Growing self-fertile cherries
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Cherry varieties - Amorel, Lyubimitsa, Sudarushka ... and others
In central Russia cherry Is one of the most popular fruit crops. It is appreciated for its early ripening, delicious fruits, the beauty of trees during flowering, for ease of maintenance.
Cherry varieties are divided into two types: moreli (or griots) - with a dark color of the skin and juice and amorel - with a pink color of the skin, pulp and colorless juice.
By the type of growth and fruiting, plants are distinguished bushy and tree cherries... Bushy ones reach a height of 1-3 m and begin bearing fruit in the 3-4th year. They bear fruit on the growths of the last year. Bushy cherries are characterized by bare branches (with age). On short annual growths (10–15 cm), all lateral buds, except for the apical one, are flowering. After harvesting the fruits, such branches become bare, and fruiting gradually moves to the periphery of the crown. With proper agricultural techniques, growths should be at least 25-40 cm.
TO bushy cherries include varieties Vladimirskaya, Lyubskaya, Shubinka, Schedra, Polevka, Bagryanaya, Nadezhda Krupskaya, Molodezhnaya, and others. Their life expectancy is usually 15–20 years.
Cherry treelike type is a single-stemmed tree with a height of 4 to 7 m. It begins to bear fruit in the 4th-5th year. Fruiting is mainly concentrated on bouquet twigs (short generative shoots 1–2 cm). The life span of bouquet twigs is from 2 to 5 years and depends on the level of agricultural technology. Treelike cherries include English early, Griot Ostgeimsky, Zhukovskaya, Kent, Turgenevka and others. The life span of this plant species is 18–25 years.
In addition to tree-like and bush-like, there are forms intermediate type. Their fruits are formed in equal amounts on bouquet branches and on the growths of the previous year. These include Bystrinka, Dessertnaya Morozovoy, Rovesnitsa, Morozovka, Krasa Severa and others.
Cherry belongs to cross-pollinated plants, that is, the fruits are tied when pollen of a different variety falls on the pistil of the flower. According to their ability to set fruits from pollination with their own pollen, cherry varieties are divided into self-fertile, partially self-fertile and self-fertile. Self-fertile varieties form 20-40% of the total number of flowers on the plant, partially self-fertile - 5-19%. Practically self-infertile varieties are considered to set less than five percent of the fruit.
Among self-fertile varieties the most famous: Alekseevka, Altai swallow, Amorel, Anadolskaya, Annushka, Apukhtinskaya, Bolotovskaya, Brunetka, Bulatnikovskaya, Veteranka, Volochaevka, Garland, Griot Rossoshansky, Dessert Volzhskaya, Zhelannaya, Zagorievskaya-2, Cinderella, Kellerisovaya, Kellerisovaya Lada, Lotovaya, Lyubimitsa, Lyubskaya, Molodezhnaya, Nefris, Nord Star, Oblachinskaya, Oktava, Memory of Yenikeev, Rastorguevskaya, Rossoshanskaya black, Rusinka, Sudarushka, Tamaris, Finaevskaya, Shakirovskaya, Shokoladnitsa.
TO partially self-fertile include: Alpha, Altai swallow, Altai yielding, Anthracite, Crimson, Banquet, Bogatyrka, Bystrinka, Vstrecha, Gurtyevka, Dessert Morozovoy, Dubovskaya early, Zaryanka, Zmeinogorskaya, Lebedyanskaya, Livenskaya, Lydia, Kurchatovskaya, Malytsenskaya, Livenopolis , Reliable, Novella, Novodvorskaya, Oktava, Olympic, Orleya, Eaglet, Orlovskaya kompotnaya, Excellent Kolesnikova, Rastunya, Same age, Sania, Samsonovka, Sevastyanovskaya, Steadfast, Student, Subbotinskaya, Tambovchanka, Trofimovskaya, Khorushenka Tataria Donetsk Shpanka, Generous.
Self-infertile varieties cherries: Fidelity, Vladimirskaya, Gnome, Griot Melitopol, Griot Moscow, Dubovskaya large-fruited, Zhukovskaya, Dawn of Tataria, Toy, Komsomolskaya, Beauty of Tataria, Lebedyanskaya, Malinovka, Malyshka, Menzelinskaya, Morozovka, Muse, Nezyabkaya, In Memory of Vavilov, Memory of Vavilov Sakharov, Memory of Shcherbakov, Fertile, Vole, Excellent Venyaminova, Orlovskaya early, Sverdlovchanka, Standard of the Urals, Stroyotryadovskaya, Student, Tveritinovskaya, Ural ruby, Black large, Chernokorka, Miracle cherry, Minx, Shubinka, Elegy and others.
All of the above varieties (both self-fertile and self-fertile) are suitable for growing both on personal plots and on farms. Each region of the Russian Federation has its own zoned assortment of fruit crops, and they need to be guided by.
Many self-fertile varieties have an unusual flower structure: the height of the pistil, from which the fruit is formed, and the stamens with anthers, in which the pollen is located, are almost the same. Thanks to this, pollination can take place inside the flower, even before it opens.
The relevance of growing self-fertile varieties has always been significant, especially in regions where the risk of gardening is high. The low and irregular yields of cherry orchards have been one of the main disadvantages of this crop for centuries. In the spring, the plants bloom profusely, inspiring great hope, but summer comes, and there are single fruits on the trees.
A long-term study of the germination of cherry and sweet cherry pollen has shown that only in self-fertile cherry varieties (and in the overwhelming majority of cherry varieties), pollen retains the ability to germinate well for up to 12-15 days. Many varieties, even on day 20, can still have a fairly high percentage (10-17%) of germination, that is, they can still pollinate flowers. At the same time, the pollen of many varieties of common cherry, when blooming in cold weather (8 ... 12 ° C), quickly loses its ability to germinate.
In order for self-fertile varieties to bear fruit normally, they are planted with pollinating varieties. However, not all varieties pollinate each other well. There are times when a particular variety, pollinated with pollen of an unsuitable variety, does not give an ovary at all. It turns out that any good in all respects, but self-fruitless variety without a suitable pollinator variety can turn out to be low-yielding. Usually self-fertile varieties are more productive when pollinated with pollen from other varieties.
Cherry is a winter-hardy fruit species, but among its varieties there is a fairly strong variation on this basis. Winter hardiness depends not only on hereditary traits, but also on the cultivation conditions, that is, the ability to accumulate spare nutrients during the growing season for the successful passage of metabolic processes in the winter-spring period.
To get 20-30 kg of cherries for a family of 3-4 people, 3-5 trees will be required. The best for planting stone fruit crops are the middle and upper parts of the gentle slopes of the western, southwestern and northwestern directions. Cherry seedlings are usually planted in the spring (before bud break).
One- or two-year-old seedlings are used for planting. The younger the planting material, the better it takes root. Preparing seedlings for planting consists in examining them, pruning damaged roots and using a clay talker for better survival.
Quality indicators have been established for the planting material, which are mandatory for all nurseries. Saplings that do not meet these indicators are considered non-standard and unsuitable for planting. For annual cherry seedlings: the length of the root system should be (according to GOST R 53135 - 2008), 20-30 cm, the diameter of the bole 10-12 mm, the height of the seedling 100-120 cm.
The rooting system is prepared from earth, clay and water with the addition of a growth substance (the concentration and method of application are indicated in the instructions). In planted plants, the root collar should be at the level of the soil (if it is a seed stock). If the variety is grafted onto a clonal stock (cuttings, root cuttings, green cuttings), then the grafting site should be at the soil level. A support stake is installed next to the seedling and the plant is tied to it. Make a hole and pour in one or two buckets of water to ensure good contact of the soil with the roots. After absorbing water, the hole is mulched (from drying out) with earth, peat, grass, sawdust, etc.
Once every three years in the fall, organic fertilizers are applied under the cherry - 0.5 buckets of humus (compost), 50 g of superphosphate, 35 g of potassium sulfate per 1 m². Annually in spring 20 g of ammonium nitrate is applied per 1 m² of the trunk circle. With weak growth and development, liquid organic fertilizing is needed. When oppressing trees, foliar top dressing with urea (20 g per 10 l of water) is good.
If during planting humus and mineral fertilizers were introduced into the planting pit, then the first 2-3 years before the beginning of fruiting, fertilizers can not be applied. During the fruiting period, cherries consume a significant amount of nutrients and need to be introduced. In the fall, when digging under a bush or tree, phosphorus fertilizers are applied at a rate of 150-200 g and potash at a rate of 60-80 g. Once every 2-3 years before the autumn digging, organic fertilizers are used in the form of rotted manure or compost. Nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium nitrate or urea) are applied in early spring under the plant at a rate of 50-70 g.
Cherry crown begins to form at the age of 2-3 years. Most bushy and semi-bushy cherry varieties are formed by pruning in the form of a flattened semi-bush or tree with an arbitrary or limited (8-10 pcs.) Number of main branches, which are arranged in tiers along the central conductor. In varieties with a rare treelike crown and fruiting, mainly on bouquet branches, shortening of the growth of the last year by about a third of the length is used. This facilitates the formation of fruit or mixed branches, on which, as well as on the shortened branches, flower buds are laid.
To protect the boles of young trees from severe frosts and sunburns, roofing material, glass wool, thick paper, reeds, whitewash and other materials are used. Mechanical damage and frost cracks are cleaned with a garden knife, covered with garden varnish and tied with cloth. Mice and hares rarely attack cherries (due to the large number of phenolic compounds, they have a bitter bark) compared to apples and pears, but just in case, a few bags of rodent poison for the winter will not be superfluous on your site.
During the flowering of cherry trees, plants can be protected from short-term frosts (-2 ... -4 ° C) by smoke, watering or over-crown watering (sprinkling). The main conditions for the successful cultivation of cherries are the correct selection of varieties, mainly of early and medium ripening periods, the presence of pollinating varieties.
When selecting pollinator varieties for joint planting with the main varieties, one must proceed from the following considerations,
- the timing of flowering of pollinating varieties with the main varieties should, if possible, coincide;
- pollinating varieties must be selected from among the varieties released in the region;
- Pollinating varieties should pollinate the main varieties well.
For summer residents who are limited by the size of the plot, the simplest and most reliable way to improve the self-pollination of cherries is to graft cuttings of pollinating varieties into the crown.
Thus, when choosing planting material for your garden, you must be guided by the basic requirements:
- high yield of the variety;
- good taste and attractive appearance of the fruit;
- early entry into the season of fruiting and the longevity of the plant;
- resistance of the variety to unfavorable environmental factors in the conditions of a given region;
- resistance to pests and diseases.
The most common mistake of summer residents is the purchase of seedlings grown in the southern regions: in Moldova, Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories. When choosing seedlings, the main focus is on the root system. It should be well branched, not dried out, without mechanical damage.
As such, there is no market for self-fertile Vichy seedlings. Gardening farms, where there are nurseries, sell one-year, less often two-year seedlings of different varieties with a brief description of them. In it, you can learn about the self-fertility of the variety. Single-grade planting of self-fertile cherry varieties is not practiced in our country. In the 60s and 70s, dozens of hectares of the self-fertile Lyubskaya variety existed in the Middle Lane. But in the early seventies, a mushroom cherry disease - coccomycosis - came from across the ocean, the variety turned out to be unstable to it, and these plantings quickly died.
Of course, it is desirable to have self-fertile varieties on the site, but you can bet on 3-4 self-fertile or partially self-fertile varieties. If bees are present, good cross-pollination will occur. For example, the main varieties: Zhukovskaya, Kharitonovskaya, Turgenevka, Lebedyanskaya, and Vladimirskaya cherry as a pollinator for all varieties (this is for the Central Black Earth Region).
In recent years, quite a lot of cherry varieties have appeared from the crossing of cherries and cherries. They are called ducs. Distinctive features of such varieties are large-fruited and high taste. For example, the Chudo-Cherry variety (Griot Ostgeimsky x Valery Chkalov), being self-fertile, has very large (up to 9 g) and tasty fruits. For him, cherry varieties are good pollinators. At the same time, due to the early flowering (together with cherries), the Miracle cherry even in the cherry collection does not bear fruit well.
Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Researcher,
department of berry crops GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurina,
member of the R&D Academy
Photo by the author
The Cherry Orchard
I am very love cherries and as a decorative and as a fruit tree. But in recent years, it has almost disappeared in the gardens of the Moscow region. In the Serpukhov region, for example, it is almost gone, and those individual trees that have survived give very few fruits and get sick. Therefore, gardeners often cut down cherries. But its fruits are rich in valuable and irreplaceable substances in human nutrition (sugars, acids, vitamin C), many of which are not found in the fruits of other plants. In addition, as L. Vigorov reported, in fresh fruits, substances were found that improve the composition of human blood (vitamin B9, riboflavin, amygdalin, coumarin, iron). The fruits and other parts of cherry plants are used in folk medicine. They stimulate appetite, have antiseptic, hemostatic properties. Cherry is used for arthritis and other diseases.
I would like to encourage gardeners to revive the cherry orchards. How to do it? I will try to tell you how I imagine it.
In my opinion, the main reasons for the low yield of cherries are the following.
Gardeners plant a variety that is not adapted to specific climatic conditions (not zoned in a given area, imported from the south). It is often mistaken when planting a garden with shoots taken from unknown plants. Shoots for planting should be taken only from high-yielding, roots of their own plants, remembering, however, that the shoots sometimes acquire undesirable negative signs: the fruits become smaller, the yield decreases, and the taste deteriorates.
Many hobbyists have no pollinator varieties in their gardens. Cherry is a strictly cross-pollinated plant, and in order to obtain a good harvest, pollination of one variety with another is required. In single-variety plantings, only self-fertile varieties can be grown, but they also bear fruit much better when pollinating varieties are available.Their absence leads to insufficient pollination and fertilization, part of the small ovary turns yellow, shrivels and crumbles. The conclusion is clear: pollinating varieties must be placed in the garden.
And more reasons. Often there are no or few pollinating insects. Flower buds freeze out. Sometimes it is weak, and sometimes it is completely. Often this happens on varieties that bear fruit on bouquet branches, in severe winters and in the winter-spring period, when thaws alternate with frosts. At the beginning of the growing season, frozen buds, without opening, dry up and crumble. More often buds freeze in weakened plants with weak growth and light green leaves, as well as in the case when the summer of the previous year was dry and there was no watering. In some years (with frosts during flowering minus 1.1-2.2 °), it is not the flower bud itself that is damaged, but the pistil and ovaries. Cherries in this case can bloom profusely, but the fruits will not tie.
Cherries should not be grown on acidic soils. If the soil is not limed, then mineral starvation may occur in plants, because they poorly absorb nutrients from the soil solution. Growth rates are sharply reduced, plants are inhibited.
Deep planting is completely unacceptable for cherries, when the root collar is below the soil level. So, deeply planted plants can be distinguished by the lack of growth and the depressed appearance.
Reduced winter hardiness of flower buds and wood, as well as a strong susceptibility to a dangerous disease - coccomycosis, also prevent the spread of cherries in amateur gardens. Currently, new winter-hardy varieties have been created that are resistant to coccomycosis and other diseases. Vegetatively propagated cherry rootstocks, winter-hardy, resistant to coccomycosis and well compatible with varieties, have been bred. Cherry seedlings can be vegetatively propagated by grafting, green cuttings and shoots. In my practice, I only use grafting on vegetatively propagated stock and green cuttings.
As rootstocks I take cherry-bird cherry hybrids VP-1 and Almaz. VP-1 is highly resistant to diseases, grows well with the scion and takes root in green cuttings. Another cherry-bird cherry hybrid Diamond is completely resistant to coccomycosis. In addition, it produces high-quality fruits that are not inferior in biochemical composition to those of Vladimirskaya and are suitable for all types of processing (jam, compotes, candied fruits, etc.). The color of the fruit is dark red, almost black, the juice is dark red. Almaz trees are 3.5 m high, crown width 2.5 m, winter-hardy, flower buds do not freeze. It propagates well by green cuttings, compatible with different varieties of cherries.
I think the most effective way to propagate cherries is green cuttings. I reproduce well with green cuttings (80% rooted) varieties Zhigarskaya, Studencheskaya, Turgenevka are somewhat worse - (50%) Gurtyevka, Zhukovskaya, Orleya. The results strongly depend on the period of propagation, air temperature, plant age. I determine the time for cutting cuttings for grafting by wrapping the end of the young shoot around the index finger. If the shoot does not break, then you can start grafting. Cuttings are cut from young plants (with age, the ability to root deteriorates) 5-7 cm long with two internodes. The tops of the shoots and cuttings cut closer to them take root better. On the cuttings, I cut the leaves in half. You can root the cuttings in a special greenhouse covered with a film, but in this case you must constantly monitor their condition, spray, ventilate. For those gardeners who rarely visit the site and who do not have the skill, I suggest the following method - rooting in a plastic bag. It does not require special equipment, but the percentage of rooting of cuttings will greatly depend on the air temperature. In warm summers - they take root better, in cold summers it is worse.
I take a clean, whole plastic bag made of transparent film 40X15 cm in size.To check, I inflate it and check the tightness in water. I pour the substrate into the checked package: garden soil with sand in a ratio of 1: 1, with a layer of 8-9 cm. I pour 2-3 cm of washed sand on top. The substrate and sand should be moderately moist. To check, I squeeze a handful of the substrate into a fist, a lump should form in the palm of my hand, which, when pressed on it, easily crumbles. It is impossible to overmoisten the sand and substrate, otherwise the cuttings will rot.
I plant 1-2 cuttings in filled plastic bags, burying them in the sand by 1.5-2 cm, slightly sprinkling with water, carefully inflating the bag with my mouth and tying it tightly (hermetically). I set the packages with the planted cuttings tightly to each other on an even place in the shade. If you do not have a shady place on the site, then, having installed the packages, stretch the gauze over them in two layers, fixed on pegs or wire arcs. After 2-3 weeks, depending on the weather, the cuttings take root. The roots are clearly visible through the transparent walls of the bag. I begin to accustom the cuttings to the fresh air, untie the bags, first for 30 minutes, then for a longer period, and after a week I carefully plant the rooted plants in the garden for growing, where they winter. That's all. See how simple it is. I described my experience with one purpose - to convince gardeners to make our gardens bloom again with cherry blossoms.
Growing self-fertile cherries - garden and vegetable garden
Due to the presence of sugars, organic acids and other biological substances, cherries are widely used in nutrition. It is rich in vitamins C, P and group B, iron, which prevents the development of anemia. Cherry fruit reduce blood clotting and prevent blood clots from forming. Cherry pectin substances promote metabolism, remove heavy metals such as lead and mercury from the body.
Fruits are necessary in nutritional therapy for hypertensive patients. A decoction of the peduncles lowers blood pressure and is used for heavy menstrual bleeding. The antiseptic properties of cherry syrup and jam relieve stomatitis pain.
Among stone fruits cherry takes the leading place. It is hardy and drought resistant. Easily propagated by root shoots. Cherries can produce a rich harvest every year if the temperature during flowering contributes to this. Unfortunately, frequent frosts during this period sharply weaken fruiting or completely exclude it. It grows on a variety of soils, but preferably loose. Poorly tolerates waterlogging.
Cherry has a lifespan of up to 25 years. During this period, the plant goes through the stages of growth, fruiting and aging. By the age of ten, the cherry reaches the stage of full fruiting. Further, the yield begins to fall, the gains gradually decrease, and then completely disappear. Trees should be replaced with young ones.
The best planting material in our conditions is self-fertile winter-hardy varieties. It is better to plant cherries in spring. Autumn seedlings develop poorly, often die from severe frosts.
A pit for planting cherry seedlings (60x60x60 cm) is dug out in advance, one or two decades before, so that the soil can be saturated with air. Before planting, two buckets of humus (but not fresh manure), a glass of phosphorus fertilizers and a third of a glass of potash fertilizers are introduced into it. Nitrogen should not be added. Fertilizers are mixed with the topsoil and spread evenly in the pit. A stake is hammered in the center, a small mound is poured from the top layer of soil without fertilizers and a seedling is planted on it, while straightening the roots. Before planting, the roots are examined, damaged, the diseased are removed, and very long are shortened. If the roots are allowed to dry, they are immersed in water for several hours, then dipped in a mash made of clay and mullein and planted. Plantings are watered abundantly with water.
Cherry needs pruning more than other fruit trees. Pruning is carried out in early spring - in March. The branches are cut into a ring, without hemp. When forming a crown, ten to twelve are left in a bush cherry, and eight to nine skeletal branches in a tree branch on the central conductor. In the future, it is necessary to monitor their uniform development, preventing thickening. If the trees are bare, rejuvenating pruning is carried out.
Pruning fruiting bush cherries has some peculiarities. One should not shorten annual growths on it, which will preserve the fruit buds in the upper part of the growth. When exposing the branches, pruning is necessary to stimulate growth. Old skeletal branches are subject to pruning. Complete removal of large skeletal branches is undesirable; it is better to prune to lateral branches. Such pruning will contribute to the awakening of dormant buds on perennial wood, the formation of tops, which in two or three years will replace the dying old part of the crown.
A very important point is tree care. Deficiency of nitrogen in the soil, insufficient watering inhibit vegetative growth. Cherry also suffers from illiterate digging. Its horizontal roots are located close to the surface, so it is necessary to dig up the near-trunk circles to a minimum depth of 3-5 cm. Cherry trees should be planted in groups, this contributes to better inter-pollination. If there are no conditions for this, it is necessary to plant two or three pollinator cuttings on the tree. The best varieties of cherries for this are Nadyadnaya, Zolotaya Loshitskaya or Vladimirskaya, Lyubskaya cherries.
Cherries reproduce more often by shoots, which must be taken at some distance from the trunk. Own-rooted trees, which give good yields, have little overgrowth, so they are propagated by root cuttings. In April, they dig up the root, stepping back from the stem by a meter and a half, divide it into cuttings of 10 cm each, plant it in the beds and feed it with urea and mullein.
Coccomycosis (leaf spot) is very dangerous for cherries, which not only reduces, and sometimes completely destroys the crop, but also leads to premature leaf fall and drying of trees. It affects cherries, plums, and cherry plums (leaves, petioles, stalks). The fungus hibernates in fallen leaves, and during the cherry blossom period, it is initially infected with spores (massive - at the end of flowering). In early July, the leaves are covered with small reddish spots. On their underside, a whitish-pink bloom appears on the spots - the conidia of the fungus, which settle during the summer. Fighting it is the main task of the gardener. For this purpose, fallen diseased leaves must be collected and burned. Trees are sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid immediately after flowering, again - after two weeks, the third time - after harvest. Before the leaves fall, the trees are treated with a 4% urea solution.
Growing self-fertile cherries - garden and vegetable garden
In early spring, immediately after planting, do the first pruning to balance the seedling above the ground and its root system. Cut out low-lying branches so that the tree has a trunk (bole) 25 - 40 cm high. Then cut out broken, weak and branching branches at an acute angle into a ring (without leaving a hemp). For subordination, cut the main branches of the crown and the central conductor to 1 / 3-1 / 4 of the length. Cut the upper, more developed branches more strongly. Leave the center conductor 20-30 cm longer than the ends of the upper branches. During the first year, the planted plants only have time to take root. They give weak annual growth, therefore, in the second year cherry do not trim. In the next two to three years, remove dry branches on the ring, broken, hanging to the ground and growing inside the crown. Leave some of the new lateral ramifications that form on the center conductor as future skeletal branches. Do not shorten young shoots, especially in bush cherries , so as not to cause thickening of the crown. The formation of the crown ends by the time of entry cherries into fruiting. The total number of skeletal branches in the formed tree cherries - 8 -10, for formed bush cherries - 10 15. When bush cherries enter fruiting, strive to maintain growth and prevent crown loss. If the length of the increments is 30 - 40 cm, limit yourself to thinning. Cut into a ring (without leaving stumps) thickening branches growing inside the crown and intertwining. Do not shorten annual shoots. This can lead to excessive thickening of the crown and drying out of the shortened shoots. If the length of annual growths is no more than 15 - 20 cm and the branches begin to bare, carry out a rejuvenating pruning: cut the old branches into a strong lateral branch. If you want to raise a branch, cut it to a branch pointing upwards to lower it to a branch directed to the periphery.
Unlike bush cherries in arborescent trees, shortening of annual increments is permissible. Shorten last year's shoots 40-50 cm long to enhance branching and stimulate the development of strong bouquet branches from the lower buds. For older trees, do anti-aging pruning: Prune old branches into strong lateral ramifications. Do not shorten weak growths, this will not improve the growth of shoots.
When pruning heavily thickened trees, it is better to remove a few large branches rather than a large number of smaller ones. Do not be afraid of damaging the crop by pruning. Even a strong thinning does not reduce the yield, since fruit buds, as a rule, do not form in shaded places near cherries. Don't remove many branches in one year. If there is a strong pruning, it is better to stretch it over two to three years. Heavy pruning can significantly weaken the tree and cause gum leakage.
In nurseries cherry propagated by layering, green cuttings and grafting on the stock. The gardener needs to know how his seedlings were obtained. You can distinguish rooted cherries from grafted cherries by root suckers. The root shoots of grafted trees, when compared with an adult tree, have a different color of shoots and leaves (darker or lighter), a different shape, the size of buds and leaves (larger or smaller). Root growth of own-rooted cherry does not differ in appearance from an adult cherry.
After harsh winters cherry trees often have to be restored. In a grafted tree with significant crown death or complete death of the aerial part, leave two or three root suckers of different ages. Root shoots of grafted cherries are already wild shoots, they must be grafted. In the spring, usually at the end of April-beginning of May, inoculate 1-2-year-old root suckers without lateral branches, with both improved copulation. In the future, when side ramifications appear, begin to form a crown.
If the wilds have an already formed crown, cut off the skeletal branches and graft them with cuttings of the best varieties. Twist at a distance of 10-15 cm from the base of the branch using a lateral cut or improved copulation with a tongue. Prepare cuttings for grafting from autumn before the onset of frost. Store them up to weight in a snow pile or in a refrigerator tray. In the third year, the over-grafted branches begin to bear fruit. In the following years, they give higher yields compared to newly planted young trees. cherries .
Own-rooted (coppice) cherries in contrast to the grafted, the aboveground and root systems belong to the same cultivar. The offspring that have appeared near their own rooted cherry retain all the characteristics of the old mother plant. Therefore, in the event of the death of a significant part of the crown or the death of the entire aboveground part, the variety can be quickly restored due to overgrowth. Leave 2 - 3 most developed offspring, removing the rest on the ring to the mother's root. For the first two years, the offspring grow strongly and branch poorly. To enhance branching, shorten one-year increments by 1/3 to 1/4 of the length. Subsequently, shape and prune the plants in the same way as other seedlings.
A variety of Hungarian selection, zoned throughout the territory of Belarus. The tree has a beautiful pyramidal crown, begins bearing fruit in the fourth year after planting the seedling. The variety is also large-fruited. The berries are round and dark red in color.
Winter hardiness is, perhaps, the main criterion for choosing a cherry variety, while not only wood, but also flower buds should be resistant to cold weather (very often, with return frosts in spring, cherry fruits are not tied). Among the varieties that perfectly tolerate cold winters, severe frosts and spring frosts, self-fertile cherries should be noted:
- The same age
- Nord Star and others.
Which self-fertile cherries are undersized?
Low-growing trees or shrubs have become very popular in the last 5-10 years. They are easy to deal with: harvest, prune, spray, etc. Self-fertile cherry varieties are no exception. The following are small varieties that are easy to grow in almost any climate.
- "Shokoladnitsa" Is a self-fertile mid-early variety, the tree of which grows up to 2-2.5 meters. The crown is compact, reverse pyramidal, not very dense. The flowers are white, with about 3 flowers in the inflorescence. Berries up to 3.5 g, rounded. The color of the peel is almost black, the flesh is dark red. The stone is round, it separates well. Cherries are very tasty, sweet (sugars 12.4%, acids - 1.64%), tasting score - 4.3 points out of 5. Productivity - 77.9 centners / ha.
- "Brunette" grows up to 2.5 meters, spreading crown. The berries are dark red, up to 3.8 g, maroon. The taste is sweet and sour, juicy, the pulp of a delicate consistency. The variety ripens in the 20th of July. Has a universal application. Productivity 10-12 kg / tree.
- "Ob" grows up to 1.5 m maximum. The crown is large, up to 1.6 m in diameter. Berries up to 4 g, dark red, heart-shaped with a blunt end. The pulp is light red, juicy, sweet and sour. Sugars in the composition up to 12.1%, acids - 1.4%. Recommended for processing, as it is not very tasty when fresh. The variety is mid-season, has good winter hardiness, drought resistance. Productivity up to 3.8 kg / bush. The main disadvantage is that it is often affected by coxomycosis.