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Growing salad at home

Growing salad at home


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Every year more and more people are switching to a healthy diet. And any proper raw food or vegetarian diet is impossible without fruits, vegetables and fresh herbs. Salad is one of the irreplaceable products containing a huge amount of vitamins, trace elements, salts, organic acids and many other useful elements. Green vegetables are of great benefit to the whole body, and in particular to the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. Lettuce leaves are a medicinal and dietary product that is recommended by experienced nutritionists to people suffering from obesity and diabetes. For example, Lactuca sativa salad is a biennial vegetable that can be grown indoors and have fresh herbs on the table throughout the year.

The correct choice of variety

Among the huge number of types and varieties of salads, not everyone can bring the expected harvest on a window bed. It is recommended for inexperienced gardeners to choose the right varieties for growing on the windowsill. Early maturing varieties are most suitable for such conditions. You can buy varieties "Curly", "Yellow", Amanda, "Ordinary", "Pepper" (domestic) or "Ostinata", "Quick", "Noran" (foreign), as well as watercress.

These specimens are unpretentious and undemanding to soil, lighting and moisture. They grow very quickly and the first harvest can be obtained within 20-25 days after germination.

Cabbage varieties of lettuce are not suitable for home conditions, as they are very demanding on growing conditions. For them, a constant air temperature, level of illumination and humidity are of great importance. If at least one of the conditions of detention is not observed, the formation of an ovary may not occur.

How to grow a salad at home

Location and lighting

The growing area must be properly lit for all twelve months. In summer, green spaces need to be protected from sunlight, and in winter with short daylight hours, you can use additional lighting. It is recommended to hang fluorescent lamps above the planting boxes at a height of at least 50 cm. Lack of light will negatively affect the development and growth of the lettuce.

Temperature

In the hot summer months, green spaces need to be shaded. In the autumn and spring season, containers with vegetables can be taken out into the open air or on a balcony (loggia), provided that this area is well ventilated. Plants perfectly tolerate cool weather with a temperature of 8-10 degrees Celsius.

Planting containers

The optimal size of the planting boxes is a square container with a side of 60 cm and a depth of at least 10-12 cm. It is very important for a salad that the soil in the box does not dry out, but, on the contrary, retains the necessary moisture for a long time. Therefore, small containers are not suitable for growing this crop.

Watering and moisture levels

Lettuce is very picky about the high moisture level in the soil. Untimely watering, which leads to overdrying of the earthen coma, or an increased air temperature in the room, which leads to overheating of the soil mixture, contributes to the appearance of negative changes in the development of the plant. Very little greenery is formed and its external and taste qualities are very low. Lettuce leaves become bitter and fibrous.

The soil

The potting mix should be very nutritious. In special shops for gardeners and florists, you can buy "Universal" or "Vegetable" mixture, which is perfect for growing lettuce, as well as "Biogrunt". The soil mixture is prepared independently from the following components: two parts of humus or humus earth and one part of peat and river sand. It is recommended to thoroughly stir the primer mix before use.

Top dressing and fertilizers

Mineral dressings are applied to the soil only after the first crop of watercress is harvested. Fertilizers are not applied during the growing season.

Growing lettuce from seeds

Sowing seeds

Sowing of seed is carried out randomly into moist and lightly compacted soil in planting containers. For every 10 square centimeters, 2 grams of lettuce seeds are enough. When planting seeds in rows, it is recommended to adhere to a certain distance. Row spacing: for salad - 6-8 cm, for watercress - 10-12 cm.Seeds are covered with a small layer (no more than 1 cm) of loose soil, then sprayed with settled water at a temperature of at least 30 degrees Celsius and transferred to a cool a darkened room with a temperature of 10 to 12 degrees Celsius for 7 days. The treatment consists of regular moisturizing - at least 3-4 times a week. Planting boxes are transferred to the windowsill with the appearance of seedlings.

The simultaneous cultivation of lettuce in several containers with an interval of planting seeds of 1.5-2 weeks will allow you to get greens of lettuce constantly.

Crop care

Watering is carried out every other day. The soil should remain moderately moist, without excess moisture. Spraying is used only in dry indoor air.

Favorable temperature - from 16 to 20 degrees Celsius. Ventilation is recommended at higher temperatures.

Thinning of plants is carried out after the appearance of two leaves. The distance between shoots is about 8 cm. The removed seedlings can be planted in planting containers in which tomato or cucumber seedlings are grown.

Harvesting and storage

Lettuce must be pulled out of the ground along with the root part, after which the roots must be freed from the soil. You can store the crop in wooden or plastic boxes in an upright position under a transparent film in a darkened room, where the air temperature is kept at around 1 to 2 degrees Celsius.

Watercress can give several yields if ripe leaves are carefully cut off, and the soil with the remaining root part of the plant is fed with mineral fertilizers. After this additional nutrition, the watercress again builds up the leafy part.

With proper care and creating favorable conditions, about 50 grams of lettuce can be grown on a windowsill from one square decimeter of land.


We start growing watercress at home

There are a great many varieties of green salad, it is grown in completely different ways. Today, experienced gardeners have discovered that planting watercress can be done without adding earth - in a gauze base. This growing method is very convenient and inexpensive.


Growing features

Green salad is a very healthy food addition. Vitamins and minerals are found not only in the leaves, but also in the petioles of the plant. Greens contain a minimum of calories and are suitable for those who care about their health and weight.

Even an inexperienced gardener is able to grow lettuce - it is enough to understand the characteristics of the variety and some of the intricacies of care. Seeds can be sown both in a greenhouse and in open ground. Planting is also used by seedlings.


Sowing seeds

  • Before sowing, seeds are disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate. Time - 2-3 hours.
  • A drainage layer is placed on the bottom of the pot.
  • The drainage is covered with earth. Watering.
  • Make a groove. Depth - 5 mm... Distance between rows - 10 cm.
  • Seeds are placed in the groove. Fall asleep with a small amount of earth. Slightly compacted.
  • Cover the container with a bag - create a greenhouse effect.
  • They are placed in a dark place.
  • When the first shoots appear, the bag is removed. Transferred to the windowsill.

The first shoots can be seen after 4 - 5 days... You need to protect it from direct sunlight. On bright sunny days it is necessary to shade it - the leaves can burn.

Culture needs thinning... This is done 2 times:

  1. After 1 week, as the first shoots appear, it is necessary to leave a distance of 1–2 cm between them.
  2. When 2 true leaves are formed, the distance is 4–5 cm.

If the lettuce grows thickly, you won't be able to get a good harvest.

Lettuce needs to be thinned twice


Sowing lettuce seeds

The early varieties of lettuce are most often grown by the seedling method, among the later varieties of the culture are suitable for growing in this way. The seedling growing technology is the same for all salads. The difference lies in the timing of sowing and planting in the ground. It is very important to choose the right timing for sowing seeds, which depend on the timing of planting seedlings in a permanent place. Lettuce is an early ripening and fairly cold-resistant culture, so it can be planted in early spring, as well as before winter.

Seed sowing dates

Lettuce in a greenhouse or heated greenhouse is best planted through seedlings. Seedlings grow within 25-30 days after germination. Therefore, if you want to get a harvest of lettuce in early spring, around the first half of April, it must be sown from the last week of January to mid-February.

If it is supposed to grow salag in the open field, then the seeds of cabbage and asparagus lettuce can be sown approximately in the third decade of March - the first decade of April, since the age of the seedlings should not exceed 30-35 days. The specific sowing time depends on local and weather climatic conditions. In central Russia, seedlings of early head and asparagus lettuce are grown from late March to early April. The seedlings are planted in a permanent place in May.

Early-ripening lettuce varieties are usually sown outdoors from mid-April, mid-ripening and late-ripening from April to mid-June. Starting to sow lettuce seeds in mid-April, if you wish, you can continue to harvest lettuce throughout the season, you can carry out staged sowing every 10-14 days for the first three plantings. Planting can be continued until the end of August, with summer planting at a reduced interval of one week. The last two plantings should be made with a break of two weeks, as at the beginning of the season.

Sowing technique of lettuce seeds

Having decided on the timing of sowing seeds for seedlings, you need to choose a method of growing it. Lettuce seedlings are grown potless or potted with seedlings diving or without diving, using bulk pots, peat or peat-humus cubes and cassettes, as well as in other ways.

Growing lettuce seedlings in a potless way

When growing seedlings of lettuce in a potless way, sowing seeds should be carried out directly on the beds of greenhouses or greenhouses, with and without further diving. For such a planting, greenhouse racks or seed boxes are used. The approximate consumption rate of lettuce seeds when sowing is 5-7 g per 1 m 2. If it is supposed to use diving or replanting plants in order to increase the feeding area, lettuce seeds are sown at a rate of 6-8 g per 1 m2 or 10-12 g per greenhouse frame.

❧ The attractiveness of the salad is that it can be grown almost all year round, using different varieties, sowing dates, growing methods, applying repeated crops and much more. You can plant several different types of lettuce at once, obtaining a wide range of plants with leaves of different shapes and colors.

For the efficient cultivation of salad seedlings in a potless way, first of all, you need to prepare the correct container in the form of a wooden rectangular box. Such a box should not be too small, otherwise the soil will dry out very quickly in it. The best option for the dimensions of the container for sowing lettuce seeds are small boxes with sides of 60 X 60 cm or 60 X 80 cm, their depth should be about 10-12 cm.

Before sowing, the boxes must be filled with the selected composition of the soil mixture, then tamped slightly so that there are no voids, and pour a little with warm water, to which a very light solution of potassium permanganate is added. The soil layer thickness in the seed box should be 12-16 cm or more. The racks in the greenhouse should be covered with greenhouse soil of about the same thickness.

Seeds should be sown in grooves laid in the soil, at a distance of about 10-12 or 20-25 cm from one another. The row spacing depends on the variety of lettuce: for spreading bushes, it should be larger. When sowing, a certain distance between the seeds should be observed - 2-3 cm, since only in this case large and strong shoots can appear. (Although at this stage, you can sow the seeds with a continuous band, and then thin out the seedlings.)

For convenience, before starting sowing on the soil surface, you can outline the location of rows and grooves using a special marker. Immediately before sowing, the soil should be highly moistened. After that, lettuce seeds are sown, sealed to a depth of 1-1.5 cm and watered with water at room temperature (25 ° C). Then the seed boxes are transferred to a warm place and wait for the emergence of seedlings, maintaining the temperature at least 23 ° C.

Growing salad seedlings in a pot method

When growing lettuce seedlings in a pot method, followed by diving into pots, the seeds are usually planted in seed boxes of the same size as in the previous case. The box is filled with soil mixture so that the thickness of its layer is at least 12-16 cm. The approximate seeding rate of seeds is 2-4 g per 1 m 2. When grown without diving, the approximate seeding rate of seeds is 1 g per 1 m 2.

Seeds are planted in a sowing box in rows to a depth of 0.5-1 cm, maintaining a distance between rows of 3-6 cm. The soil is moistened before sowing. The seeds of the salad are small, so they can be mixed with some of the sand. After sowing, they are sprinkled with a thin layer of soil, and then additional watering is carried out using warm water (25 ° C).

Lettuce seedlings can be grown without diving, by direct sowing into peat or peat-humus pots measuring 5x5cm6x6 cm, or bulk containers (cups) filled with compost or soil mixture, measuring 3 x 3 cm or 6 X 6 cm.With this method of sowing 2-3 seeds are placed in each pot and sprinkled with light humus soil or peat with a layer of 0.3-05 cm. After sowing, the seeds are watered abundantly. Then the cups are placed in a greenhouse or in a warm place in a living room.

The future yield of lettuce depends on the quality of the conditions created during seed germination. Before the first shoots appear, boxes or pots of seeds should be kept in a dark place.

Daytime air temperature should be maintained at 18-22 ° С, and at night - at 6-10 ° С. At this temperature, lettuce germinates the fastest. (Although the optimum temperature for germinating lettuce seeds is considered to be 8-15 ° C.)

It is very important that the soil does not dry out when germinating the seeds. Therefore, they must be constantly watered with a weak stream using a strainer. It is best to water the crops with warm water (25 ° C), covering the soil with gauze or a cloth, carefully so that the seeds are not exposed. Watering can be carried out in the period before germination by spraying the soil with warm water from a spray bottle, this will speed up the process of seed germination.

Cassette method of growing lettuce

Nowadays, the cassette method of growing lettuce seedlings is becoming widespread, in which cassettes with a cell size of 2.5 x 2.5 cm, 3 x 3 cm, 4 x 4 cm or b x b cm are used.

This method with the use of polymer cassettes provides two options: firstly, diving seedlings into cassettes from a school, and secondly, direct sowing of seeds into cells. The advantage of the cassette growing method is the possibility of obtaining an early harvest, as well as guaranteeing the planned density of plant seeds, which allows you to get more seedlings from an equal area.For example, when growing seedlings indoors, you can get from 1 m2 to 300 plants. If you use cassettes with 224 cells, then 800 plants can be obtained from such an area, since four such cassettes can be installed per 1 m2.

There are additional advantages of the cassette method of growing salad seedlings. The germination capacity of seeds planted in cassettes is much higher than those that were sown in the soil of the greenhouse. When diving, part of the seedlings grown in the greenhouse is lost, while when growing in cassettes, all the plants are preserved, which halves the cost of seeds.

Cassettes with sown seeds are installed for germination in a room where it is possible to maintain the air temperature at 21-22 ° C, and humidity within 85-90%.

Seeds germinate in cassettes no later than 2-3 days. This technology of growing lettuce makes it possible to regulate the growth of plants. This property is especially important in those conditions when the seedlings are already ready for planting, and the conditions in the open field do not yet meet its needs. Growing seedlings in cassettes, you can temporarily suspend their growth and keep the plants in this state without harm to them for a sufficiently long time until the conditions of open ground are normalized.

Plants transplanted into open ground from cassettes develop evenly, grow quickly, since their root system is preserved intact. The heads of this salad are the same size and weight. The yield from seedlings from cassettes is usually 15-20% higher than that of plants grown in other ways.

Sowing lettuce seeds in cassettes

Seeds for growing lettuce seedlings are sown directly into polymer cassettes, which are pre-filled with ready-made peat substrate with a suitable acidity level and enriched with fertilizers. Very little substrate is needed. The cassettes are filled, watered abundantly with water, and one or more seeds are sown in each cup. Then the cassettes are covered with foil to prevent excess evaporation of moisture. After the seeds have germinated, the film can be removed.


Sowing lettuce for seedlings: subtleties and secrets

There is nothing difficult in planting lettuce for seedlings, but you should still take into account some of the nuances that will help you get strong seedlings.

Selection and preparation of seeds

To get strong seedlings, it is important to use healthy seeds with at least 80% similarity. Before planting, many gardeners carry out thorough preparation: they calibrate the planting material, pickle and disinfect it.

A saline solution will help with calibration:

  • put seeds in it for 10-15 minutes
  • seeds suitable for planting will sink to the bottom, and empty ones that will not hatch will remain on the surface.

Seeds suitable for further planting must be washed in clean water, dried for at least 6 hours on paper towels and only then disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate. To accelerate the emergence of seedlings, the grains are additionally soaked in a growth stimulator: "Epine", "Zircon", sodium humate.

Seeds are prepared for sowing for seedlings, taking into account the time when 30–35 days remain before the seedlings are transplanted into open soil.

Selection and preparation of soil

In any gardener store, you can buy a specially designed soil for salad. But some gardeners prepare the soil mixture themselves. How to choose and prepare the soil for seedlings

  • mix 2 parts of humus and sod land, 1 part of clean river sand
  • take 3 parts of peat with humus, 1 part of sand and sod soil.

Regardless of whether the mixture is made independently or bought in a store, it is advisable to disinfect it using a solution of potassium permanganate.

Another cultivation option is the use of peat tablets. Their main advantage is that they reduce the risk of damage to the root system when picking and planting lettuce in a permanent place.

Choice of capacity

Any containers are suitable for growing lettuce, the main thing is that their depth is at least 12 cm, and their dimensions are at least 60 * 60 cm.Some gardeners who do not want to pick in the future immediately plant seeds in plastic cups with a volume of 0.5 liters ...

Immediate sowing

One of the main rules is that the soil should be moderately moist, but at the same time not swamped. Otherwise, rotting of the root system and the lower leaves of the culture will begin. To avoid this, a drainage layer of expanded clay or broken brick must be made in a container with seedlings (another option is to make holes in the lower part, which will allow excess moisture to be removed).

The landing itself is pretty simple:

  1. A drainage layer is poured onto the bottom of the container, the prepared soil mixture is moistened with a small amount of warm water from a spray bottle.
  2. Make grooves with a depth of 1-1.5 cm, maintaining a distance of at least 10-12 cm between the rows.
  3. Seeds are sown sparsely, sprinkled with a small amount of moistened soil.
  4. The container is covered with foil or glass.

The first shoots will appear within 4-5 days after planting, after which you need to immediately remove the shelter, otherwise the seedlings will suffocate and die. After 5-7 days after that, you can thin out the plantings by removing the weakest bushes.

The first shoots of lettuce appear on the 4th-5th day


Growing in peat tablets

Growing salad seedlings in peat tablets has several advantages over other methods. The main advantage of the method is that the roots are not injured when transplanted into the ground, the plant adapts faster in a new place, and develops better. To get quality bushes, you need a certain skill and knowledge.

Algorithm for sowing seeds in peat tablets:

  1. Prepare a container of any size, preferably within 10 cm in height. This will facilitate the care of the seedlings. Higher sides will take away some of the sunlight, which is unacceptable for a small salad.
  2. Place peat tablets in rows in a container with the indentation on the upper side.
  3. Pour the tablets with water heated to a temperature of 25 - 26 ° C. This should be done carefully so as not to blur the top of the tablet. Better to use a fine sieve to disperse the water.
  4. Leave the tablets for 15 - 20 minutes to swell. Then drain the excess water.
  5. Place 2 - 3 salad seeds on each tablet, press down a little so that they do not crumble. Can be lightly powdered with sifted soil.

Water is supplied as needed into the container. Otherwise, the care is the same as in the case of growing seedlings in pots or cassettes. It is necessary to ensure that the peat tablet does not dry out, and the roots of the plant do not grow through the woven shell. As soon as this moment comes, the shell is removed and the seedlings are transplanted in pots or in open ground, depending on the situation.

You can buy a ready-made container for peat tablets. It is convenient to grow seedlings in it, but to collect excess water from the bottom, you need to put a container of a suitable size.


Greens grow quickly. It can be harvested over a period of several weeks. Plugged out by the roots or the outer leaves are torn off... Arrows form after 3 to 5 weeks. The plant is removed. Other seeds are sown in its place.

Experienced gardeners plant salad every 10 days... 40-50 grams of greens are obtained from one plant. But it all depends on the variety.

Lettuce can be grown both outdoors and at home. But when planting it in an apartment, you need to remember that it requires daily care.

  1. This is a moisture-loving plant. The soil should always be slightly damp. But excess moisture can kill him.
  2. The best place is a windowsill on the south, southeast side. It is impossible to grow it without enough light at home.

Growing fast. Doesn't take up much space. But you need to choose the right variety for the pot.


Watch the video: How to grow u0026 harvest salad leaves


Comments:

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  2. Helaku

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  3. Tariku

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  4. Lockwood

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  5. Tahn

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