but we are faced with a variant of the covid that has an enormous spreading capacity," he adds. "England has been in a kind of reinforced red zone for 8 weeks: almost all shops closed, bars and pubs closed and only take-out activities. We went from 10,000 to 20,000 cases in 5 days. In England they took 3- 4 weeks to go from 10,000 to 70,000, it's a serious matter. The yellow zones don't work, it's clear. Restaurants? Restaurants are not dangerous, what we do in restaurants is dangerous: we take off our masks and talk. A solution could be be establishing rules for access and not closing the restaurants ", adds the virologist.


Agricultural and fishing enterprises

Update as of May 19, 2020

Following the Decision of the European Union Commission C (2020) 3388 of 19/05/2020 which approved the aid scheme SA57349, were adopted with regional decree no. 97 of 19/05/2020 the following notices:

1) Public notice in favor of agricultural enterprises for the granting of a one-off non-repayable bonus due to the economic-financial crisis caused by Covid19

Agricultural Companies Bonus

2) Public notice in favor of fishing boat companies and aquaculture companies for the granting of a one-off non-repayable bonus due to the economic-financial crisis caused by Covid19 and application form (attachment A in pdf and in word)

Fishing Business Bonus

3) Public notice in favor of buffalo companies for the granting of a one-off non-repayable grant due to the economic-financial crisis caused by Covid19

Bufaline Companies Bonus

4) Public notice in favor of horticultural businesses for the granting of a one-off non-repayable grant due to the economic-financial crisis caused by Covid19

Horticultural Companies Bonus

Applications relating to agriculture must be submitted to the Directorate General for Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies of the Campania Region, exclusively through the Authorized Agricultural Assistance Center (CAA) who holds the applicant's business file, starting from May 20, 2020 and until June 10, 2020.

The requests relating to fishing and aquaculture must be presented to theFisheries and Aquaculture Office of the Directorate General for Agriculture, Food and Forestry Policies starting from 21 May 2020 and until 9 June 2020.

Update as of April 24, 2020

In the next few days, the various measures envisaged by the Plan will be implemented:

  1. one-off bonus for farms and for those in the fishery / aquaculture sector
  2. support to companies in the horticultural supply chain
  3. support for companies in the buffalo supply chain.

Also in this case, the procedures will be fully computerized and

Action: bonus agricultural and fishing companies: in particular, horticulture, fruit and vegetables, animal husbandry (buffalo, cattle, goat sheep), fishing and aquaculture

FINANCIAL RESOURCES: 50.000.000 €

THE requirements that companies must own are:

  1. for agricultural businesses to be direct farmers or professional agricultural entrepreneurs, registered with INPS
  2. for fishing to be independent fishermen or companies registered in the business register held by the Port Authorities, registered with INPS
  3. for aquaculture to be agricultural enterprises registered with INPS.

Each company, as identified above, affected by the crisis caused by the epidemiological emergency from COVID-19, receives a contribution lump sum commensurate as follows:

  1. 1,500 euros for companies with up to 5 employees
  2. 2,000 euros for companies with more than 5 employees.

Times: procedures started in April.

Action: buffalo sector

1) I.Intervention aimed at increasing the liquidity of buffalo companies

FINANCIAL RESOURCES: 9.000.000 €

Intervention aimed at increasing the liquidity of buffalo companies by granting grants for the adoption of corporate biosecurity plan measures, for those companies that have participated in the government's brucellosis eradication plan.

Times: public notice for the granting of contributions

2) Contributions to overcome the crisis caused by the strong reduction in market demand due to COVID 19

FINANCIAL RESOURCES: 10.000.000 €

Contributions for overcoming the crisis caused by the strong reduction in market demand due to COVID 19, aimed at compensating the costs deriving from the use of milk in the food ration, recognizing each operator a reimbursement on production costs of 1 euro per liter of milk, within the maximum spending limit of 10 million euros for the year 2020. In particular, the use of milk in the food ration will be authorized for a maximum of 60 days and for a quantity not exceeding 30% of the actual production of similar period of 2019. This will take place on the basis of the checks carried out by the territorial veterinary services and by the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, with the support of the data recorded on the buffalo traceability platform.

Times: 15 days by public notice for the granting of contributions.

Action: horticultural sector

FINANCIAL RESOURCES: € 10.000.000

Contributions for overcoming the crisis caused by the shutdown due to COVID 19 to horticultural companies, providing for the disbursement of up to a maximum of € 10,000 per company to be determined in proportion to the company turnover of the previous year.

Times: 15 days by public notice for the granting of contributions


Temperature trend from 10,000 to 1,000 BC

Probably for the average reader and not particularly fond of history or numismatics, this will be the most interesting chapter.
Knowing how much a legionnaire earned, how much a kilo of bread or a liter of wine cost, allows us an easier identification and comparison between us and our ancient ancestors.
On this subject we are informed in flashes and incompletely, especially as regards the less well-off classes of the population who had to live in a miserable way.
Instead, the economic condition of the soldiers is better known, subject to state laws, decrees and annotations by historians and economists, the legionnaire's salary must therefore be considered the standard reference.
The pay was modest, but it allowed a family of four to live in dignity.
A Roman soldier is roughly comparable in social position and economic treatment to a modern employee.

Pay trends in the army from the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD

Age Pay daily Note
III ° century. B.C. Legionnaire 120 Denarii / year
Centurion 360 Denarii / year
Knight 550 Denarii / year
soldiers also received additions
in natural goods (ex: salt, wheat)
1st century B.C. Caesar Legionnaire 225 Denarii / year
1st century B.C. August Legionnaire 225 Denarii / year
Praetorian 375 Denarii / year
Centurion 3750-15000 Denarii / year (10 Axes / day)
1st century A.D. Domitian Legionnaire 300 Denarii / year
Praetorian 1000 Denarii / year
Centurion 5000-20000 Denarii / year
2nd century A.D. Septimius Severus Legionnaire 459 Denarii / year
Centurion 8300 - 33000 Denarii / year
end of the 2nd century. A.D. Caracalla Legionnaire 600 Denarii / year
corresponding to 1200 Antoninians
beginning of the 3rd century. Gordian Legionaries: 1200 Antoninians / year
end of the 3rd century A.D. Legionnaire 1800 Nummi / year or 360 Silversmiths / year the Argentus of Diocletian is of good league and is comparable to a Denarius
4th century. A.D. Valentinian I ° Infantryman 5 Golden Solids
Knight 9 Golden Solids

We recall the relationship between the various Roman names:

1 Denario = 4 Sestertii = 16 Aces.
1 Golden = 25 Denarii.
1 Antoninian = 2 Denarii

Annual cost of a legion for the treasury in the third century BC: 600,000 denarii
Annual cost of a legion for the treasury at the time of Caesar: 3,000,000 denarii


Inflation trend

Inflation, for all the time during which the denarius has maintained a good league, has remained very low, less than 1% a year.
This can be clearly seen from the very slow increase in the legionnaire's pay, which is congruent with a substantial stability of prices.Prolonged price stability over long periods means a great benefit for the purchasing power of the citizens of the lower classes.
This period of monetary stability with very low inflation lasts, with alternating phases relating to limited acute episodes, for four centuries and accompanies the greatness of Rome: from the victory in the Second Punic War to the time of Septimius Severus.

The denarius begins to corrupt with the Caracalla reform, prices rise and the salaries of the soldiers increase. Caracalla issues devalued coins with a low silver content, triggering the start of an inflationary push in which the increase in prices caused the demand for greater amounts of money which in turn still caused prices to rise. The system collapsed in the middle of the third century when the silver coin disappeared.

There will be no recovery, the useless reforms of the successive emperors, from Aureliano, Diocleziano, Costantino, will not get anything.
However, they will increase the confusion, filling the pockets of the Romans with useless scam coins, made of copper and variously covered with very thin silver films.
The denarius will never rise again and neither will the greatness of Rome, proof that the greatness of a state requires adequate financial instruments.

Finally, with the fourth century, gold monometallism is reached, a condition that depresses retail trade and forces the poor to barter.
In fact, the solid was only a currency for the rich and their high-level businesses.
The Middle Ages were now upon us.

To do this survey we will compare the prices of basic necessities on two dates.

Food needs of a family of 4 for 1 year in the 2nd century BC.

well annual requirement cost
flour 800 kg 60 Denarii
oil 68 liters 10 Danarii
wine 400 liters 15 Denarii
Total 85 Denarii

Salary legionary 120 denari

1 Axis = 1 loaf of bread

This extrapolation makes it possible to understand that, after the out-of-pocket expenses for food, there is not much left to spend for a legionnaire, taking into account that the family needs rent and clothing.
However, the soldiers were also paid in consumer goods, enjoyed frequent donations and at the time of their leave, if they arrived, they received a substantial sum that allowed some to set up on their own in the trade or to take over a small agricultural activity.

Now to see what we now call "rising cost of living" let's take the prices of the same genres on another date, two centuries later.

Food needs of a family of 4 for 1 year in the 1st century AD

well annual requirement cost
flour 800 kg 130 Denarii
oil 68 liters 25 Danarii
wine 400 liters 35 Denarii
Total 190 Denarii

the salary of a legionnaire was 365 Denarii (one Denarius a day).
We remind you that an Aureo is equal to 25 Denari and that at the time it weighs about 6 grams.
This means that a legionnaire receives the equivalent of 87.6 grams of gold in one year.
It is curious to compare this pay with that of a soldier of Cyrus of Persia in the sixth century. B.C. who received one Daride (of gold) per month.
The Daride weighed about 8 gr. therefore a Persian soldier received 96 grams of gold in one year.
Six centuries earlier, Persian soldiers were better paid than Roman legionaries.


What we can observe in comparison with the prices of two centuries earlier is a very modest increase in prices (equal to inflation of less than 1% per year).
Wages increase correspondingly so that the situation of a typical employee has slightly improved two centuries later.
Making ends meet for a legionnaire therefore remained problematic.
The salary was calculated in such a way as to be sufficient for the individual's livelihood needs.
In the imperial age, however, the soldiers could count on the frequent donations given to the troops on the occasion of each change at the top. Moreover, in this period the legionary profession was relatively not very dangerous, given the condition of stability at the frontiers in the 1st century AD.
On the other hand, those who get rich earn stratospheric figures. The gap between rich and poor is enormous.
The patricians, and also the enriched freedmen such as the Trimalcione of Petronius' Satyricon, live exhibiting unbridled luxuries.
We cite a passage from the Satyricon (XXXVIII) to give an idea of ​​the fantasy in the waste of the enriched Roman.

Trimalcione himself has possessions that extend as far as the flight of the kites is: and lots of money.
There is more silverware in his doorman's hut than there is in anyone's estate.
And the servants, then, cabbage! For Hercules, I believe that not even a tenth of them know the master.
Long story short, all these braggart jerks can go into hiding when compared to him.
And don't believe that you buy anything. He grows everything at home: wool, cedars, pepper.
And if you ask him for chicken milk, he will find it for you.
In short, since the wool of his production was not that great, he bought some top-of-the-line rams in Taranto and put them to assemble the flock.
Another time, in order to have Attica honey at home, he ordered that bees from Attica be brought to him, so that the homegrown bees would improve a little by being together with the Greeks.
In recent days he has even written to India that they send him the mushroom seed.
He has not a single mule that is not the daughter of an onager.
Look at how many pillows: well, they're all stuffed with purple or scarlet.
This is luck!
His other former companions in slavery, be careful not to take them under the radar.
They made their money too. Do you see that, sitting among the freedmen? As if she had a good time!
I don't blame him. His handsome million sesterces was seen, but it fell into disrepair.
I don't think even his hair runs out of mortgage.

For a meal Lucullus could spend a million sesterces (about 250,000 denarii) unimaginable figures for the poor legionary.


I found completely different values ​​on an English museum publication of the WestAir Reproduction of Birmingham attached to reproductions of Roman coins and referenced according to the source to the year a.D 1.
This table shows high prices and low wages. an unhappy situation that amazed me.
Was it possible that life on the edge of the Empire was so expensive?

Product Price
Annual pay of a teacher 180 Denari
A pair of stylish shoes 150 Deniers
A pair of women's shoes 60 Deniers
White silk 12,000 Denari per Pound
A generic Slave 500-1500 Denari
A beautiful slave girl 2000-6000 Denari
A musician slave 4000 Denari
An expert winemaker slave 2000 Denari
An amphora of wine 300 Sesterces
A Modius of wheat 100 Deniers
A Modius of barley 60 Deniers
A Sextarius of wine 30 Denari
A Sextarius of Olive Oil 40 Deniers
A spiced salt Sextarius 8 Coins
A Modius of salt 100 Deniers
A Pound of Pork 12 Coins
A pound of veal 8 Coins

It is not possible that the salary of a master (a middle-class man) corresponds to 22 pounds of calf!
At the time, a legionnaire earned one denarius a day. it was not possible for him to earn three times a teacher!
It is not possible that a Modio of flour in Pompeii in 79 AD cost a denarius and a century earlier in England a modio of wheat cost 100 (what kind of drop in prices there had been.).
There is something wrong with this table above. I reported it because there aren't many such tables and this one has an authoritative source, but it doesn't quite add up. at least in my opinion!

Geographical diversification of the price of a modio of flour in the first century AD

Place Price in Aces
Rome 32
Northern Italy 16
Africa 9 to 16
Asia Minor 8 to 16
Palestine 10 to 12
Egypt 7 to 9

The table above shows that life in Rome was very expensive, having prices more than double compared to other parts of Italy.
Compared to the African Provinces it was 4 times more expensive.
"Capital" effect and consequence of the wealth that flowed to Rome from every corner of the Empire.
Even today a large city, and a capital in particular, is more expensive than provincial cities.
This is why many legionaries on leave retired not to Italy but to the African Provinces, where they enjoyed a better climate and a cost of living that made them if not rich, at least well-off and granted them a peaceful and comfortable old age.


Prices in Pompeii in 79 AD

We know them very well because the eruption also froze the price lists painted on the walls ... and accounting books, invoices and delivery notes were also saved in quantity and variety.

Product price
1 modio flour 1 Denarius
1 kg of bread 1/8 of a Denarius
1/2 liter of wine 1/4 Denarius (1 Axis)
1 plate 1/8 of a Denarius
Prostitute 1/2 Denario
Oil lamp 1/8 of a Denarius
A tunic 3 Denarii
a mule 125 Denarii
a slave 625 Denarii
Fine for petty crime 6 Denarii

We remember that one modio corresponds to 6.5 Kg.
The average consumption of flour per person was about 4 modii per month, very high, but bread was the main part of the diet.
From a modio of flour 15/20 loaves per kg were made (it depended on the mixture that could be added) and which were sold for 1/8 of a denarius. So the baker's job in a world where bread was the main food and was very profitable since 1 denarius of expenditure corresponded to at least 2 denari in return.

We can try a Denario / Euro parallel on the basis of the price of bread.
We take as a basis a price of 3 euros per kilo (high but real) and we find that a denarius corresponds to about 24 euros.
In Pompeii 4 kg of bread corresponded to a sexual performance… interesting… with bread at 3 Euros per kilo even today the ratio is almost the same (if we are satisfied with what we find along the streets).
Turning to the old lire we find that 1 Denario = 50,000 Lire.
Let's do a quick check, 50,000 lire a day of pay makes 18,000,000 a year of salary for a legionnaire, which was a good pay only twenty years ago.
In Euros they are just over 600 Euros per month. the amount of the minimum pensions with which the old men hardly survive but survive. In Africa it is a very respectable figure and is equivalent to 4 basic salaries in Tunisia or Egypt.
With this value a tunic costs about 75 Euros (there were no Chinese to produce below cost clothing) and wine 12 Euros per liter (a bit expensive but not out of market), so apparently it seems to work.
We can therefore, as regards only the 1st century AD, dare to take this equation as valid:

1 denarius = 25 euros = 50,000 lire

1 Sesterzio = 1/4 of Denarius = 6 Euros = 12,000 lire

And then indulge in our shopping in the shops of Pompeii!

The records of a banker, Iucundus, also re-emerged from Pompeii, from whom we learned a lot of interesting information on the trend of the economy and trade in the first century AD.

The income of a medium-sized farm (100 jugeri) was 10,000-20,000 sesterces per year.
The value of an agricultural land for sale was 5,000 sesterces per jugero.

A significant loan activity also emerged from the Jucundus archive, broken down by value ranges:

12% loans for amounts of less than 1000 sesterces
48% loans between 1000 and 5000 sesterces
24% loans between 5,000 and 10,000 sesterces
16% loans for amounts exceeding 10,000 sesterces

Iucundus, lent money or advanced money to merchants.
The goods traded: lots of flax, timber, slaves.

The annual interest rate for a loan was 12% (reduced to 4% for illustrious people) while the simple non-interest bearing deposit was not subject to taxation.

Costs of some consumer products in the middle of the 3rd century AD

Product price in Antoniniani
fishing net 14
keepnet 6
fishing boat 186
clay pot 3
oil lamp 1
a sextarius of wine 4
a piece of heavy clothing 75
leather boots 20
sandals / caligae 12
a sword 60
a donkey 145
a horse 250

Product Cost
a slave 20 Solids
1 pound of fish 6 Follis
vegetable for soup 5 Follis
1 loaf 3 Follis
a wool blanket 1/25 Solidus
a used cloak 1 Solidus
a donkey 3-4 Solids
a copy of the New Testament 3 Solids


Techniques for making a coin

Essentially, to make a coin, two ways have been used from ancient times to today, the Fonditura and the Tapping by blow or by pressure.
The technique of founding consists in heating the metal or alloy to be minted until it is melted, and then pouring it into hollow shapes that contain engraved the design that you want to reproduce on the coin.
Once the metal has cooled, the mold is opened and the coins are detached. A further finishing with a file allows you to correct imperfections or smudges.
The limit of this technique is that to make large numbers of coins you need several molds, and to make fine cones the work becomes too long.
The beating technique, on the other hand, allows for the production of numerous coins in series for a long time with a single minting.

Both the aes signatum and the aes grave were obtained by casting molten copper into molds.
The casting technique had undoubted advantages: it was very quick, did not require highly specialized manpower and allowed to skip the very long preparatory phase of the preparation of the rounds. On the other hand, the molten coins had just as many disadvantages: the coins had very variable weights, had attenuated and unclear reliefs and were easily falsifiable.
Furthermore, once the coin had cooled, it was impossible to correct any disproportions in weight. The choice of this singular technique, undoubtedly a bit primitive, lies in the fact that large nominals (one or more pounds) cannot be obtained with the minting technique. Furthermore, we believe that the pragmatic spirit of the Romans preferred a simple production, without frills, so to speak "virile".


Valve for vertical molds

The aes signatum was cast in single molds.
Aes grave instead in multiple molds. The latter could have different forms.
The simplest model consisted of two valves to be joined into which the molten metal poured in shapes vertically superimposed on each other, so that the molten metal filled all the molds passing through suitable channels between shape and form.
The mold was held vertical, the molten copper poured from above went through all the molds, filling them all starting from the lowest one. Once the metal had cooled, the pieces were detached from each other with shears.
The tangible sign of this technique is the presence of two 180 ° fusion tangs on the edge of the coin: one for the entry of the molten metal, the other for its release until it is filled.
Often these partings are rough and disfigure the edge of the coin.

Another method involved a cluster mold, to which the molds were attached like grains in a bunch of grapes.
In this case, only one fusion tang is observed in the coin.

The molds, reusable many times, were made of soft stone (sandstone) or terracotta. The terracotta mold, much easier to model, could burn as a result of the succession of castings, erode the roughness and therefore produce overweight coins. On the other hand, terracotta molds produced using another coin as a mold, produced coins that were constantly underweight, given the physical phenomenon of reduction in the volume of the metal in the transition from the fluid to the solid state.
It also happened that the two valves of the mold did not match perfectly and that therefore the coin was two halves out of phase, not perfectly juxtaposed. Given the production technique, it is not unusual to see small holes on the surface of the coins referring to bubbles trapped in the molten copper. The features of the molten coins are coarse, devoid of detail but not of charm.
The reliefs, especially in the heavier nominals, are very high. Overall, these are impressive coins, made to impress, a logical corollary to the austere culture of republican Rome.

The beating allows the obtaining of coins of small dimensions, in large numbers, with a high detail of the reliefs in exchange of their scarce relevance since they must be obtained from the "thickness" of the starting disc and the impression of the minting does not allow large changes in elevation and growth of the reliefs.

The beating of the coin requires a series of operations, from the realization of the minting, to the preparation of the round from which the disks to be beaten will be obtained, to the cutting and finishing of the disks, to the beating and final finishing, which require a refined and advanced industrial cycle. . It is not possible to ignore the knowledge and mastery of the production and use of steel, since only with a harder minting of the material to be engraved but not brittle (such as stone could be) is the impression of the embossed figure on the coin obtained.
In order to mint coins it is therefore necessary to have the simultaneous presence of different and high-level professionals (miners, smelters and metallurgists, blacksmiths, engravers, cleaners) and therefore a high level of technological civilization.
Let's see these phases in detail:

On the tip of an iron cylinder, of the diameter of the coin we are interested in making, the figure that is intended to be reproduced on the coin is made by means of a "burin" and by a highly specialized craftsman. The figure is engraved in reverse, in "negative", like taking a coin and looking at it in the mirror.Furthermore, where you want to have hollows, you must leave the coin protruding, while where you want protrusions on the coin, you have to dig them.
Obviously, being a coin made up of two sides, it is necessary to make two Mines, to be used simultaneously, otherwise if they were used in two separate strokes, the second keystroke would cancel or ruin the first. Once the Coils were made, they were tempered to be harder than the metal they were going to engrave.


Roman tools for beating coins

Preparation of the rounds for the coins

The metals were essentially silver, sometimes gold, copper, or some alloys including electro (copper + silver), or more simply alloys with a lower content of silver or gold.
The metal, or alloy that they wanted to use, was first weighed accurately and then melted into
special crucibles at temperatures of about 1000 ° C. To do this, a very efficient forge was needed.
Once melted it was poured into molds, in order to obtain more or less flat ingots. At this point, with successive heating and powerful blows of the hammer, the ingots were reduced to sheets of the desired thickness. The foils were then cut into rounds of the size of the coin with shears, and then finished with a file to have a more or less regular shape. Obviously all the scraps and filings were recovered and reused.

Now, by placing a roundel between the two surfaces of the cones (the base resting on an anvil, the head above the roundel), with a precise blow of the club on them, the coin remains stamped on both its sides. If necessary, it can be further refined with a file.
There is also the press technique: the round is placed under a press or press to which the minting is applied, thus, by pressure, the coin is made.
It is a bit slower and is used in the late period.


The coin can be cleaned in a salt and vinegar bath, to polish it and remove any oxidation.
It is then weighed and checked by a notable person in charge of the mint, who certifies its goodness and takes into account the production.


Temperature trend from 10,000 to 1,000 BC

The Report on the State of the Green Economy 2019 notes some emerging criticalities: in Italy greenhouse gas emissions have not decreased for 5 years, energy consumption has returned to growth, the increase in renewables has almost stopped in the last 5 years, the eco-innovation does not take off, the Italian car fleet remains the most “dense” in Europe (644 cars per 1,000 inhabitants), emissions from new cars have increased since 2018 and the circularity rate worsens.

This photograph of Italy's green economy is contained in the Report on the State of the Green Economy presented at the opening of the States General of the Green Economy, the green summit dedicated this year to "Green New Deal and climate challenge: objectives and path to 2030", promoted by the National Council of the Green Economy in collaboration with the Ministry of the Environment and with the sponsored by the Ministry of Economic Development and the European Commission, which takes place at the Rimini Fair of Italian Exhibition Group, as part of Ecomondo.

“There are some Italian excellences in the green economy field - he said Edo Ronchi of the National Council of the Green Economybut many critical issues also emerge: supporting excellence and recovering from difficulties is the way forward to launch a concrete Green New Deal in Italy. Nothing has development potential comparable to those of the Green Economy which, if properly promoted and extended, will be able to drag investments and new employment ".

I'm 9 the strategic issues identified to assess the performance of countries as regards the Green Economy: greenhouse gas emissions saving and energy efficiency renewable sources circular economy and efficient use of resources eco-innovation agriculture territory and natural capital sustainable mobility green city.

Greenhouse gas emissions

Emissions from 2014 began to grow again in 2017 emissions stood at 428 MtCO2eq, a value slightly higher than that recorded in 2014, in 2018 emissions show no sign of decreasing, reaching around 426 MtCO2eq, and also the data of the first half of 2019 indicate an increase. Responsible is the transport sector.

Savings and energy efficiency

Between 2014 and 2017, gross energy consumption returned to grow from 166 to over 170Mtoe and in 2018 it grew more than GDP, compared to + 0.9% of GDP and increased by 2% with a consequent increase of energy intensity and energy bill. In 2018, similar to the gross energy requirement, final consumption also recorded a 1.5% increase, the driving force behind was transport with a 3.2% increase in final consumption, the highest growth rate in the sector in the last twenty years.

Renewables

The share of renewables has grown by only one percentage point in 5 years, but Italy always remains first among the major European countries for renewable sources. With about 22 Mtoe, they met 18.3% of domestic energy needs, against 17.5% of the European average, 17.5% of Spain, 16.3% of France, 15.5% of Germany. and 10.2% of the UK. Although the use of renewables in transport is still marginal, biomethane production tripled in 2018.

Circular economy and efficient use of resources

The circularity rate has worsened in Italy, which ranks third after France and the United Kingdom, albeit ahead of Germany. For waste recycling, Italy ranks second behind Germany and exceeds the EU average by two percentage points.

Eco-innovation

Italy ranks 22nd in Europe for environmental spending on R&D which fell by 17% between 2010 and 2017. Per capita is only 8.7 euros, far below that of the euro area, 14.4 EUR. For digitization it ranks 24th out of 28 countries.

Agriculture

With an added value of agriculture equal to 32.2 billion euros, Italy is at the top of the 2018 European ranking, while in terms of production value it is second only to France. The areas cultivated with the organic method amounted to almost 12.6 million hectares in 2017, with an increase of about 25% compared to 2012. Italy ranks second behind Spain. Italy is also first in the world for quantity of productions with geographical indication.

Territory and natural capital

Still 51 square kilometers of land consumed in Italy in 2018, on average about 14 hectares per day, and more than one fifth of the artificial soil is concentrated in the territory of the 14 metropolitan cities. Italy is one of the richest European countries in biodiversity, with a vascular flora made up of over 6,700 species - 20.4% of which are endemic - and a fauna made up of about 58,000 species, with a percentage of endemic species equal to almost 30%.

Sustainable mobility

Italy is the European country with the highest rate of cars, 644 per 1,000 inhabitants in 2018, an increase compared to 2017. In the first eight months of 2019, the average specific emissions of new cars registered increased to almost 120 gCO2 / km, 5.5% more than in the same period a year ago. The penetration of electric cars is low: less than 10,000 cars sold (68,000 in Germany), it is the fifth largest European market for e-bikes. Most public buses are very old and still run on diesel. E-buses are present in cities such as Milan, Turin, Bergamo and Cagliari.

Green City

High temperatures are the most urgent climate danger for cities in terms of risks to human life to combat and adapt to climate change in Italy in cities out of 376 actions, 358 are related to mitigation and only 18 to adaptation.


Climate

How weather conditions change in the long run

Climate is the complex of meteorological conditions that characterize a region. But how and why does the Earth's climate change? Until a few decades ago it was thought that climate change depended exclusively on natural factors, such as the astronomical movements of our planet. Now many scientists are convinced that humans are also capable of altering the atmosphere and changing the climate. For this reason the debate on the Earth's climate has jumped to the top of both scientific and social interests. Extensive reports are dedicated to climate-related problems not only by specialized magazines, but also by information periodicals and daily newspapers, since human health and well-being depend on it.

What determines the climate of a region?

The climate is of fundamental importance for human societies: its conditions in a specific region of the Earth influence economic development, land use and the very relationships between individuals. It is evident that a favorable climate recalls human settlements and constitutes an opportunity for the well-being of a population. The great migrations of peoples have often been induced by the search for better climatic conditions. But why is the climate not the same everywhere on our planet? What factors determine the differences that occur when passing from one area of ​​the Earth to another?

The climatic conditions depend on the amount of energy that arrives from the Sun. Due to the shape of the Earth, the equatorial zones or near the equator receive the maximum of light and heat, while the polar zones or near the poles the minimum. Consequently, the latitude of a place is the main factor on which the climate depends. But altitude is also important, because as you go up in altitude, the temperature decreases and rainfall tends to turn from rainy to snowy.

Another factor affecting the climate is the proximity of the sea or large reservoirs, such as lakes. The masses of water, in fact, absorb the solar heat and slowly return it to the surrounding environment, thus mitigating the high temperatures in the summer and low temperatures in the winter. Furthermore, on a smaller regional scale, a certain area may be exposed to noon and receive more heat from the sun's rays than one facing north, or it may be in a valley surrounded by mountainous reliefs, and therefore protected from the winds, or it may be be crossed by humid currents and therefore subject to rains. The nature of the soil also affects the climate. Soils formed by dark rocks, such as volcanic ones, heat up more and make the surrounding environment warmer, a vegetation cover, especially if it is made of thick trees, instead has the effect of lowering local temperatures and increasing humidity.

The climatic zones of the Earth

We can identify on Earth at least five main types of climate to which correspond as many zones or climatic bands.

Cold climates. They are characteristic of the polar regions or near the poles. Average annual temperatures remain below 0 ° C, with long, harsh winters and warm, short summers. Precipitation often takes on a snowy character. We distinguish a polar climate, typical of the Arctic and Antarctica, in which winter temperatures can drop to -50 ° C, and a cold continental climate, typical of Siberia and northern Canada, with rigid and dry winters and summers. warm and rainy.

Cold temperate climates. They are characteristic of high latitudes and dominate in the northern and central areas of the great continents, such as Russia, Canada, Chile. The average winter temperatures remain below 10 ° C, but there are strong thermal excursions (ie temperature changes) from one season to the next. other. In fact, winters are very harsh and hot summers abundant rainfall.

Warm temperate climates. They are common in mid-latitudes, such as in the Mediterranean, California and some regions of China. Winters are mild, summers are hot. In the Mediterranean, rainfall is concentrated in the winter months, while in China in the summer.

Arid climates. They cover both tropical warm areas such as the deserts of Africa, South America and Australia and cold continental areas such as Mongolia, Tibet, the great plains of the United States and Patagonia. Rainfall is very scarce. Strong temperature variations between day and night.

Hot-humid climates. They are typical of areas straddling the Equator, such as the central regions of Africa, the Americas and the Asian continent. In the more equatorial areas, for example the Amazon, the Congo, the Sunda Islands, the average annual temperatures exceed 25 ° C and the rains are abundant in all seasons. In tropical and subtropical areas, temperatures and rainfall are lower.

The climate is not always the same

"The same parts of the Earth have not always been wet or dry, but they change, just as rivers form or dry up. And the relationships between land and sea also change and a location does not always remain land or sea over the course of the time […]. We must assume that these changes follow an order or cycles ".

This passage, taken from a work by the Greek philosopher Aristotle, demonstrates how since ancient times human beings had realized that the climate of a certain region does not always remain the same: it undergoes modifications with the passage of time and probably such changes obey periodic phenomena. If we think that, at the time in which this hypothesis was formulated, there were no thermometers, much less archives with recordings of past temperatures, all the more so we find the analytical ability of some scientists of the past admirable. However, it will be necessary to wait until the twentieth century for a scholar of the climate, the Croatian Milutin Milanković (1879-1958), to be able to relate the periodic variations of some astronomical movements of the Earth with the slow climatic changes.

The influence of astronomical factors

There are three astronomical factors which, over a very long time, seem to govern the succession of phases of greater or lesser warming of the Earth. The first is theeccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The orbit that our planet travels around the Sun is an ellipse that varies its eccentricity, that is its more or less flattened shape, over a period of about 100,000 years. Currently we are moving towards the phase in which the shape is less flattened, more tending to a circumference. The average distance from the Sun and the amount of heat we receive from our star depends on the eccentricity of the orbit.

The second factor is the precession of the rotation axis of the Earth. The earth's axis, in addition to rotating around itself, makes a slow movement (lasting a total of 21,000 years) that describes a sort of inverted cone, similar to the flicker of a top. Hence the fact that the Earth does not touch the minimum distance from the Sun (perihelion) always in the same season. Currently, for the Northern hemisphere, the transition to perihelion occurs during the winter.

The third factor is the nutation of the earth's axis. In fact, the earth's axis is also subject to an oscillatory movement that completes every 40,000 years. It changes its inclination with respect to the plane of the orbit from a minimum of 21 ° 55 'to a maximum of 24 ° 20'. Currently the inclination is 23 ° 27 'and we are in an ascending phase. The greater the inclination of the axis, the greater the difference in temperature between summer and winter.

Glacial and interglacial periods

The combination of all these millenary motions modifies the amount of solar heat that reaches our planet and seems to be the main cause of the succession of cold periods, tens of thousands of years long, interspersed with shorter warm periods.

During the cold periods, called glaciations, the average temperatures drop to about −10 ° C, the glaciers extend to the mid-latitudes (in Italy they reached the Po Valley) and the sea level drops because a large amount of water accumulates in the form of permanent snow . During hot periods, called interglacial, the average temperatures rise to +15 ° C, the ice melts, limiting itself to covering the two polar caps and the highest mountains, while the sea level rises.

Signs of all these events have remained among the layers of the Earth. They are easily recognizable to the expert eyes of geologists who use them to reconstruct the history of the past climate. Thus it was possible to ascertain that in a long period called the Quaternary (including the last 1.5 million years) there have been five great glaciations, the last of which lasted about 60,000 years and ended 10,000 years ago. Therefore, we are currently in an interglacial period and perhaps the flourishing of human civilization is also due to this geological event.

The climate of the recent past

Even if we limit ourselves to considering the last interglacial phase, it is possible to observe that the climate has changed for ten thousand years now: there are significant documented variations, as well as from geological studies, from archaeological and historical evidence.

From 8000 to 2000 BC there was a period of 'climatic optimum' with average temperatures slightly higher than the current ones, which favored the development of agriculture and the birth of great civilizations. An alternation of short cooling and heating followed, accompanied by shifts in the climatic bands: when the temperature increased, the warm and temperate zones also rose in latitude, and vice versa.

In the Middle Ages, from 800 to 1200 AD.there was another warm period in which temperatures were, on average, 1 ÷ 2 ° C higher than ours. According to historians, this favored the expansion of the Viking civilization, the intensification of trade between China and the Mediterranean along the so-called Silk Road, but also the spread of malaria due to the rise in sea level and the formation of large areas. swampy in coastal areas.

Between 1600 and 1850, however, there is talk of a small ice age. Temperatures drop, on average, by 1.5 ° C compared to the current ones, the ice extends and historical documents record the spread of famine, poverty and epidemics. The Flemish painters of the 17th century have left us precious visual evidence of this period in the paintings depicting the rivers of Northern and Central Europe transformed into expanses of ice on which it was possible to skate. We note how, referring to average temperatures, a small variation is enough to switch from hot to cold weather.

Concerns about the greenhouse effect

Until the mid-twentieth century, scholars thought that the variations in the climate on our planet were governed by natural factors: among these, in addition to the astronomical motions of the Earth we have already mentioned, also the activity of the Sun which is subject to small oscillations over the centuries and the great volcanic eruptions which, by releasing large quantities of gas and particles, can change the physical and chemical characteristics of the atmosphere.

In recent years, the belief has emerged that even the activities produced by human civilization are capable of modifying the climate, overheating the atmosphere, and therefore the whole planet, with various gas emissions. A new chapter has thus opened in global emergencies which is given the name of the greenhouse effect of anthropogenic, that is, human origin.

The greenhouse effect

The natural greenhouse effect. The natural greenhouse effect is a providential phenomenon for life on the planet. In the lower part of our atmosphere there are minute droplets of water vapor and other gases that act like the glass roof of a greenhouse for crops: they allow the solar heat to penetrate and retain a part of it inside (if there is no were the windows, especially at night, the heat would dissipate). Thanks to it, the average temperatures on Earth are around 15 °, instead of −20 ° C, and the temperature range between day and night is not too violent.

The anthropogenic greenhouse effect. Another thing is the share of the greenhouse effect that many scientists attribute to man. The increase in the earth's population, the development of industry, transport, agriculture and animal breeding mean that human activities are also a source of considerable quantities of gas, especially carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), capable of altering atmospheric phenomena and increasing the natural greenhouse effect.

Since the 1990s, an international scientific committee set up by the United Nations, theIntergovernamental panel on climate change (IPCC), repeats in its periodic reports that man appears to be the main responsible for an increase in the greenhouse effect: in the last century, average temperatures have risen by almost 1 ° C. From this conclusion an international agreement was born, known as Kyoto Protocol (signed in 1997 by many states, but not all, in the Japanese city), which establishes a progressive reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, in an attempt to stop global warming.

The IPCC itself believes that, if emissions are not reduced, further increases in temperature of a few degrees will occur within the 21st century, resulting in melting of ice, rising sea levels, changes in climate zones and increases in adverse weather phenomena. such as heat and cold waves and cyclones. All this matter is the subject of a lively scientific debate in which the opinions of scholars who are skeptical about man's ability to interfere with the climate and who are inclined to attribute changes exclusively to natural factors as yet unidentified, also emerge.

Difference between climate and weather

It is necessary to distinguish between climate and meteorological time, since in everyday language there is often confusion between one and the other term.

Weather refers to a momentary situation. For example: yesterday the weather was bad, it was cold, it rained and it was windy today there is good weather, the clear sky is back and it is warmer.

The climate, on the other hand, refers to meteorological situations recorded over a long period: a season, a few years. For example: Italy enjoys a favorable climate because in summer the weather is beautiful and in winter there is not too cold in Greenland, in recent years, the climate has improved, in fact the temperatures have been higher than usual and it snowed less.

The combination of the various climatic factors regulates the average temperatures, pressures, winds, rainfall in a certain region, and thus determines what is called the prevailing climate, season by season.

Even in ordinary language, therefore, it is appropriate to use the words climate and time in the right way.


Video: What Did Ancient Egypt Look Like? Cinematic Animation


Comments:

  1. Eurystheus

    I join. It happens. Let's discuss this issue.

  2. Bradyn

    I express gratitude for the help in this question.

  3. Safiy

    I think this is the excellent thought

  4. Quaid

    In my opinion you commit an error. Let's discuss. Write to me in PM, we will communicate.

  5. Vojind

    It is very valuable information

  6. Kemal

    the same were already considering recently

  7. Crowell

    A long time ago sought such an answer



Write a message